Rhombitrihexagonal tiling

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Rhombitrihexagonal tiling
Rhombitrihexagonal tiling
Type Semiregular tiling
Vertex configuration Small rhombitrihexagonal tiling vertfig.png
Schläfli symbol rr{6,3} or
Wythoff symbol 3 | 6 2
Coxeter diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
Symmetry p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Rotation symmetry p6, [6,3]+, (632)
Bowers acronym Rothat
Dual Deltoidal trihexagonal tiling
Properties Vertex-transitive

In geometry, the rhombitrihexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are one triangle, two squares, and one hexagon on each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of rr{3,6}.

John Conway calls it a rhombihexadeltille.[1] It can be considered a cantellated by Norman Johnson's terminology or an expanded hexagonal tiling by Alicia Boole Stott's operational language.

There are 3 regular and 8 semiregular tilings in the plane.

Uniform colorings[edit]

There is only one uniform coloring in a rhombitrihexagonal tiling. (Naming the colors by indices around a vertex ( 1232.)

With edge-colorings there is a half symmetry form (3*3) orbifold notation. The hexagons can be considered as truncated triangles, t{3} with two types of edges. It has Coxeter diagram CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.png, Schläfli symbol s2{3,6}. The bicolored square can be distorted into isosceles trapezoids. In the limit, where the rectangles degenerate into edges, a triangular tiling results, constructed as a snub triangular tiling, CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.png.

Symmetry [6,3], (*632) [6,3+], (3*3)
Name Rhombitrihexagonal Cantic snub triangular Snub triangular
Image Rhombitrihexagonal tiling uniform coloring.png
Uniform face coloring
Rhombitrihexagonal tiling snub edge coloring.png
Uniform edge coloring
Rhombitrihexagonal tiling snub edge coloring nonuniform.png
Nonuniform geometry
Snub triangular tiling with rhombitrihexagonal coloring.png
rr{3,6} s2{3,6} s{3,6}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.png


Wallpaper group-p6m-4.jpg
An ornamental version
Wallpaper group-p3m1-1.jpg
Nonuniform pattern
(with rectangles)
Kensington board.svg
The game Kensington
Church floor tiling, Sevilla, Spain
Circular rhombitrihexagonal tilng.png
The tiling can be replaced by circular edges, centered on the hexagons. In quilting it is call Jacks chain.[2]

Related polyhedra and tilings[edit]

There is one related 2-uniform tilings, having hexagons dissected into 6 triangles.[3][4]

1-uniform 6.png
Regular hexagon.svg
Triangular tiling vertfig.png
2-uniform 18.png & 36

The rhombitrihexagonal tiling is related to the truncated trihexagonal tiling by replacing some of the hexagons and surrounding squares and triangles with dodecagons:

1-uniform 6b.png
Regular dodecagon.svg
Hexagonal cupola flat.png
1-uniform 3.png

Circle packing[edit]

The rhombitrihexagonal tiling can be used as a circle packing, placing equal diameter circles at the center of every point. Every circle is in contact with 4 other circles in the packing (kissing number).[5] The translational lattice domain (red rhombus) contains 6 distinct circles. The gap inside each hexagon allows for one circle, related to a 2-uniform tiling with the hexagons divided into 6 triangles.

Rhombitrihexagonal tiling circle packing.png Rhombitrihexagonal tiling circle packing2.png

Wythoff construction[edit]

There are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling (or the dual triangular tiling).

Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, and blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. (The truncated triangular tiling is topologically identical to the hexagonal tiling.)

Symmetry mutations[edit]

This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of cantellated polyhedra with vertex figure (3.4.n.4), and continues as tilings of the hyperbolic plane. These vertex-transitive figures have (*n32) reflectional symmetry.

Deltoidal trihexagonal tiling[edit]

Deltoidal trihexagonal tiling
1-uniform 6 dual.svg
Type Dual semiregular tiling
Faces kite
Coxeter diagram CDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node f1.png
Symmetry group p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Rotation group p6, [6,3]+, (632)
Dual polyhedron Rhombitrihexagonal tiling
Face configuration V3.4.6.4
Tiling face 3-4-6-4.svg
Properties face-transitive

The deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a dual of the semiregular tiling known as the rhombitrihexagonal tiling. Conway calls it a tetrille.[1] The edges of this tiling can be formed by the intersection overlay of the regular triangular tiling and a hexagonal tiling. Each kite face of this tiling has angles 120°, 90°, 60° and 90°. It is one of only eight tilings of the plane in which every edge lies on a line of symmetry of the tiling.[6]

The deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a dual of the semiregular tiling rhombitrihexagonal tiling.[7] Its faces are deltoids or kites.

