Rich Communication Services

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Rich Communication Services (RCS)[1] is a communication protocol between mobile telephone carriers and between phone and carrier, aiming at replacing SMS messages with a text-message system that is richer, provides phonebook polling (for service discovery), and can transmit in-call multimedia. It is part of broader IP Multimedia Subsystem. Google added support for E2EE for one-on-one conversations in their own extension.[2]

It is also marketed as Advanced Messaging,[3] Chat, joyn, SMSoIP,[4] Message+, and SMS+.[5]

In early 2020, it was estimated that RCS was available from 88 operators throughout 59 countries in the world. There are approximately 390 million users per month and the business is expected to be worth $71 billion by 2021.[6]

History[edit]

The Rich Communication Suite industry initiative[7] was formed by a group of industry promoters in 2007. In February 2008 the GSM Association officially became the project 'home' of RCS and an RCS steering committee was established by the organisation.

The scope of the steering committee's work was to entail the definition, testing, and integration of the services in the application suite known as RCS.[8][9][10] Three years later, the RCS project released a new specification – RCS-e (e = 'enhanced'), which included various iterations of the original RCS specifications. The GSMA program is now called Rich Communication Services.[11]

The GSMA published the Universal Profile in November 2016.[12] The Universal Profile is a globally agreed, single GSMA specification for advanced communications. Carriers that deploy the Universal Profile guarantee interconnection with other carriers. 47 mobile network operators, 11 manufacturers, and 2 OS providers (Google and Microsoft) have announced their support.[13] Google's Jibe Cloud platform is an implementation of the RCS Universal Profile, designed to help carriers launch RCS quickly and scale easily.[14]

Samsung is the major device OEM to support RCS globally. Samsung RCS capable devices have been commercially launched in Europe since 2012 and in the United States since 2015.

Google supports RCS on Android devices with its Android SMS app Messages. In April 2018, it was reported that Google would be transferring the team that was working on its Google Allo messaging service to work on a wider RCS implementation.[15][16][17] In June 2019, Google announced that it would begin to deploy RCS on an opt-in basis via the Messages app (branded as chat features), with service compliant with the Universal Profile and hosted by Google rather than the user's carrier. The rollout of this functionality began in France and the United Kingdom. In response to concerns over the lack of end-to-end encryption in RCS, Google stated that it would only retain message data in transit until it is delivered to the recipient.[18] In November 2020, Google later announced that it would begin to roll out end-to-end encryption for one-on-one conversations between Messages users, beginning with the beta version of the app.[19] In December 2020, Samsung updated its Samsung Experience messages app to also allow users to opt into Chat.[20]

In October 2019, the four major U.S. carriers announced an agreement to form the "Cross-Carrier Messaging Initiative" to jointly implement RCS using a newly developed app. This service will be compatible with the Universal Profile.[21] However, both T-Mobile and AT&T later signed deals with Google to replace their messaging app with Google's own Messages app.[22][23][24]

RCS specifications[edit]

RCS combines different services defined by 3GPP and Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) with an enhanced phonebook. Another phone's capabilities and presence information can be discovered and displayed by a mobile phone. RCS reuses 3GPP specified IMS core system as the underlying service platform taking care of issues such as authentication, authorization, registration, charging and routing.

