Rhythm and Hues Studios
|Industry||Visual effects, CGI animation|
|Founded||November 1, 1987|
|Headquarters||Los Angeles, California, United States|
Number of locations
|United States, India, Canada|
Rhythm & Hues is an American visual effects and animation company that received the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects in 1995 for Babe, in 2008 for The Golden Compass, and in 2013 for Life of Pi. It has also received four Scientific and Technical Academy Awards.
The company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2013.
Rhythm & Hues Studios was established in Los Angeles, California in 1987 by former employees of Robert Abel and Associates (John Hughes, Pauline Ts'o, Keith Goldfarb, Cliff Boule, Frank Wuts and Charles Gibson). The company uses its own proprietary software for its photo-realistic character animation/visual effects—as well as for those that are more stylized.
By 2012, the company had become a global one, with offices and artists in India (the Mumbai suburb of Malad and HITEC City which is a part of Hyderabad), Malaysia (Cyberjaya just outside Kuala Lumpur), Canada (Vancouver), and Taiwan (Kaohsiung).
Life of Pi
Director Ang Lee approached Rhythm & Hue in August 2009 to discuss a planned film adaptation of the fantasy novel Life of Pi. R&H VFX (Visual Effects) Supervisor Bill Westenhofer noted that Lee "knew we had done the lion in the first Narnia movie. He asked, 'Does a digital character look more or less real in 3D?' We looked at each other and thought that was a pretty good question." He also stated that during these meetings, Lee said, "‘I look forward to making art with you.’ This was really for me one of the most rewarding things I’ve worked on and the first chance to really combine art with VFX. Every shot was artistic exploration, to make the ocean a character and make it interesting we had to strive to make it as visually stunning as possible."
Rhythm & Hues spent a year on research and development, "building upon its already vast knowledge of CG animation" to develop the tiger. Artist Abdul Rahman in the Malaysian branch underscored the global nature of the effects process, saying that "the special thing about Life of Pi is that it was the first time we did something called remote rendering, where we engaged our cloud infrastructure in Taiwan called CAVE (Cloud Animation and Visual Effects)".
The resulting film, Life of Pi, was released in theaters in November 2012, and was a critical and commercial success. The British Film Institute's Sight & Sound magazine suggested that, "Life of Pi can be seen as the film Rhythm & Hues has been building up to all these years, by taking things they learned from each production from Cats & Dogs to Yogi Bear, integrating their animals in different situations and environments, pushing them to do more, and understanding how all of this can succeed both visually and dramatically."
On February 11, 2013, Rhythm & Hues Studios filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11, three months after Life of Pi was released. Around 254 people were laid off at that time. This led to a demonstration of nearly 500 VFX artists who protested outside of the 2013 Academy Awards, as Rhythm & Hues was nominated for an Oscar (which it won) for Life of Pi. Inside, during the Oscars, when R&H visual effects supervisor Bill Westenhofer brought up R&H during his acceptance speech for Life of Pi, the microphone was cut off as the music of Jaws slowly took over. This started an uproar among many visual effects industry professionals, changing profile pictures on social media such as Facebook and Twitter to show the green key color, in order to raise awareness of general negative trends in the effects industry. In addition, director Ang Lee was heavily criticized by the community for not acknowledging their work in the effects-laden film in his acceptance speech, despite thanking many other people, and for earlier having complained about the costs of visual effects.
On March 29, an affiliate of Prana Studios, 34x118 Holdings, LLC won the bidding on Rhythm and Hues in a bankruptcy auction. The sale was "valued at about $30 million". The Malaysian unit was not part of the sale, and became an independent stand-alone entity, now known as Tau Films.
In May, the El Segundo headquarters building was sold for $25 million to real estate developers, who planned to turn it into a campus for companies.
Life After Pi
In February 2014, Christina Lee Storm and Scott Leberecht released the documentary Life After Pi to YouTube. The documentary details both the reasons behind the bankruptcy as well as the general difficulties faced by the visual effects community. It contains a number of interviews with former Rhythm & Hues employees including co-founders John Hughes and Keith Goldfarb. Bill Westenhofer also discusses his experience at the Oscars as he accepted a Visual Effects award for Rhythm & Hues' work on Life of Pi.
