Ricardo Magnus Osório Galvão
|Alma mater||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Awards||ICTP Prize (1984), National Order of Scientific Merit, Carneiro Felippe Medal (2015)|
|Institutions||University of São Paulo, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, University of Campinas|
|Thesis||Non-Circular Cross-Section Tokamaks|
|Doctoral advisor||Bruno Coppi|
Ricardo Magnus Osório Galvão (born 21 December 1947) is a prominent Brazilian physicist and engineer, formerly the Director-General of the National Institute for Space Research. He is a full Professor of the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, fellow of the Institute of Physics and councilman of the European Physical Society. Galvão has occupied major positions within the Brazilian Physics community such as the presidency of the Brazilian Physical Society (2013–2016) and the directorship of the Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (2004–2011).
Galvão's research is primarily devoted to plasma physics and thermonuclear magnetic fusion. He served as a board member for Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (1995–2005) and headed the Plasma Physics Laboratory of the University of São Paulo (2000–2016), where he oversaw the operation of the TCABR tokamak.
In August 2019, he was removed from his position as Director-General of the National Institute for Space Research, after a public disagreement with President Jair Bolsonaro over scientific data that showed a significant increase in deforestation in the Amazon rainforest since the latter took office.
Ricardo Galvão has received the titles of telecommunications engineer (Fluminense Federal University, 1969), master of sciences (University of Campinas, 1972) and PhD (MIT, 1976). He has been an assistant professor at University of Campinas from 1971 to 1982, adjoint professor at the University of São Paulo from 1983 to 1991, and a full professor from 1991 on at the University of São Paulo. Also, he has been a researcher at Centro Técnico Aeroespacial from 1982 to 1986.
Professor Galvão has received the following prizes:
- 1984: International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, for his theoretical contributions in MHD equilibrium and stability, resistive modes and laser-matter interaction
- 2008: Commander of the National Order of Scientific Merit
- 2015: Carneiro Felipe Medal
Friction with Jair Bolsonaro
On Friday, 19 July 2019, the president Jair Bolsonaro publicly Criticized Ricardo Galvão during a news conference with the international press, accusing him of giving lying data about Amazon deforestation and being in the service of some NGO: "The issue of Inpe, I have the conviction that the data are liers. I even sent to see who is the guy who is in front of Inpe. He will have to come explain here in Brasília this data there that passed to the press worldwide , which our feeling does not match the truth. It even seems that he is at the service of some NGO, which is very common."
The first thing I can say is that mr. Jair Bolsonaro needs to understand that a President of the Republic cannot speak in public, especially at a press conference, as if he were in a botequim conversation. He made inappropriate and unsubstantiated comments and made unacceptable attacks not only on me, but on people working for the science of this country. He said he was convinced that Inpe's data are a lie. More than offensive to me, it was very offensive to the institution. (...) I was really upset, because in my opinion he played with me the same game he did with Joaquim Levy (who resigned from BNDES after also being criticized in public by Bolsonaro). He has taken a pusillanimous, cowardly attitude to make a public statement perhaps hoping I will resign, but I will not. I hope he calls me to Brasília to explain the data and that he has the courage to repeat, looking face to face in my eyes. I am a 71-year-old gentleman, a member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, I will not accept such an offense. He who has the courage to face up to what he is doing. It's a botequim offense. I will not answer him and he is the one who should call me personally and also should have the courage to tell me that face to face.— Ricardo Galvão
On the same day, the board of the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science defended Galvão in a manifesto that classified Bolsonaro's attacks as offensive, ideological and without foundation. On Sunday, the Brazilian Physics Society issued a note also supporting Galvão and deploring the attacks made by the president. Still on the 21st, the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and its president, Luiz Davidovich, also expressed support for Galvão, as did former Minister of Science and Technology José Israel Vargas. On 22 July, Galvão received expressions of support from the 56 scientists who make up the Science and Society Coalition, of Science and Technology Forum Entities and physicist Luiz Pinguelli Rosa. Galvão reaffirmed his previous statements and although he would not respond to the note of minister Marcos Pontes for not knowing its content and would meet with the minister before replying. He further stated that he had already contacted the minister. On 7 August 2019, Ricardo Galvão's dismissal was published.
Douglas Morton, director of the Biosphere Sciences Laboratory at NASA's Space Flight Center, said INPE's results were "unquestionable," explained that INPE had always worked in a technical and judicious manner and classified Galvão's dismissal as significantly alarming and reflected as "current government treats science.
The official deforestation data issued by the Real-Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) confirmed INPE's accuracy.
- Galvão, R.M.O.; Cenacchi, G. e Taroni, A. Numerical Computation of Axysymmetric MHD Equilibria without Conducting Shell. Nuclar Fusion, vol. 16, p. 457 – 457, 1976.
- Coppi, B. ; Galvao, R.M.O.; Pellat, R.; Rosenbluth, M. N.; RUTHERFORD, P. H.. Resistive Internal Kink Modes. Sovietic Journal of Plasma Physics, v. 2, p. 533, 1976
- Galvao, R.M.O. ; Sakanaka, P. H.; Shigueoka, H.. Influence of Toroidal Effects on the Stability of the Internal Kink Mode. Physical Review Letters, v. 41, p. 870–873, 1978.
- Elfimov, A. G.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Amarante-Segundo, G.; Nascimento I. C.. Ion Larmour Radius Effect on rf Ponderomotive Forces and Induced Poloidal Flow in Tokamak Plasmas. Physical Review Letters, v. 84, n.6, p. 1200–1203, 2000.
