Richard Bland

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Richard Bland
Richard Bland.jpg
First and Second Continental Congresses as delegate from Virginia
In office
September 5, 1774 – August 12, 1775
Burgesss representing Prince George County
In office
1742–1776
Serving with Francis Eppes, Stephen Dewey, Alexander Bolling, Richard Bland Jr, Peter Poythress
Preceded byRobert Munford
Succeeded byposition abolished
Personal details
BornMay 6, 1710
Orange County, Virginia
DiedOctober 26, 1776 (1776-10-27) (aged 66)
Williamsburg, Virginia
Resting placeJordan Point Plantation, Prince George County, Virginia
Residence(s)Jordan Point, Prince George County
Alma materCollege of William and Mary Edinburgh University
Occupationplanter, politician
Signature

Richard Bland (May 6, 1710 – October 26, 1776), sometimes referred to as Richard Bland II or Richard Bland of Jordan's Point[1][nb 1], was an American Founding Father, planter and statesman from Virginia. A cousin and early mentor of Thomas Jefferson, Bland belonged to one of the colony's leading families. He served more than 30 years in the House of Burgesses, Virginia's colonial legislative assembly.

In 1766, Bland wrote an influential pamphlet, An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies, questioning the right of the British Parliament to impose taxes on colonists without their consent.[2] He later served in the First Continental Congress where he signed the Continental Association, a trade embargo adopted in October 1774 in opposition to Parliament's so-called Intolerable Acts.[3] Bland retired from the Second Continental Congress due to his age in August 1775, two months after the creation of the Continental Army.[4] However, he remained active in Virginia politics and helped draft a constitution for the newly-formed state in June 1776. Bland was named to Virginia's House of Delegates when it was formed in October 1776, the same month as his death.

Family and early life[edit]

His father, Richard Bland I, was a member of one of the patriarchal First Families of Virginia and was related to many of the others. This branch of the Bland family first came to Virginia in 1654, when Theodorick Bland of Westover, emigrated from London and Spain. After the death of his older brother Edward Bland in 1653, Theodorick moved to Virginia to take over management of the family mercantile and shipping enterprises there. Theodorick established Berkeley Plantation and Westover Plantation, both properties survive still, side by side, as working plantations on the banks of the James River. Theodorick served several terms in the House of Burgesses and was its speaker in 1660 when he married Anna Bennett, the daughter of Virginia Governor Richard Bennett. Before he died in 1671 Theodorick and Anna had three sons: Theodorick, Richard I, and John.[5][6]

Being the second son, Richard Bland I moved further up river and started his own plantation, on land purchased by his father in 1656. This property became known as Jordan's Point Plantation near the current Jordan Point in Prince George County, Virginia. The land was originally the location of Jordan's Journey Plantation, settled by Samuel Jordan in 1620. Richard married first Mary Swann; they had seven children, but none of them survived their mother, who died in 1700. In 1702, Richard married Elizabeth Randolph (1680–1720), daughter of William Randolph. Together they had five children:[citation needed]

When Richard II was born on May 6, 1710, at either Jordan's Point or "Bland House" in Williamsburg, he was heir to the farm and lived there his entire life. He inherited it early, as both his parents died just before his tenth birthday in 1720. His mother died on January 22 and his father on April 6. His uncles, William and Richard Randolph, looked after his farm and early education and raised, as guardians, Richard and his siblings.[citation needed]

It was likely during his young years that he became close friends with his first cousin, Peyton Randolph, that would last throughout their lives, often sitting side by side during their years of service in the House of Burgesses, the Committee of Safety, and the First and Second Continental Congresses. Another of Richard's and Peyton's first cousins, Jane Randolph Jefferson, had a son Thomas Jefferson who followed his cousins and mentors to the House of Burgesses and the Continental Congresses.[citation needed]