Release 1 Version 1.0 (15.12.2008)
Offered the first definitions for the enrichment of voice and chat with content sharing, driven from an RCS enhanced address book (EAB).
Release 2 Version 1.0 (31.08.2009)
Added broadband access to RCS features: enhancing the messaging and enabling sharing of files.
Release 3 Version 1.0 (25.02.2010)
Focused on the broadband device as a primary device.
Release 4 Version 1.0 (14.02.2011)
Included support for LTE.
Release 5 Version 1.0 (19.04.2012)
RCS 5.0 is completely backward compatible with RCS-e V1.2 specifications and also includes features from RCS 4 and new features such as IP video call, IP voice call and Geo-location exchange. Global interoperability is a key aspect of these specifications, and RCS5.0 supports both OMA CPM and OMA SIMPLE IM. RCS 5.0 includes following features listed below.
  • Standalone Messaging
  • 1-2-1 Chat
  • Group Chat
  • File Transfer
  • Content Sharing
  • Social Presence Information
  • IP Voice call (IR92 and IR.58)
  • IP Video call (IR.94)
  • Geolocation Exchange
  • Capability Exchange based on Presence or SIP OPTIONS
Release 5.1
5.1 is completely backward compatible with the RCS-e V1.2 and RCS 5.0 specifications. It introduces additional new features such as Group Chat Store & Forward, File Transfer in Group Chat, File Transfer Store & Forward, and Best Effort Voice Call, as well as lessons-learnt and bug fixes from the V1.2 interoperability testing efforts. Global interoperability is a key aspect of these specifications, and 5.1 supports both OMA CPM and OMA SIMPLE IM.
  • Version 1.0 (13.08.2012)
  • Version 2.0 (03.05.2013)
  • Version 3.0 (25.09.2013)
  • Version 4.0 (28.11.2013)
Release 5.2 Version 5.0 (07.05.2014)
Improved central message store and introduced service extension tags into the specification. It also introduced a number of incremental improvements and bug fixes to RCS 5.1 V4.0 that improve the user experience and resolve issues that were noticed in deployed RCS networks
Release 5.3 Version 6.0 (28.02.2015)
Release 6.0 Version 7.0 (21.03.2016)
Support for Visual Voice Mail and more
Release 7.0 Version 8.0 (28.06.2017)
Support for Chatbots, SMS fallback features and more
Release 8.0 Version 9.0 (16.05.2018)
Support for additional Chatbots features and vCard 4.0

RCS-e (enhanced)[edit]

Initial Version (May 2011)
Version 1.2 (28.11.2011)
Version 1.2.2 (04.07.2012)

joyn[edit]

The GSMA defined a series of specific implementations of the RCS specifications. The RCS specifications often define a number of options for implementing individual communications features, resulting in challenges in delivering interoperable services between carriers. The RCS specifications aim to define a more specific implementation that promote standardization and simplify interconnection between carriers.

At this time there are two major relevant releases:

  • joyn Hot Fixes - based upon the RCS 1.2.2 specification (previously known as RCS-e), this includes 1:1 chat, group chat, MSRP file sharing and video sharing (during a circuit switched call). Services based upon this specification are live in Spain, France and Germany.
  • joyn Blackbird Drop 1 - based upon the RCS 5.1 specification, this extends the joyn Hot Fixes service to include HTTP file sharing, location sharing, group file sharing, and other capabilities such as group chat store and forward. joyn Blackbird Drop 1 is backward compatible with joyn Hot Fixes. Vodafone Spain's network is accredited for joyn Blackbird Drop 1, and Telefónica and Orange Spain have also been involved in interoperability testing with vendors of joyn Blackbird Drop 1 clients. A number of client vendors are accredited to joyn Blackbird Drop 1.

Two or more future releases are planned:

  • joyn Blackbird Drop 2 - also based upon the RCS 5.1 specification, this will primarily add IP voice and video calling. The test cases for joyn Blackbird Drop 2 have yet to be released by the GSMA.
  • joyn Crane - Already available in GSMA web page.

RCS Universal Profile[edit]

The GSMA's Universal Profile is a single, industry-agreed set of features and technical enablers developed to simplify the product development and global operator deployment of RCS.[13]

Version 1.0 (November 2016)
Includes core features such as capability discovery which will be interoperable between regions, chat, group chat, file transfer, audio messaging, video share, multi-device, enriched calling, location share and live sketching.
Version 2.0 (July 2017)
Includes Messaging as a Platform, APIs, plug-in integration and improved authentication and app security.
Version 2.1 (December 2017)
Version 2.2 (May 2018)
Version 2.3 (December 2018)
Version 2.4 (October 2019)
Removes plug-in integration and includes integrated seamless webview.

