Richard II, Duke of Normandy

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Richard II
Duke of Normandy
Reign996–1026
PredecessorRichard I
SuccessorRichard III
Born23 August 963
Normandy
Died28 August 1026 (aged 63)
Normandy
SpouseJudith of Brittany
(possibly) Poppa of Envermeu
Issue
more...
Richard III of Normandy
Robert I of Normandy
HouseHouse of Normandy
FatherRichard I, Duke of Normandy
MotherGunnor

Richard II (23 August 963 – 28 August 1026), called the Good (French: Le Bon), was the eldest son and heir of Richard I the Fearless and Gunnora.[1][2] He was a Norman nobleman of the House of Normandy.

Life[edit]

Richard succeeded his father as Duke of Normandy in 996.[1] During his minority, the first five years of his reign, his regent was Count Rodulf of Ivry, his uncle, who wielded the power and put down a peasant insurrection at the beginning of Richard's reign.[3]

Richard had deep religious interests and found he had much in common with Robert II of France, who he helped militarily against the duchy of Burgundy.[3] He forged a marriage alliance with Brittany by marrying his sister Hawise to Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany and by his own marriage to Geoffrey's sister, Judith of Brittany.[3]

By 1000, Vikings had begun raiding England again, where they would subsequently cross the channel to Normandy and sell their plunder. Richard provided the Vikings with sanctuary and even welcomed them.[4] This act violated a treaty signed between his father Richard I and King Ethelred II of England, in which he agreed not to aid enemies of England following similar events of assisting the Danes.[4] As a result, Richard was forced to repel an English attack on the Cotentin Peninsula that was led by Ethelred.[5] Ethelred had given orders that Richard be captured, bound and brought to England.[6] But the English had not been prepared for the rapid response of the Norman cavalry and were utterly defeated.[7]

Richard attempted to improve relations with England through his sister Emma of Normandy's marriage to King Ethelred.[5] This marriage was significant in that it later gave his grandson, William the Conqueror, the basis of his claim to the throne of England.[8] Emma with her two sons Edward and Alfred fled to Normandy followed shortly thereafter by her husband king Ethelred.[8] Soon after the death of Ethelred, Cnut the Great forced Emma to marry him while Richard was forced to recognize the new regime as his sister was again queen.[5] Richard had contacts with Scandinavian Vikings throughout his reign. He employed Viking mercenaries and concluded a treaty with Sweyn Forkbeard who was en route to England.[9]

By 1013, following the St Brice's Day Massacre ordered by Ethelred, King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark summoned an army to exact revenge on the English and sailed for England. He stopped in Rouen and was well received and treated courteously by Richard, who concluded an alliance with him.[4] [10]

Richard II commissioned his clerk and confessor, Dudo of Saint-Quentin, to portray his ducal ancestors as morally upright Christian leaders who built Normandy despite the treachery of their overlords and neighboring principalities.[11] It was clearly a work of propaganda designed to legitimize the Norman settlement, and while it contains numerous historically unreliable legends, as respects the reigns of his father and grandfather, Richard I and William I it is basically reliable.[12]

In 1025 and 1026 Richard confirmed gifts of his great-grandfather Rollo to Saint-Ouen at Rouen.[13] His other numerous grants to monastic houses tends to indicate the areas over which Richard had ducal control, namely Caen, the Éverecin, the Cotentin, the Pays de Caux and Rouen.[14]

Richard II died 28 Aug 1026.[1] His eldest son, Richard III, becoming the new duke.

Richard II (right), with the Abbot of Mont Saint-Michel (middle) and Lothair of France (left)

Marriages and children[edit]

He married firstly, c.1000, Judith (982–1017), daughter of Conan I of Brittany,[15][16] by whom he had the following issue:

Secondly he married Poppa of Envermeu, by whom he had the following issue:

Genealogy[edit]

Diagram based on the information found on Wikipedia

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 79
  2. ^ The Normans in Europe, ed. & trans. Elisabeth van Houts (Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 56-7
  3. ^ a b c François Neveux, A Brief History of The Normans (Constable and Robinson, 2008) p. 74
  4. ^ a b c David Crouch, The Normans: The History of a Dynasty (London; New York: Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 33 Cite error: The named reference "Crouch33" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  5. ^ a b c François Neveux, A Brief History of The Normans (Constable and Robinson, 2008) pp. 94-5
  6. ^ Eleanor Searle, Predatory Kinship and the Creation of Norman Power, 840-1066 (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988), p. 132
  7. ^ David Crouch, The Normans: The History of a Dynasty (Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 34
  8. ^ a b David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror (University of California Press,1964), p. 160
  9. ^ The Normans in Europe, ed. & trans. Elisabeth van Houts (Manchester University Press, 2000),pp. 20-21
  10. ^ The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, ed. and trans. E. van Houts, 2 vols (Oxford, 1992–95) vol. 2 pp. 17-19
  11. ^ David Crouch, The Normans: The History of a Dynasty (Hambledon Continuum, 2007), p. 32
  12. ^ The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Ed. & Trans. Elizabeth M.C. Van Houts, Vol. I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), p. xx
  13. ^ The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Ed. & Trans. Elizabeth M.C. Van Houts, Vol. I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), p. 67 n. 5
  14. ^ Eleanor Searle, Predatory Kinship and the Creation of Norman Power, 840-1066 (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988), p. 128
  15. ^ Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984), Tafel 75
  16. ^ David C. Douglas, William The Conqueror (University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1964), p. 15, n. 5
  17. ^ Cassandra Potts, Monastic Revival and Regional Identity in Early Normandy, (The Boydell Press, 1997), 27.
  18. ^ David C. Douglas, William The Conqueror (University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, 1964), p. 31
French nobility
Preceded by
Richard I
Duke of Normandy
996–1026
Succeeded by
Richard III