Richard attended the College of William & Mary and, like many of his time, completed his education in Scotland at Edinburgh University. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1746, but never offered his legal services to the public. He held an extensive library for his time, much of which was acquired after his death by Jefferson and his nephew-in-law St. George Tucker, and made its way to the Library of Congress as part of Jefferson's personal library donation in 1815.[citation needed]

Marriage and Issue[edit]

Bland married Anne Poythress (December 13, 1712 – April 9, 1758), the daughter of Colonel Peter and Ann Poythress,[7] from Henrico County, Virginia. The couple married at Jordan's Point on March 21, 1729, and made it their home. Together they had twelve children:

  • Richard Bland(b. 20 February 1731)
  • Elizabeth Bland (b. 17 March 1733)
  • Ann Bland (b. 15 August 1735)
  • Peter Bland (b. 2 February 1737, d.16 February 1781)
  • John Bland (b. 19 October 1739)
  • Mary Bland (b. 15 January 1741)
  • William Bland (b. 26 December 1742)
  • Theodorick Bland (b. 28 September 1744)
  • Edward Bland (b. 16 December 1746)
  • Sarah Bland (b. 19 September 1750)
  • Susan Bland (b. 20 February 1752)
  • Lucy Bland (b. 22 September 1754).[8]

After Anne's death, Richard married twice more. On January 1, 1759, Bland married Martha Macon Massie, the widow of William Massie, who died eight months after their marriage. In 1760 he married for a third time to Elizabeth Blair Bolling, widow of John Bolling and sister of councilor John Blair. Elizabeth died late in April 1775. Richard Bland survived all of his wives. There were no children of the 2nd and 3rd marriages.[9]

Early political career[edit]

Bland served as a justice of the peace in Prince George County and was made a militia officer in 1739. In 1742, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses, where he served successive terms until it was suppressed during the American Revolution. Bland's thoughtful work made him one of its leaders, although he was not a strong speaker. He frequently served on committees whose role was to negotiate or frame laws and treaties. Sometimes described as a bookish scholar as well as farmer, Bland read law and was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1746. He did not practice before the courts but collected legal documents and became known for his expertise in Virginia and British history and law.[10]

Bland often published pamphlets (frequently anonymously), as well as letters. His first widely distributed public paper came as a result of the Parson's Cause, which was a debate from 1759 to 1760 over the established church and the kind and rate of taxes used to pay the Anglican clergy. His pamphlet A Letter to the Clergy on the Two-penny Act was printed in 1760, as he opposed increasing pay and the creation of a bishop for the colonies.

An early critic of slavery, though a slaveholder, Bland stated "under English government all men are born free", which prompted considerable debate with John Camm, a professor at Bland's alma mater, the College of William & Mary.[11]

Colonial rights advocate[edit]

When the Stamp Act created controversy throughout the colonies, Richard Bland thought through the entire issue of parliamentary laws as opposed to those that originated in the colonial assemblies. While others, particularly James Otis, get more credit for the idea of "no taxation without representation", the full argument for this position seems to come from Bland. In early 1766, he wrote An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies, which was published in Williamsburg and reprinted in England.[12] Bland's Inquiry examines the relationship of the king, parliament, and the colonies. While he concludes that the colonies were subject to the crown and that colonists should enjoy the rights of Englishmen, he questions the presumption that total authority and government came through parliament and its laws.[13] Jefferson described the work as "the first pamphlet on the nature of the connection with Great Britain which had any pretension to accuracy of view on that subject...There was more sound matter in his pamphlet than in the celebrated Farmer's letters."<ref?Steele, Brian (2012). Thomas Jefferson and American Nationhood. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9781107020702.</ref>

In September 1774, the Virginia Burgesses sent Bland to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Some of the views expressed in An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies found their way into the first session of the Congress and were included in the Declaration of Rights. Bland was elected to the Second Continental Congress, serving until August 12, 1775, when he declined another term because of his age.[14]

Founding the state of Virginia[edit]

Virginia Dept. Historic Resources sign at Jordan Point near the burial place of Richard Bland, on the south bank of the James River near Hopewell.