RCS Business Messaging[edit]

RCS Business Messaging (RBM) is the B2C (A2P in telecoms terminology) version of RCS. This is supposed to be an answer to 3rd party messaging apps (or OTTs) absorbing mobile operators' messaging traffic and associated revenues. While RCS is designed to win back Person-to-Person (P2P) traffic, RBM is intended to retain and grow this A2P traffic.[25][26] RCS offers "rich" features similar to those of messaging apps, but delivered (in theory) via the preloaded SMS messaging app - for example Google Messages or Samsung Messages. By making these features available in a B2C setting, RBM is expected to attract marketing and customer service spend from enterprises, thanks to improved customer engagement and interactive features that facilitate new use cases.[27][28] This was the primary reason for the development of RCS by the GSMA.

RBM includes features not available to ordinary users, including predefined quick-reply suggestions, rich cards, carousels, and branding. This last feature is intended to increase consumer confidence and reduce fraud through the implementation of a verified sender system.[29] These additional features are only available with the use of a Messaging-as-a-Platform (MaaP) server integrated with the operator's network. The MaaP controls the verified sender details, unlocking RBM features, while also segregating P2P and A2P RCS messages, aiding monetisation of the latter (SMS currently suffers from grey routes, where A2P messages are sent over P2P connections, which are cheaper or often free).[30]

Status[edit]

According to GSMA PR, Rich Communication Services (RCS) carriers from around the globe supporting the RCS standard include AT&T, Bell Mobility, Bharti Airtel, Deutsche Telekom, Jio, KPN, KT Corporation, LG U+, Orange, Orascom Telecom, Rogers Communications, SFR, SK Telecom, Telecom Italia, Telefónica, Telia Company, Telus, Verizon and Vodafone.[31]

Universal Profile is currently backed by 68 supporters:[32]

RCS launches[33]
Operator Country Launch date Note
Movistar  Spain June 2012 [34] Branded as joyn.
MetroPCS  United States November 2012 [34] Branded as joyn.
KT  South Korea December 2012 [34][35] Branded as joyn. Shuttered in 2016.
LG U+  South Korea December 2012 [34][35] Branded as joyn. Shuttered in 2016.
SK Telecom  South Korea December 2012 [34][35] Branded as joyn.
Deutsche Telekom  Germany February 2013 [34] Branded as Message+[36]
Telcel  Mexico February 2013 [34] Branded as joyn.
Claro Multiple markets May 2013 [34] Branded as joyn.
Sprint  United States October 2013 Launched as a separate application
U.S. Cellular  United States October 2018 Universal Profile [37]
Telekom  Romania June 2014 [38][39] Branded as joyn.
Slovak Telekom  Slovakia June 2014 [38][39] Branded as joyn.
O2  Germany 2015 [40] Branded as Message+Call.
SFR  France May 2015 [41][42] Initially branded as joyn, now RCS.[43]
T-Mobile US  United States July 2015 [44] Branded as Advanced Messaging.
AT&T  United States November 2015 Branded as Advanced Messaging and Video Call.[45][46]
MTS  Russia December 2015 [47] Branded as MTS Connect.
Jio  India September 2016 [48] Branded as Jio4GVoice.
Sprint  United States November 2016 [49] Branded as RCS. Universal Profile.
Rogers Wireless  Canada December 2016 Universal Profile.
Fido Solutions  Canada December 2016 Universal Profile.
Telenor Multiple markets February 2017 Universal Profile.[50]
Celcom  Malaysia May 2017 Universal Profile.
Vodafone Multiple markets 2012-2017 [51] Universal Profile.[52]

[34][53][54][55][56] First Branded as joyn. Since November 2013 Message+.

