Rhode Island Red
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Rhode Island Red rooster
|Conservation status||Livestock Conservancy: watch|
|Other names||Rhode Islands|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Use||Dual purpose layer breed|
|PCGB||soft feather: heavy|
The Rhode Island Red is an American breed of domestic chicken. It was developed in the late nineteenth century in Massachusetts and Rhode Island by cross-breeding birds of Oriental origin such as the Malay with brown Leghorn birds from Italy. It was a dual-purpose breed, raised both for meat and for eggs; modern strains have been bred for their egg-laying abilities. The traditional non-industrial strains of the Rhode Island Red are listed as "watch"[definition needed] by The Livestock Conservancy.
The Rhode Island Red was originally bred in the town of Little Compton, Rhode Island. One of the foundation sires of the breed was a black-breasted red Malay cock - it was common for New England sailors to bring exotic fowl back from ocean voyages, to improve the local flocks. Early flocks often had both single and rose combed individuals. It was from the Malay that the Rhode Island Red got its deep color, strong constitution, and relatively hard feathers.
The name "Rhode Island Red" is ascribed to Isaac Champlin Wilbour of Little Compton at an unknown date, or to a Mr. Jenny of the Southern Massachusetts Poultry Association in 1879 or 1880. Poultry expert Nathaniel Borden Aldrich of Fall River, Massachusetts suggested the name "Golden Buffs" around 1890, but by 1895 they were being exhibited under the name "Rhode Island Red." Before this they were known as "John Macomber fowls" or "Tripp fowls."
The first breed standard was drawn up in 1898, and was approved by the American Rhode Island Red Club in Boston in 1901; the breed was admitted to the Standard of Perfection of the American Poultry Association]] in 1904.:8 In 1925, the Rhode Island Red Club of America donated funds for a monument to the Rhode Island Red in Adamsville, and the monument is now on the National Register of Historic Places. Another monument was erected by the state in 1988 commemorating the farmers who grew them commercially in Little Compton; it is located about a mile south of Adamsville.
The feathers are rust-colored, however darker shades are known, including maroon bordering on black. Rhode Island Reds have red-orange eyes, reddish-brown beaks, and yellow feet and legs, often with a bit of reddish hue on the toes and sides of the shanks. Chicks are a light red to tan color. The roosters usually weigh in at about 8.7 pounds (3.9 kg), the hens average slightly less at 6.5 pounds (2.9 kg).
The Rhode Island Red was developed as dual-purpose breed, to provide both meat and eggs. Since about 1940, it has been selectively bred predominantly for egg-laying qualities, and the modern industrial Rhode Island Red is a layer breed. Rhode Island Reds have been used in the creation of many modern hybrid breeds, mainly due to the prolific egg laying abilities of the Rhode Island Red.
The traditional dual-purpose "old-type" Rhode Island Red lays 200–300 brown eggs per year, and yields rich-flavored meat suitable for making chicken stew. It is included in the Ark of Taste of the Slow Food Foundation.
- Conservation Priority List. The Livestock Conservancy. Accessed February 2017.
- Breed Classification. Poultry Club of Great Britain. Accessed August 2014.
- "Rhode Island State Bird - Rhode Island Red". 50states.com. 1954-05-03. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
- "Rhode Island Red's Success". The Sydney Morning Herald. April 1, 1938. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- "Poultry Breeds - Rhode Island Red Chickens". Ansi.okstate.edu. 1997-06-26. Retrieved 2012-08-25.
- Hale, Dwight Edward. 1911. Standard-Bred Rhode Island Reds, Rose and Single Comb: Their Practical Qualities; the Standard Requirements; How to Judge Them; How to Mate and Breed for Best Results. Quincy, IL: Reliable Poultry Journal Publishing Company, p. 11.
- [Rhode Island Red Centennial Committee] (1954). A History of the Rhode Island Red, 1854-1954 (pamphlet). Rhode Island Development Council. Accessed October 2018.
- "Statues Honor Doughnuts, Chickens". Toledo Blade. Feb 25, 1666. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- "Old-Type" Rhode Island Red chicken. Slow Food Foundation for Biodiversity. Accessed February 2017.
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