|Rhodolirium montanum Phil.
Rhodolirium is a small South American genus in the Hippeastreae tribe of the Amaryllidaceae family. Although originally described by Philippi in 1858 it has long remained buried in other taxa, principally Hippeastrum and more recently Rhodophiala. Only in recent years has it been rehabilitated.
Restoring the genus was first proposed by Naranjo & Poggio (2000), and accepted by Ravenna in 2003, although he used the name Rhodolirion, originally used by Baker (1878) in his very broad construction of Hippeastrum including both Rhodophiala and "Rhodolirion". He also renamed Rhodolirium andinum as Hippeastrum rhodolirion. Later he elevated Rhodolirion to the status of subgenus, with H. rhodolirion (subsequently Rhodophiala rhodolirion) as the type species . Subsequently the genus has been treated as part of Rhodophiala.
For early treatment of Rhodolirium, see Taxonomy of Hippeastrum. The rehabilitation has yet (as of February 2016) to be recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, but is by the Missouri Botanical Gardens, with six species. The ability to resolve phylogenetic relationships based solely on morphological data is limited in the Amaryllidaceae, necessitating the use of molecular methods in addition. In their study of the American amaryllidaceae, Meerow et al. (2000) noted that Rhodophiala was polyphyletic.
Subsequently Munoz et al. undertook a detailed study of Rhodophiala/Rhodolirium species and related genera and confirmed the genus as circumscribed was indeed polyphyletic with three species segregating as a sister group to Phycella which they proposed to resurrect as genus Rhodolirium, while the remainder of the species segreagated in a separate clade more closely associated with Hippeastrum, which they proposed as Rhodophiala sensu stricto. When the morphology of the two groups thus identified was examined they were distinguishable by Rodophiala having a trifid stigma compared to capitate for Rhodolirium, by the nature of the paraperigon segments, and by their chromosome numbers (2n=18 for Rhodophiala and 16 for Rhodolirium) and their chromosome symmetry. Both groups appeared to be monophyletic and their differences sufficient to justify separation into two distinct genera. Rhodophiala and Hippeastrum appeared sufficiently close to explain their treatment as a single genus in older classifications, but their separation was consistent with the study by Meerow et al.
The proposal to separate the two genera supports Ravenna's morphological studies, with Rhodolirium montanum (formerly Rhodophiala rhodolirion) as the type species for the new genus. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis by Garcia et al. (2014) confirmed this distinction between the genera and proposed dividing Hipppeastrea into two subtribes, Hippeastrinae and Traubiinae, placing Rhodophiala in the first and Rhodolirium in the second.
- Rhodolirium andicola (Poepp.) Ravenna syn. Rhodophiala andicola (Chile to Argentina (Neuquén))
- Rhodolirium chilense (L'Hér.) Ravenna syn. Rhodophiala chilensis (Chile)
- Rhodolirium fulgens
- Rhodolirium laetum (Phil.) Ravenna syn. Rhodophiala pratensis (Northern and Central Chile)
- Rhodolirium montanum Phil. syn. Rhodophiala rhodolirion (Chile to Argentina (Mendoza))
- Rhodolirium speciosum (Herb.) Ravenna
Distribution and habitat
- Philippi, R.A. (1858). "Plantarum novarum chilensium. Centuria quinta.". Linnaea. 29: 65–66.
- García, Nicolás; Meerow, Alan W.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S. (1 March 2014). "Testing Deep Reticulate Evolution in Amaryllidaceae Tribe Hippeastreae (Asparagales) with ITS and Chloroplast Sequence Data". Systematic Botany. 39 (1): 75–89. doi:10.1600/036364414X678099.
- Muñoz, Manuel; Riegel, Ricardo; Seemann, Peter; Peñailillo, Patricio; Schiappacasse, Flavia; Núñez, José (2011). "Relaciones filogenéticas de Rhodolirium montanum Phil. y especies afines, basadas en secuencias nucleotídicas de la región ITS y análisis cariotípico". Gayana. Botánica. 68 (1): 40–48. doi:10.4067/S0717-66432011000100005.
- Naranjo, C.A.; Andrada, B. (1975). "El cariotipo fundamental del género Hippeastrum Herb. (Amaryllidaceae)". Darwiniana. 19: 556–582.
- Ravenna, P. (2003). "Elucidation and systematics of the Chilean genera of Amaryllidaceae". Botanica Australis. 2: 1–20.
- Baker, J.G. (1878). Trimen, Henry, ed. "An enumeration and classification of the species of Hippeastrum". Journal of Botany: British and Foreign. London: West, Newman & Company. 16: 79–85. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Baker, John Gilbert (1888). "Hippeastrum". Handbook of the Amaryllideæ including the Alstrœmerieæ and Agaveæ. London: Bell. p. 41. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Tropicos". Missouri Botanical Garden. 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- Meerow, A.W.; Guy, C.L.; Li, Q.-B.; Yang, S.-L. (2000). "Phylogeny of the American Amaryllidaceae Based on nrDNA ITS Sequences" (PDF). Systematic Botany. 25 (4): 708–726. doi:10.2307/2666729. Retrieved 25 January 2015.