Telstra  Australia October 2017 Branded as Telstra Messaging.[57] Universal Profile v2.[58]
Telia Company  Sweden December 2017 Branded as SMS+.[59]
Telia Company  Norway February 2018 Branded as SMS+.[59]
Globe Telecom  Philippines February 2018 Universal Profile
NTT Docomo  Japan May 2018 Branded as +Message.[60]
KDDI  Japan May 2018 Branded as +Message.[60]
SoftBank Corp.  Japan May 2018 Branded as +Message.[60]
Freedom Mobile  Canada October 2018 Universal Profile.
Verizon  United States December 2018 Branded as Chat and launched as part of Android's default Messenger app with initial rollout for Pixel 3 phones
Google Fi  United States January 2019 Universal Profile.
Telekom Albania  Albania Universal Profile.
Bell  Canada Universal Profile.
China Mobile  China Universal Profile.
Orange Multiple markets 2012-2017 Branded as Chat Messages in Romania,[61] joyn elsewhere.[34][38][39]

[62] Since July 2018 branded as Chat - Universal profile in Slovakia.

[63] Service in France was interrupted as of 14 November 2017.

COSMOTE  Greece Universal Profile.
Telekom  Hungary Universal Profile.
Vodacom  South Africa Universal Profile.
Illinois Valley Cellular  United States Universal Profile.
Tiercel Wireless  United States Universal Profile.
TracFone Wireless  United States Universal Profile.
T-Mobile US  United States May 2020 Universal Profile[64]
Swisscom Switzerland April 2020 Branded as Message+ (https://community.swisscom.ch/t5/Telephony-Knowledge-Base/RCS-introducing-the-future-of-SMS-Message/ta-p/612475)
MTS  Russia October 2020 Only for Samsung smartphones and only for Moscow customers,[65] MTS Connect still works for all MTS customers

Interconnect and hubs[edit]

Like SMS, RCS requires national and international interconnects to enable roaming. As with SMS, this will be accomplished with hubbing - where third-party providers complete agreements with individual operators to interwork their systems. Each subsequent operator that connects to a hub is therefore connected automatically to all other connected operators. This eliminates the need to each operator to connect to all the others to which they may need to send messages. Interconnections and hubs are considered vital to the long-term success of RCS.[66] RCS hubs are provided by a range of stakeholders with a vested interest in increasing RCS use. These include traditional SMS hub providers (e.g. Global Message Services and Sinch), software and hardware vendors (e.g. Interop Technologies, Mavenir, and ZTE), and also Google via its Jibe Cloud platform.[67]

GSMA RCS accreditation[edit]

The RCS Interop and Testing (IOT) accreditation process[68] was started by the GSMA in order to improve the quality of testing, increase transparency, drive scale, minimize complexity and accelerate time-to-market (TTM) of joyn services. Companies need to undertake the IOT process from the GSMA to apply for a license to use the service mark joyn.

"Accredited" means that the device, client or network has undertaken a series of test cases (150 to 300) in a specific set of conditions, provided test results and traces that have been analysed by the GSMA RCS IOT team and any IOT issues arising resolved with the submitter.[69]

"Accreditation Ready" is the designation awarded to a hosted RCS service that has undertaken the same series of test cases as mobile network operator operator, provided test results and traces that have been analysed by the GSMA RCS IOT team and any IOT issues arising resolved with the submitter.[69]

A list of RCS AS providers and their GSMA RCS Accreditation status can be found here: https://www.gsma.com/futurenetworks/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/List-of-current-accreditations-for-Hosted-Solutions-Providers-v6.pdf

Reception[edit]

Amnesty International researcher Joe Westby criticized RCS for not allowing end-to-end encryption, because it is treated as a service of carriers and thus subject to lawful interception.[70][71]

The Verge criticized the inconsistent support of RCS in the United States, with carriers not supporting RCS in all markets, not certifying service on all phones, or not yet supporting the Universal Profile. Concerns were shown over Google's decision to run its own RCS service due to the possibility of antitrust scrutiny, but it was acknowledged that Google had to do so in order to bypass the carriers' inconsistent support of RCS, as it wanted to have a service more comparable to Apple's iMessage service available on Android.[18][72]

