Rice bran oil

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Rice Bran Oil
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturated25%
Myristic: 0.6%
Palmitic: 21.5%
Stearic: 2.9%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated75%
Monounsaturated38%
Oleic acid38%
Polyunsaturated37%
Omega-3 fatty acidsα-Linolenic: 2.2%
Omega-6 fatty acidsLinoleic: 34.4%
Properties
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz)3,700 kJ (880 kcal)
Smoke point232 °C (450 °F)
Iodine value99-108
Acid value1.2
Saponification value180-190
Unsaponifiable3-5

Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called chaff (rice husk). It is known for its high smoke point of 232 °C (450 °F) and mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir frying and deep frying. It is popular as a cooking oil in several South and East Asian countries, including Bangladesh, India, Japan, and China.[1]

Uses[edit]

Rice bran oil is an edible oil which is used in various forms of food preparation. It is also the basis of some vegetable “ghee”. Rice bran wax, obtained from rice bran oil and palpanese extract, is used as a substitute for carnauba wax in cosmetics, confectionery, shoe creams, and polishing compounds.

Isolated γ-oryzanol (Chinese: 谷维素) from rice bran oil is available in China as an over-the-counter drug,[2] and in other countries as a dietary supplement.

Composition[edit]

Rice bran oil has a composition similar to that of peanut oil, with 38% monounsaturated, 37% polyunsaturated, and 25% saturated fatty acids.

A component of rice bran oil is the antioxidant γ-oryzanol, at around 2% of crude oil content. Thought to be a single compound when initially isolated, it is now known to be a mixture of steryl and other triterpenyl esters of ferulic acids.[1] Also present are tocopherols and tocotrienols (two types of vitamin E) and phytosterols.

The fatty acid composition is:[1]

Fatty acid Numbering Percentage
Myristic acid C14:0 0.6%
Palmitic acid C16:0 21.5%
Stearic acid C18:0 2.9%
Oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid) C18:1 38.4%
Linoleic acid (LA, an omega-6 fatty acid) C18:2 34.4%
α-Linolenic acid (ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid) C18:3 2.2%

Physical properties of crude and refined rice bran oil[3][4]

Property Crude rice bran oil Refined oil
Moisture 0.5-1.0% 0.1-0.15%
Density (15 °C) 0.913-0.920 0.913-0.920
Refractive index 1.4672 1.4672
Iodine value 85-100 95-104
Saponification value 187 187
Unsaponifiable matter 4.5-5.5 1.8-2.5
Free fatty acids 5-15% 0.15-0.2%
oryzanol 2.0 1.5-1.8
Tocopherol 0.15 0.05
Color (tintometer) 20Y+2.8R 10Y+1.0R

Comparison to other vegetable oils[edit]

Properties of vegetable oils[5][6]
Type Processing
treatment
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Smoke point
Total[5] Oleic
acid
(ω-9)
Total[5] α-Linolenic
acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic
acid
(ω-6)
ω-6:3
ratio
Almond oil
Avocado[7] 11.6 70.6 52-66[8] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[9]
Brazil nut[10] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[11]
Canola[12] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[11]
Cashew oil
Chia seeds
Cocoa butter oil
Coconut[13] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[11]
Corn[14] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[15]
Cottonseed[16] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F)[15]
Flaxseed/Linseed[17] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F)
Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 very high 216 °C (421 °F)[18]
Hemp seed[19] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F)[20]
Vigna mungo
Mustard oil
Olive[21] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F)[11]
Palm[22] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[23] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 0 31.4 very high 232 °C (450 °F)[15]
Pecan oil
Perilla oil
Rice bran oil
Safflower[24] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 very high 212 °C (414 °F)[11]
Sesame[25] ? 14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1
Soybean[26] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1
Soybean[27] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F)[15]
Walnut oil
Sunflower (standard)[28] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 very high 227 °C (440 °F)[15]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[29] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8 199:1
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[30] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 18:1 232 °C (450 °F)[31]
Cottonseed[32] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1
Palm[33] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by weight of total fat.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Orthoefer, F. T. (2005). "Chapter 10: Rice Bran Oil". In Shahidi, F. (ed.). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3. Retrieved 2012-03-01.[dead link]
  2. ^ "National Drug Standard for 谷维素片 / Oryzanol Tablets (DRAFT)" (PDF). 国家食品药品监督管理总局. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  3. ^ "What is Rice Bran Oil". A. P. Refinery.
  4. ^ SEA HandBook. The Solvent Extractors' Association of India. 2009.
  5. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
  6. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  7. ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  8. ^ Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  9. ^ Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  11. ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  12. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  13. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  16. ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  18. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutr Metab Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  19. ^ Callaway, J.; Schwab, U.; Harvima, I.; Halonen, P.; Mykkänen, O.; Hyvönen, P.; Järvinen, T. (2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622.
  20. ^ "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
  21. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  23. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  24. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  25. ^ "Soybean oil". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  26. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  29. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  30. ^ "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  31. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
  32. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  33. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.