Ribblehead Viaduct

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Ribblehead Viaduct
Ribblehead Viaduct in North Yorkshire.jpg
Ribblehead Viaduct
Coordinates54°12′38″N 2°22′13″W / 54.210436°N 2.370231°W / 54.210436; -2.370231Coordinates: 54°12′38″N 2°22′13″W / 54.210436°N 2.370231°W / 54.210436; -2.370231
CrossesBatty Moss
OwnerNetwork Rail
Maintained byNetwork Rail
Characteristics
Total length440 yards (400 m)
Height104 feet (32 m)
No. of spans24
History
DesignerJohn Sydney Crossley
Construction start12 October 1870
Opened3 August 1875

The Ribblehead Viaduct or Batty Moss Viaduct carries the Settle–Carlisle Railway across Batty Moss in the Ribble Valley at Ribblehead, in North Yorkshire, England. The viaduct, built by the Midland Railway, is 28 miles (45 km) north-west of Skipton and 26 miles (42 km) south-east of Kendal. It is a Grade II* listed structure.[1] Ribblehead Viaduct is the longest and the third tallest structure on the Settle–Carlisle line.

The viaduct was designed by John Sydney Crossley, chief engineer of the Midland Railway, who was responsible for the design and construction of all major structures along the line. The viaduct was necessitated by the challenging terrain of the route. Construction began in late 1869. It necessitated a large workforce, up to 2,300 men, most of whom lived in shanty towns set up near its base. Over 100 men lost their lives during its construction. The Settle to Carlisle line was the last main railway in Britain to be constructed primarily with manual labour.

By the end of 1874, the last stone of the structure had been laid; on 1 May 1876, the Settle & Carlisle line was opened for passenger services. During the 1980s, British Rail proposed closuring the Settle to Carlisle line. In 1989, after lobbying by the public against closure, it was announced that the route would be retained. Since the 1980s, the viaduct has had multiple repairs and restorations and the lines relaid as a single track. The land underneath and around the viaduct is a scheduled ancient monument; the remains of the construction camp and navvy settlements (Batty Wife Hole, Sebastopol, and Belgravia) are located there.[2]

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Settle–Carlisle line
WCML
to Glasgow
&
Glasgow South Western Line
to Stranraer
Carlisle
WCML
to Preston
&
Cumbrian Coast line
to Barrow-in-Furness
Tyne Valley line
to Newcastle
Petteril Goods
Scotby
Cumwhinton
Cotehill
Armathwaite
Armathwaite Tunnel
325 yd
297 m
Baron Wood Tunnel No 2
251 yd
230 m
Baron Wood Tunnel No 1
207 yd
189 m
Lazonby and Kirkoswald
Lazonby Tunnel
99 yd
91 m
Little Salkeld
Langwathby
Waste Bank Tunnel
164 yd
150 m
Culgaith Tunnel
661 yd
604 m
Culgaith
New Biggin
British Gypsum Works, Kirkby Thore
Long Marton
Eden Valley Railway
to Clifton and Lowther
Appleby Junctions
Appleby East
Appleby
Ormside Viaduct
200 yd
183 m
Ormside
Helm Tunnel
571 yd
522 m
Crosby Garrett
Crosby Garrett Tunnel
181 yd
166 m
Scandal Beck
South Durham & Lancashire Union Rly
to Tebay
237 yd
217 m
Kirkby Stephen East
South Durham & Lancashire Union Rly
to Darlington
Kirkby Stephen
Birkett Tunnel
424 yd
388 m
Ais Gill Summit
1169 ft
356.3 m
Shotlock Hill Tunnel
106 yd
97 m
Moorcock Tunnel
98 yd
90 m
Dandry Mire/Moorcock Viaduct
227 yd
208 m
Wensleydale Railway
to Hawes
Garsdale
Rise Hill Tunnel
1213 yd
1109 m
Dent
Artengill Viaduct
220 yd
201 m
Dent Head Viaduct
199 yd
182 m
2629 yd
2404 m
440 yd
402 m
Ribblehead
Horton-in-Ribblesdale
Stone quarries, Arcow & Dry Rigg
Stainforth Tunnel
120 yd
110 m
Settle
Leeds–Morecambe line
to Lancaster
Settle Junction
Leeds–Morecambe line
to Leeds

During the 1860s, the Midland Railway, keen to capitalise on the growth in rail traffic between England and Scotland, proposed the construction of a line between Settle and Carlisle.[7] The line was intended to join the Midland’s existing line between Skipton and Carnforth to the city of Carlisle. On 16 July 1866, the Midland Railway (Settle to Carlisle) Act was passed by Parliament, authorising the company "to construct Railways from Settle to Hawes, Appleby, and Carlisle; and for other Purposes".[7]

After the Act was passed, the Midland Railway came to an agreement with the London & North Western Railway, to run services on the LNWR line via Shap.[7] The company applied for a Bill of Abandonment against its original plan but parliament rejected the bill on 16 April 1869 and the Midland Railway was compelled to proceed with the construction of the Settle to Carlisle line.[7]

