Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare
|Gilbert Fitz Richard |
Earl of Brionne
Earl of Hertford
3rd Lord of Clare
|Lord of the Honor of Clare||1117-1136|
|Predecessor||Gilbert Fitz Richard|
|Successor||Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford|
3rd Lord of Tonbridge
Lord of Cardigan
|Born||Clare, Suffolk, England|
|Died||15 April 1136|
|Spouse||Alice de Gernon|
|Father||Gilbert Fitz Richard|
|Mother||Adeliza de Claremont|
|Occupation||Peerage of England|
He is commonly said to have been created Earl of Hertford by either Henry I or Stephen, but no contemporary reference to him, including the record of his death, calls him by any title, while a cartulary states that a tenant had held "de Gilleberto, filio Richardi, et de Ricardo, filio ejus, et postea, de Comite Gilleberto, filio Richardi" ("of Gilbert Fitz Richard, and his son Richard, and then of Earl Gilbert Fitz Richard"), again failing to call Richard 'Earl' while giving that title to his son. Thus his supposed creation as earl is without merit, although his status and wealth made him a great magnate in England. There is an old photo document on the Wikipedia page for Tonbridge priory which states that the priory was founded by Richard de Clare EARL of (B.. illegible) and Hertfordshire.
Directly following the death of Henry I, hostilities increased significantly in Wales and a rebellion broke out. Richard was a strong supporter of King Stephen and in the first two years of his reign Richard attested a total of twenty-nine of that king's charters. He was with King Stephen when he formalized a treaty with King David I of Scotland and was a royal steward at Stephen's great Easter court in 1136. He was also with Stephen at the siege of Exeter that summer and was in attendance on the king on his return from Normandy. At this point, Richard apparently demanded more land in Wales, which Stephen was not willing to give him.
In 1136, Richard had been away from his lordship in the early part of the year. He returned to the borders of Wales via Hereford in the company of Brian Fitz Count, but on their separating, Richard ignored warnings of the danger and pressed on toward Ceredigion with only a small force. He had not gone far when, on 15 April, he was ambushed and killed by the men of Gwent under Iorwerth ab Owain and his brother Morgan, grandsons of Caradog ap Gruffydd, in a woody tract called "the ill-way of Coed Grano", near Llanthony Abbey, north of Abergavenny. Today the spot is marked by the 'garreg dial' (the stone of revenge). He was buried in Tonbridge Priory, which he founded.
The news of Richard's death induced Owain Gwynedd, son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd to invade his lordship. In alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, he won a crushing victory over the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr, just outside Cardigan. The town of Cardigan was taken and burnt, and Richard's widow, Alice, took refuge in Cardigan Castle, which was successfully defended by Robert fitz Martin. She was rescued by Miles of Gloucester, who led an expedition to bring her to safety in England.
- Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare, d. 1153 (without issue), 1st Earl of Hertford.
- Roger de Clare, d. 1173, 2nd Earl of Hertford.
- Alice de Clare (Adelize de Tonbridge), m. (1) about 1133, Sir William de Percy, Lord of Topcliffe, son of Alan de Percy and Emma de Gant; (2) Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, brother of Owain Gwynedd
- Robert Fitz Richard de Clare, perhaps died in childhood
- Rohese de Clare, m. Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln.
- Lucy de Clare, m. Baldwin de Redvers, 1st Earl of Devon.
- George Cokayne,The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol. III, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: St Catherine Press, 1913), p. 243
- David Walker, Medieval Wales (Cambridge UK & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 45
- Jennifer C. Ward, 'Royal Service and Reward: The Clare Family and the Crown, 1066-1154', Anglo-Norman Studies XI. Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1988, Ed. R. Allen Brown (Woodbridge, The Boydell Press, 1989), p. 274
- John Horace Round, Studies in Peerage and Family History (Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., 1901), p. 211
- The historical works of Giraldus Cambrensis, Ed. Thomas Wright (London: H.G. Bohn, 1863), p. 365
- Anna Tucker, Gwent (Princes Risborough: Shire, 1987), p. 40
- James Foster Wadmore, The priory of s. Mary Magdalene at Tonbridge (London: Michell & Hughes, 1881), p. 8
- George Cokayne,The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, Vol. III, Ed. Vicary Gibbs (London: St Catherine Press, 1913), p. 244
- White 2016, p. 121-122.
- George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage; or, a History of the House of Lords and all its Members from the Earliest Times, Vol. VI, Eds. H. A. Doubleday & Howard de Walden (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1926), p. 645
- Katherine Keats-Rohan,(2002).Domesday Descendants: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166 : II Pipe Rolls to Cartae Baronum.p.658, and 245.
- White, Graeme J. (2016). "The Legacy of Ranulf de Gernons". In Dalton, Paul; Luscombe, David (eds.). Rulership and Rebellion in the Anglo-Norman World, C.1066–c.1216: Essays in Honour of Professor Edmund King. Routledge.
- Round, John Horace (1887). Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co. . In