Ars Technica also criticized Google's move to launch a direct-to-consumer RCS service, considering it a contradiction of RCS being native to the carrier to provide features reminiscent of messaging apps, counting it as being among various past and unsuccessful attempts by Google to develop an in-house messaging service (including Google Talk, Google+ Messenger, Hangouts, and Allo), and noting limitations such as its dependencies on phone numbers as the identity, not being capable of being readily synchronized between multiple devices, and the aforementioned lack of end-to-end encryption.[73] In November 2020, Google announced that it would begin to introduce end-to-end encryption in beta.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Google's SMS replacement ready to launch". BBC News. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  2. ^ "Messages End-to-End Encryption Overview" (PDF). Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  3. ^ "Advanced Messaging - Network 2020". Network 2020. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  4. ^ "About joyn". GSMA. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  5. ^ "SMS+ - Telia.se". Telia.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  6. ^ "RCS Set to Revolutionize Mobile Messaging Ecosystem". Forest Interactive. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  7. ^ PALOU, NACHO (12 June 2012). "Joyn, un servicio de mensajería instantánea limitado a las operadoras móviles". RTVE.es.
  8. ^ "Rich Communications". GSMA. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  9. ^ "Strategic Rationale". GSMA. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  10. ^ "Operators, Ecosystem & Hosted Solutions | Network 2020". Archived from the original on 2 October 2015.
  11. ^ "Rich Communications – past, present & future". GSMA. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  12. ^ "Universal Profile FAQs" (PDF). GSMA. 17 November 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  13. ^ a b "Universal profile - Network 2020". Network 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  14. ^ "Jibe Platform". jibe.google.com. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  15. ^ "Google gives up on Google Allo, hopes carriers will sort out RCS messaging". Ars Technica. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Exclusive: Chat is Google's next big fix for Android's messaging mess". The Verge. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Google is 'pausing investment' in Allo". The Verge.
  18. ^ a b Bohn, Dieter (17 June 2019). "Google is finally taking charge of the RCS rollout". The Verge. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  19. ^ a b Bohn, Dieter (19 November 2020). "Google is rolling out end-to-end encryption for RCS in Android Messages beta". The Verge. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  20. ^ "Samsung Messages starts adding support for Google RCS Chat". Android Police. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  21. ^ Bohn, Dieter (24 October 2019). "AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, and T-Mobile have finally agreed to replace SMS with a new RCS standard". The Verge. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  22. ^ Bohn, Dieter (29 March 2021). "T-Mobile is betting big on Google's Android services: RCS, YouTube TV, Pixel, and more". The Verge. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  23. ^ Bohn, Dieter (30 June 2021). "AT&T joins T-Mobile in switching all Android phones to Google's Messages app for RCS". The Verge. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  24. ^ "Android Fans Just got a Texting Upgrade. T‑Mobile and Google Join Forces to Expand Rich Messaging (RCS) | T‑Mobile Newsroom". T-Mobile Newsroom. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  25. ^ "RCS Business Messaging". GSMA - Future Networks. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  26. ^ "BRINGING MESSAGING BACK TO THE CARRIERS". Mavenir. 15 July 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Will Rich Communication Services (RCS) revolutionize business messaging?". MarTech Today. 29 August 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  28. ^ Debris, Virginie (30 October 2019). "GMS' Chief Product Officer Virginie Debris on the real value of RBM". gms-worldwide.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  29. ^ MEF (25 October 2018). "Fraud-free RCS business messaging: Is it possible? - Blog". MEF. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  30. ^ GSMA Future Networks (August 2019). "Enabling your Network for RCS Business Messaging" (PDF). GSMA. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  31. ^ "Mobile Operators Show Increased Momentum in Rich Communications". PR Newswire. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