P5 dual.png

Related polyhedra and tilings[edit]

It is one of 7 dual uniform tilings in hexagonal symmetry, including the regular duals.

Dual uniform hexagonal/triangular tilings
Symmetry: [6,3], (*632) [6,3]+, (632)
Uniform tiling 63-t2.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-12-12 Triakis Triangular.svg Rhombic star tiling.png Uniform tiling 63-t0.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-4-6-4 Deltoidal Trihexagonal.svg Tiling Dual Semiregular V4-6-12 Bisected Hexagonal.svg Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-3-3-3-6 Floret Pentagonal.svg
V63 V3.122 V(3.6)2 V36 V3.4.6.4 V.4.6.12 V34.6

This tiling has face transitive variations, that can distort the kites into bilateral trapezoids or more general quadrillaterals. Ignoring the face colors below, the fully symmetry is p6m, and the lower symmetry is p31m with 3 mirrors meeting at a point, and 3-fold rotation points.[8]

Isohedral variations
Symmetry p6m, [6,3], (*632) p31m, [6,3+], (3*3)
Form Isohedral tiling p4-41.png Isohedral tiling p4-40b.png Isohedral tiling p4-40.png
Faces Kite Half regular hexagon Quadrilaterals

This tiling is related to the trihexagonal tiling by dividing the triangles and hexagons into central triangles and merging neighboring triangles into kites.

P3 hull.png

The deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a part of a set of uniform dual tilings, corresponding to the dual of the rhombitrihexagonal tiling.

Symmetry mutations[edit]

This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of tilings with face configurations V3.4.n.4, and continues as tilings of the hyperbolic plane. These face-transitive figures have (*n32) reflectional symmetry.

*n42 symmetry mutation of dual expanded tilings: V3.4.n.4
Spherical Euclid. Compact hyperb. Paraco.
Spherical trigonal bipyramid.png
Spherical rhombic dodecahedron.png
Spherical deltoidal icositetrahedron.png
Spherical deltoidal hexecontahedron.png
Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-4-6-4 Deltoidal Trihexagonal.svg
Deltoidal triheptagonal til.png
Deltoidal trioctagonal til.png
Deltoidal triapeirogonal til.png

Other deltoidal (kite) tiling[edit]

Other deltoidal tilings are possible.

Point symmetry allows the plane to be filled by growing kites, with the topology as a square tiling, V4.4.4.4, and can be created by crossing string of a dream catcher. Below is an example with dihedral hexagonal symmetry.

Another face transitive tiling with kite faces, also a topological variation of a square tiling and with face configuration V4.4.4.4. It is also vertex transitive, with every vertex containing all orientations of the kite face.

Symmetry D6, [6], (*66) pmg, [∞,(2,∞)+], (22*) p6m, [6,3], (*632)
Tiling Inscribedstar.svg Isohedral tiling p4-53.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V3-4-6-4 Deltoidal Trihexagonal.svg
Configuration V4.4.4.4 V6.4.3.4

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Conway, 2008, p288 table
  2. ^ Ring Cycles a Jacks Chain variation
  3. ^ Chavey, D. (1989). "Tilings by Regular Polygons—II: A Catalog of Tilings". Computers & Mathematics with Applications. 17: 147–165. doi:10.1016/0898-1221(89)90156-9. 
  4. ^ http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/symmetry/uniftil.htm
  5. ^ Order in Space: A design source book, Keith Critchlow, p.74-75, pattern B
  6. ^ Kirby, Matthew; Umble, Ronald (2011), "Edge tessellations and stamp folding puzzles", Mathematics Magazine, 84 (4): 283–289, arXiv:0908.3257Freely accessible, doi:10.4169/math.mag.84.4.283, MR 2843659 .
  7. ^ Weisstein, Eric W. "Dual tessellation". MathWorld.  (See comparative overlay of this tiling and its dual)
  8. ^ Tilings and Patterns