In 1775, as revolution neared in Virginia, the Virginia Convention replaced the Burgesses and the council as a form of ad-hoc government. That year he met with the Burgesses and with the three sessions of the convention. In March 1775, after Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty, or give me death!" speech, he was still opposed to taking up arms. He believed that reconciliation with England was still possible and desirable. Nevertheless, he was named to the committee of safety and re-elected as a delegate to the national Congress. In May, he travelled to Philadelphia for the opening of the Second Continental Congress, but soon returned home, withdrawing because of the poor health and failing eyesight of old age. However, his radicalism had increased, and by the convention's meeting in July, he proposed hanging Lord Dunmore, the royal governor.

In the first state convention meeting of 1776, Richard Bland declined a re-election to the Third Continental Congress, citing his age and health. However, he played an active role in the remaining conventions. He served on the committee which drafted Virginia's first constitution in 1776. When the House of Delegates for the new state government was elected, he was one of the members.

Death and legacy[edit]

Bland died while serving in the state House on October 26, 1776, at Williamsburg. In November he was buried in the family cemetery at Jordan's Point in Prince George County.[15] Virginia's Bland County and Richard Bland College, junior college of the College of William & Mary, are named in his honor.[16]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Richard Bland's father, Richard Bland, is also referred to in some sources as Richard Bland of Jordan's Point.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tyler, Lyon Gardiner, ed. (1915). "Fathers of the Revolution". Encyclopedia of Virginia Biography. Vol. II. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. p. 4.
  2. ^ Pate, James E. (1931). "Richard Bland's Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies". The William and Mary Quarterly. 11 (1): 20–28. doi:10.2307/1925086. JSTOR 1925086. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  3. ^ Continental Congress (October 20, 1774). "Continental Association (Articles of Association)". Founders Online (founders.archives.gov). National Archives. Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  4. ^ "Richard Bland declined accepting the appointment of Deputy to the General Congress". digital.lib.niu.edu. Northern Illinois University Digital Library. August 12, 1775. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  5. ^ Richard Bland. "An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies". Appeals Press, Inc., Richmond, Virginia.
  6. ^ Theodorick Bland (1840). Charles Campbell (ed.). The Bland Papers: Being a Selection from the Manuscripts of Colonel Theodorick Bland, Jr. E. & J.C. Ruffin. p. xxviii.
  7. ^ This Ann's maiden name is uncertain, however a cryptic entry in the Secret Diaries of Wm. Byrd records Col. Peter Poythress as having married in 1712, Ann B-k-r (or B-r-k).
  8. ^ Campbell, Charles, "The Bland Papers"
  9. ^ Bland, Richard (1922) [1766]. "Introduction". In Swem, Earl Gregg (ed.). An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies. Richmond, Virginia: William Parks Club Publications. p. v.
  10. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 18, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Gary B. Nash, The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America (New York: Viking Penguin 2005) pp. 64–65. citing Richard Bland, The Colonel Dismounted: Or the Rector Vindicated in a Letter Addressed to His Reverence Containing a Dissertation upon the Constitution of the Colony (1764); John Camm, Critical Remarks on a Letter Ascribed to Common Sesce (Williamsburg, VA: Joseph Boyle, 1765) quoted in Bernard Bailyn, Ideological Origins, pp. 235–36.
  12. ^ Bland, Richard (1922). An Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies. Richmond, Virginia: Appeals Press. p. 68.
  13. ^ Pate, James E. (1931). "Richard Bland's Inquiry into the Rights of the British Colonies". The William and Mary Quarterly. 11 (1): 20–28. doi:10.2307/1925086. JSTOR 1925086. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  14. ^ "Richard Bland declined accepting the appointment of Deputy to the General Congress". digital.lib.niu.edu. Northern Illinois University Digital Library. August 12, 1775. Retrieved September 27, 2022.
  15. ^ The Bland Papers
  16. ^ "Richard Bland – Virginia Statesman and Champion of Public Rights". Richard Bland College. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2007.

External links[edit]