The route passed through difficult terrain that necessitated building several substantial structures.[7] The company's chief engineer, John Sydney Crossley and its general manager, James Joseph Allport, surveyed the line. Crossley was responsible for the design and construction of the major works for the line, including Ribblehead Viaduct.[1][7]

On 6 November 1869, a contract for the construction of the Settle Junction (SD813606) to Dent Head Viaduct section including Ribblehead Viaduct was awarded to contractor John Ashwell. The estimated cost was £343,318 and completion was expected by May 1873.[7] Work commenced at the southern end of the 72-mile (116 km) line.[7]

Construction[edit]

By July 1870, work had started on the foundations for Ribblehead Viaduct.[7] On 12 October 1870, contractor’s agent William Henry Ashwell laid the structure's first stone. Financial difficulties came to greatly trouble John Ashwell; on 26 October 1871, his contract was cancelled by mutual agreement.[7] From this date, the viaduct was constructed by the Midland Railway Company’s own labour force, who worked on a semi-contractual basis and were overseen by William Ashwell.[7]

The viaduct was built by a large workforce of up to 2,300 men.[7] They lived, often with their families, in temporary camps, which were given names such as Batty Wife Hole, Sebastopol, and Belgravia which were built on adjacent land.[2][8] More than a hundred workers lost their lives during the project, most attributed to construction-related accidents, fighting, or from outbreaks of smallpox.[7] According to Church of England records, there are around 200 burials of men, women, and children in the graveyard at Chapel-le-Dale dating from the time of its construction; the nearby church has a memorial to the railway workers.[9][10][11]

During December 1872, the original plan for Ribblehead Viaduct was changed from 18 arches to 24, each of which spanning 45 feet (13.7 m).[7] By August 1874, the arches had been keyed, and the last stone was laid by the end of the year.[12] Initially, a single track line was laid over the viaduct; on 6 September 1874, the first contractor’s train, carrying passengers, was hauled across by the locomotive Diamond. On 3 August 1875, the viaduct was opened for freight traffic; on 1 May 1876, the whole line opened for passenger services, following approval by Colonel F. H. Rich, an Inspector from the Board of Trade.[13][7]

Structure[edit]

Ribblehead Viaduct is 440 yards (400 m) long, and 104 feet (32 m) above the valley floor at its highest point,[12] it is designed to carry a pair of tracks, which were aligned over the sleeper walls.[7] The structure is made up of 24 arches of 45 feet (14 m) span, the foundations of which are 25 feet (7.6 m) deep. The piers are tapered, roughly 13 feet (4 m) across at the base and 5 feet 11 inches (1.8 m) thick near the arches, and possess loosely packed rubble-filled cores.[7] Every sixth pier is 50 per cent thicker, an intentional mitigating measure against complete collapse should any of the piers fail. The north end is 13 feet (4 m) higher in elevation than the south end leading to a gradient of 1:100.[8]

The viaduct is faced with limestone masonry, set in hydraulic lime mortar; while the near-semicircular arches are red brick, constructed in five separate rings, complete with stone voussoirs.[7] Sleeper walls rise from the arches to support the stone slabs that form the viaduct’s deck, while hollow spandrels are used to support plain solid parapet walls. In total, 1.5 million bricks were used; some of the limestone blocks weigh 8 tons.[14][7]

Ribblehead Viaduct is 980 feet (300 m) above sea level on moorland exposed to the prevailing westerly wind. It has a total height, from foundation to rails, of 55 yards (50.3 m) and is 442.7 yards (404.8 m) long, following a lateral curve possessing a radius of 0.85 miles (1.37 km).[7]

The viaduct is the longest structure on the Settle–Carlisle Railway; there are two taller viaducts, Smardale Viaduct at 131 feet (40 m) high near Crosby Garrett, and Arten Gill at 117 feet (36 m). Ribblehead railway station is less than half a mile to the south and to the north is the Blea Moor Tunnel, the longest on the line; it is near the foot of Whernside.[15]

Operations[edit]

During 1964, several new Humber cars were blown off their wagons while being carried over the viaduct on a freight train.[8]

By 1980, the viaduct was in disrepair and many of the piers had been weakened by water ingress.[7] Between 1981 and 1984, repairs were undertaken as a cost of roughly £100,000; they included strengthening a number of the piers by the addition of steel rails and concrete cladding. For safety reasons, the line was reduced to a single track across the viaduct to avoid the simultaneous loading from two trains crossing, while a 20mph speed limit was also imposed.[7] During 1988, minor repairs were carried out and trial bores were made into several piers. In 1989, a waterproof membrane was installed.[7]

During the 1980s, British Rail proposed closing the Settle to Carlisle line, citing the high cost of repairs to its major structures.[7] Vigorous campaigning by the Friends of the Settle-Carlisle Line, which was formed during 1981, helped garner and mobilise public support against the plan. During 1989, it was announced that the line had been saved.[7] According to former Minister of State for Transport Michael Portillo, who took the decision to block the closure, the economic arguments for closing the line had been weakened by a spike in passenger numbers, while further studies by engineers had determined that restoration work to the Victorian structures would not be nearly as costly as originally estimated.[16]