- Brazil deforestation row: Space research head Galvão out, BBC News, 2 August 2019
- "Ricardo Galvão é nomeado diretor do INPE". Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "Com quatro meses de atraso, governo nomeia novo diretor do Inpe". Folha de São Paulo. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "Academia Brasileira de Ciências – Membros". Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "EPS Member". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "Ata da Reunião de Conselho de 25 de outubro de 2013" (PDF). SBF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "TCABR – Laboratório de Física de Plasmas (LFP)".
- "Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvao" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "ICTP Prize Winner 1984". Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Bragança, Daniele (19 July 2019). "Bolsonaro diz que diretor do INPE pode estar "a serviço de alguma ONG"" [Bolsonaro says INPE director may be "at the service of some NGO"]. O Eco.
- "Bolsonaro acusa Inpe de divulgar dados mentirosos sobre desmatamento" [Bolsonaro accuses Inpe of disclosing lying deforestation data]. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Bolsonaro critica diretor do Inpe por dados sobre desmatamento que 'prejudicam' nome do Brasil" [Bolsonaro criticizes Inpe director for data on deforestation that 'harm' Brazil's name]. 19 July 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Bolsonaro tomou 'atitude pusilânime e covarde', diz diretor do Inpe" [Bolsonaro took a 'pusillanimous and cowardly attitude', says Inpe director]. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Diretor do Inpe rebate fala de Bolsonaro sobre Amazônia: 'Ele precisa entender que não está num botequim'" [Inpe director rebates Bolsonaro's talk about Amazon: ‘He needs to understand that he's not in a Botequim’]. 20 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Bolsonaro tomou 'atitude pusilânime e covarde', dispara diretor do Inpe" [Bolsonaro took ‘pusillanimous and cowardly attitude’, shoots Inpe director]. 20 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Diretor do Inpe nega acusações de Bolsonaro, reafirma dados sobre desmatamento e diz que não deixará cargo" [Inpe director denies accusations of Bolsonaro, reaffirms data on deforestation and says he will not leave office]. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Conselho da SBPC lança manifesto em defesa do Inpe" [SBPC Council launches manifesto in defense of Inpe]. Jornal da Ciência, Edição Extraordinária. 20 July 2019. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019.
- "SBPC defende Inpe de ataque 'ideológico' e 'sem fundamento' de Bolsonaro" [SBPC defends Inpe for Bolsonaro's 'ideological' and 'groundless' attack]. 21 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- Oliveira, Elida. "Grupo de cientistas lança manifesto em apoio ao Inpe após Bolsonaro questionar dados de desmatamento na Amazônia" [Group of scientists launches manifesto in support of Inpe after Bolsonaro questions deforestation data in the Amazon]. G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "SBF DEPLORA O ATAQUE DO PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA AO PROF. RICARDO GALVÃO, DIRETOR DO INPE E EX-PRESIDENTE DA SBF" [SBF DEPlORES THE ATTACK OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC TO PROF. RICARDO GALVÃO, INPE DIRECTOR AND FORMER PRESIDENT OF SBF]. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019.
- "ABC publica nota em defesa do INPE e de Ricardo Galvão – ABC" [ABC publishes note in defense of INPE and Ricardo Galvão – ABC]. Academia Brasileira de Ciências. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- Talento, Aguirre Talento (21 July 2019). "Pesquisador sai em defesa do Inpe: 'Metodologia reconhecida internacionalmente'" [Researcher defends Inpe: 'Internationally Recognized Methodology']. Época.
- "Ex-ministro José Israel Vargas manifesta-se sobre comentários presidenciais – ABC" [Former Minister Jose Israel Vargas speaks on presidential comments – ABC]. Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- "Senhor Presidente: a boa ciência sempre prevalece" [Mr President: Good science always prevails]. Direto da Ciência. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "A boa ciência sempre prevalece – ABC" [Good science always prevails – ABC] (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- Bier, Amanda. "Cientistas rebatem decisões do governo tomadas sem sustentação factual ou científica" [Scientists rebut government decisions made without scientific or factual support]. ihu.unisinos.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- Batista, Vera (22 July 2019). "Moção de apoio a Ricardo Galvão, diretor do Inpe" [Motion to support Ricardo Galvão, director of Inpe]. Blog do Servidor (in Portuguese). Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Pinguelli divulga carta em apoio a diretor do Inpe" [Pinguelli publishes letter in support of Inpe director]. jb.com.br (in Portuguese). 22 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "'Não volto atrás em nenhuma vírgula no que eu disse', afirma diretor do Inpe" ['I don't go back in any comma in what I said', says director of Inpe]. O Globo (in Portuguese). 22 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Exoneração de Ricardo Galvão do Inpe é publicada" [Ricardo Galvão demissal from Inpe is published]. Archived from the original on 7 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- "Demissão de chefe do Inpe é 'alarmante', diz diretor de centro da Nasa" [Resignation of Inpe's boss is 'alarming', says Nasa's center director]. Terra (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Demissão de chefe do Inpe é 'significativamente alarmante', diz diretor da Nasa" [Dismissal of Inpe's boss is 'significantly alarming', says Nasa director]. epocanegocios.globo.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 August 2019.
- "Balanços oficiais de desmatamento da Amazônia confirmam dados de sistema de alerta; entenda" [Official Amazon deforestation balance sheets confirm alert system data; understand]. G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 August 2019.