  32. ^ "Universal profile - Network 2020". Network 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  33. ^ "Global Launches - Future Networks". Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "RCS Fact October 2013" (PDF). GSMA. 29 October 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  35. ^ a b c "Korean operators launch joyn service". Telecompaper. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  36. ^ "Deine Telefon- und Nachrichten-Funktionen können jetzt noch mehr!". Deutsche Telekom. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  37. ^ "Get More Out ofTexting". US Cellular. n.d. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  38. ^ a b c "Jibe Mobile powers Deutsche Telekom joyn expansion in Romania and Slovakia" Fierce Wireless. 2014-06-30. Retrieved 2014-07-02.
  39. ^ a b c "Cosmote Romania, Slovak Telekom launch Joyn apps". Telecompaper. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  40. ^ "Die neue O2 Message+Call App: Jetzt mit dem Smartphone im WLAN telefonieren" (in German). o2 Germany. 11 August 2015. Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  41. ^ "SFR Launches RCS Native Messaging for Samsung and Sony Mobile Smartphones — powered by Jibe's Communications Cloud". 3 July 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  42. ^ "Network Interconnection of Rich Communication Services between Orange France and SFR". 21 May 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  43. ^ "Messagerie enrichie RCS - SFR". Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  44. ^ "Announcing Advanced Messaging. Only at T-Mobile". T-Mobile. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  45. ^ "AT&T Launches Video Calling and Advanced Messaging". AT&T. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  46. ^ "Advanced Messaging". AT&T. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  47. ^ "MTS Connect". MTS. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  48. ^ "RCS launches" (PDF). GSMA. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  49. ^ "Partnering with global carriers to upgrade SMS". Google. 4 November 2016.
  50. ^ "Partnering with Telenor to launch RCS messaging in Europe and Asia". Google. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  51. ^ "Global Launches - Future Networks". GSMA. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  52. ^ "Delivering RCS messaging to Android users worldwide". Google. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  53. ^ "WhatsApp-Konkurrent: Vodafone startet mit Message+" (in German). teltarif. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  54. ^ "Vodafone Albania introduces monthly bundle, Message+". Telecompaper. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  55. ^ "Understanding Message+ and RCS: Why we're giving you the future of texting before anyone else". Vodafone UK. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  56. ^ "Your texts and chat messages - all in one place". Vodafone UK. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  57. ^ "Telstra Messaging FAQs - Telstra Crowdsupport - 713814". crowdsupport.telstra.com.au. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  58. ^ https://forums.whirlpool.net.au/archive/2720925#r67892874
  59. ^ a b "Telia Company partners with Google for Improved Messaging Service". www.teliacompany.com. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  60. ^ a b c 田中聡 (10 April 2018). "SMSやキャリアメールとの違いは? 「+メッセージ」でできること、できないこと". ITmedia mobile (in Japanese). ITmedia Inc. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  61. ^ "Orange anunţă Chat Messages, serviciu bazat pe standardul RCS". Orange.ro. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  62. ^ Živé.sk. "Orange podporuje Chat v Androide. Konkurenciu pre Viber či Messenger (Slovak)". Živé.sk. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  63. ^ "Le service joyn n'est plus disponible". Orange. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  64. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (26 May 2020). "T-Mobile now supports cross-carrier RCS messaging". The Verge. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  65. ^ "RCS – чат и SMS в одном приложении | Услуги частным клиентам | Официальный сайт МТС - Москва и Московская область". moskva.mts.ru. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  66. ^ Flynn, Ray (2013). "RCS Hub White Paper" (PDF). GSMA. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  67. ^ "The RCS Ecosystem". GSMA Future Networks. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  68. ^ "Accreditation and Certification". 14 November 2017.
  69. ^ a b "GSMA RCS Interop and Testing". GSMA. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  70. ^ "Google's new Chat service shows total contempt for Android users' privacy". Amnesty International. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  71. ^ "Google's new chat service won't be secure like iMessage and WhatsApp: Amnesty International". The Indian Express. 22 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  72. ^ Bohn, Dieter (9 May 2019). "With the Pixel 3A, T-Mobile just proved how broken the RCS Chat rollout has become". The Verge. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  73. ^ Amadeo, Ron (18 June 2019). "Google's ninth attempt at a messaging service will be based on RCS". Ars Technica. Retrieved 19 June 2019.

External links[edit]