In November 1988, Ribblehead Viaduct was Grade II* listed. The surrounding land, where the remains of its construction camps are located, has been recognised as a scheduled ancient monument.[7]

Between 1990 and 1992, Ribblehead Viaduct underwent major restoration.[7] Between September 1999 and March 2001, a programme of improvements was implemented along a 78km section of the line, involving renewal of track, replacement of ballast and the installation of new drainage. Restoration has allowed for increased levels of freight traffic to use the line, assuring the route's continued viability.[7]

The Settle–Carlisle Line is one of three north–south main lines, along with the West Coast Main Line through Penrith and the East Coast Main Line via Newcastle.[17] During 2016, the line and viaduct carried seven passenger trains from Leeds to Carlisle per day in each direction,[18] plus periodic long-distance excursions, many of which have been hauled by preserved steam locomotives.[citation needed]

Regular diesel-hauled heavy freight trains use the route to reduce congestion on the West Coast Main Line. Colas Rail operate a timber train most Friday afternoons which passes over the viaduct when it departs its yard opposite Ribblehead railway station.[citation needed] Other regular traffic are limestone aggregate trains from Arcow quarry sidings (near Horton-in-Ribblesdale), which run to various stone terminals in the Leeds and Manchester areas on different days – this has to reverse in the goods loop at Blea Moor signal box because the connection from the quarry sidings to the main line faces north.[19]

In popular culture[edit]

Building the viaduct was the inspiration behind the ITV period drama series Jericho.[20] The viaduct appears in the 1970 film No Blade of Grass[citation needed] and also in the 2012 film Sightseers.[21]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Historic England. "Batty Moss railway viaduct  (Grade II*, scheduled) (1132228)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b Historic England. "Ribblehead railway construction camp and prehistoric field system  (Grade II*, scheduled) (1015726)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  3. ^ Baker, S.K. (2007 11th ed), Rail Atlas of Great Britain & Ireland, Oxford Publishing Co, Horsham, ISBN 978 0 86093 602 2
  4. ^ Dewick, T. (2002), Complete Atlas of Railway Station Names, Ian Allan Publishing, ISBN 0 7110 2798 6
  5. ^ Midland Railway (reprinted after 1992) [originally 1913–1920], Midland Railway System Maps Volume 1: Carlisle to Leeds and Branches, Peter Kay, Teignmouth, ISBN 1 899890 25 4
  6. ^ (1990) British Rail Track Diagrams 4: Midland Region, Quail Map Company, Essex, ISBN 0 900609 74 5, p.34
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Ribblehead Viaduct". Engineering Timelines. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  8. ^ a b c Courtney, Geoff (12 May – 8 June 2011). "A matter of life and death for railway pioneers". Heritage Railway. No. 150. Horncastle: Mortons Media Group Ltd. p. 37.
  9. ^ "Chapel-le-Dale: St Leonard, Ingleton". Church of England. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  10. ^ Kapp, Alexander P (28 March 2010). "St Leonard's Church Chapel le Dale, Memorial". SD7377. Geograph Project. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  11. ^ Taylor, Ian (6 June 2010). "Millennium gravestone, Chapel le Dale". SD7377. Geograph Project. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  12. ^ a b Houghton, F.W; Foster, W.H (1965). The Story of the Settle-Carlisle Line (2nd ed.). Huddersfield: Advertiser Press Ltd. p. 137.
  13. ^ "Milestones Locomotives: The Ribblehead viaduct". locodriver.co.uk. Archived from the original (Word document) on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Ribbleshead Viaduct". Seven Man Made Wonders. BBC. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  15. ^ Garrat, Colin & Matthews, Max-Wade. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Steam And Rail. Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 2003. ISBN 0-7607-4952-3
  16. ^ Stokes, Spencer. "Settle-Carlisle line thriving 30 years on after closure threat." BBC News, 15 December 2013.
  17. ^ "Craven Through The Years". Telegraph & Argus. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  18. ^ Table 42 National Rail timetable, December 2016
  19. ^ "Connected." Rail Engineer, 5 January 2016. Retrieved: 7 April 2017.
  20. ^ "JERICHO - Big hopes for major new drama series filmed in Huddersfield". Huddersfield Examiner. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  21. ^ "Sightseers (2012)". IMDB. Retrieved 21 February 2016.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Baughan, Peter E (1966). North of Leeds: The Leeds-Settle-Carlisle Line and its Branches. Hatch End: Roundhouse Books.
  • Brooke, David (1 January 1983). The Railway Navvy: That Despicable Race of Men. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. pp. 41–47, 51–54 et al. ISBN 9780715384497.
  • Mitchell, William Reginald; Fox, Peter (1 May 1990). The Story of Ribblehead Viaduct. Kingfisher Productions. ISBN 9781871064087.
  • Williams, Frederick Smeeton (26 April 2012) [1876]. The Midland Railway: Its rise and progress. Cambridge University Press. pp. 490–498. ISBN 978-1-108-05036-4.

External links[edit]