- Big Miracle
- The Cabin in the Woods
- Django Unchained
- The Hunger Games
- Life of Pi
- Snow White and the Huntsman
- Aliens in the Attic
- Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel
- Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian
- Charlotte's Web
- Garfield: A Tale of Two Kitties
- Happy Feet
- Night at the Museum
- Superman Returns
- X-Men: The Last Stand
- Cats & Dogs
- Dr. Dolittle 2
- Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone
- The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring
- Planet of the Apes
- A Little Curious - Do the Noodle
- How the Grinch Stole Christmas
- Little Nicky
- Fantasia 2000
- Rugrats in Paris: The Movie
- Hollow Man
- Lee, Kevin. "Video essay: The animal menagerie of Rhythm and Hues". Sight & Sound, British Film Institute. December 21, 2012.
- "'Life of Pi's' digital magic". Los Angeles Times, January 17, 2013.
- Zahed, Ramin. "Beyond Talking Pigs and Chipmunks". Animation Magazine, April 2, 2012.
- Prana Studios Buys Bankrupt 'Life of Pi' VFX House Rhythm & Hues
- Rhythm & Hues Looks to Finish ‘Seventh Son’
- The Hollywood Reporter (1999-03-03). "Rhythm & Hues Rounds Up Vifx". AllBusiness.com. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- A Glimpse of Rhythm & Hues (Asian Facilities) Work on Ang Lee's Masterpiece, 'Life of Pi.' "
- Making of Life of Pi: In Conversation with R&H Archived 2013-06-09 at the Wayback Machine.
- Rhythm & Hues Taps NVIDIA Technology for Life of Pi. Animation World Network, November 26, 2012
- A First Mate Bares His Fangs: Creating a Tiger for ‘Life of Pi’. The New York Times, November 16, 2012
- Rhythm & Hues Makes Skies Soar, Computer Graphics World, November 27, 2012
- Malaysian team behind special effects for Life of Pi and Snow White movies Archived 2013-01-12 at the Wayback Machine.
- 'Life of Pi's' digital magic. Los Angeles Times, January 18, 2013
- EXCLUSIVE: Life of Pi's Stunning Effects. The Daily (News Corporation), November 26, 2012
- How "Life of Pi" animators visualized Ang Lee's blank slate[permanent dead link]. Chicago Tribune, December 12, 2012
- "Life of Pi: a tiger's tale", Fxguide, November 26, 2012
- Vfx team dares to take tiger by the tail. Variety (magazine), December 15, 2012
- "Local touch to Life Of Pi" Archived 2013-04-02 at the Wayback Machine., New Straits Times, November 26, 2012
- Video essay: The animal menagerie of Rhythm and Hues". British Film Institute's Sight & Sound magazine, December 21, 2012
- Variety (2013-02-12). "Rhythm & Hues bankruptcy reveals vfx biz crisis". Variety. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
- Rhythm & Hues gets $17 mil loan from Universal, Fox
- [VFX protest at Oscars: images from the picket line + audio interview http://www.fxguide.com/quicktakes/visualeffectsprotestatoscars/]
- "Biggest Oscars snub: A shark attack on the VFX industry". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- Pulver, Andrew (February 26, 2013). "Ang Lee under fire from visual effects artists over Life of Pi speech". London: The Guardian.
- Giardina, Carolyn. "Oscars 2013: VFX Artists Blast 'Disgraceful' TV Moments". The Hollywood Reporter.
- "Two-Day Roller Coaster Ends Delivers L.A. VFX Studio to Indian Owners". Variety, March 28, 2013.
- "Rhythm & Hues finalizes sale to Prana Studios". Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2013.
- Global Showbiz Briefs: Chello Zone Goes ‘Hardcore Pawn’; Karlovy Vary Celebrates Schatzberg; R&H Malaysia Goes It Alone
- Rhythm & Hues Malaysia to fly solo under new identity
- Developers buy Rhythm & Hues' ex-headquarters in El Segundo
- Life After Pi (Official Video)
- Documentary Chronicles Bankruptcy of Visual Effects Firm Rhythm & Hues
- Revealing ‘Rhythm & Hues: Life After Pi’ Doc Exposes Grief, Anger and Troubled Business (Video)
- YouTube Documentary ‘Life After Pi’ Chronicles Collapse of Rhythm & Hues (Video)
- 'Life After Pi,' doc on fall of visual effects house, to debut
- NEWS/ Life of Pi Wins Best Visual Effects Oscar
- Best Visual Effects
- BAFTA 2013 Winners
- BAFTA 2007 Winners