|United States Senator
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 2013
|Preceded by||Vance Hartke|
|Succeeded by||Joe Donnelly|
|Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations|
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
|Preceded by||Joe Biden|
|Succeeded by||Joe Biden|
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987
|Preceded by||Charles H. Percy|
|Succeeded by||Claiborne Pell|
|Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry|
January 20 – June 6, 2001
|Preceded by||Tom Harkin|
|Succeeded by||Tom Harkin|
January 4, 1995 – January 3, 2001
|Preceded by||Patrick Leahy|
|Succeeded by||Tom Harkin|
|44th Mayor of Indianapolis|
January 1, 1968 – January 1, 1976
|Preceded by||John J. Barton|
|Succeeded by||William H. Hudnut III|
|Born||Richard Green Lugar
April 4, 1932
Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Charlene Smeltzer Lugar|
|Alma mater||Denison University (B.A.)
Pembroke College, Oxford (B.A., M.A.)
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1957–1960|
|Rank||Lieutenant, Junior Grade|
Born in Indianapolis, Indiana, Lugar is a graduate of Denison University and Oxford University. He served on the Indianapolis Board of School Commissioners from 1964 to 1967 before he was elected to two terms as Mayor of Indianapolis, serving from 1968 to 1976. During his tenure as Mayor, Lugar served as the President of the National League of Cities in 1971 and gave the keynote address at the 1972 Republican National Convention.
In 1974, Lugar ran a failed campaign for the U.S. Senate, losing to incumbent Democratic senator Birch Bayh. He ran again in 1976, defeating Democratic incumbent Vance Hartke. Lugar was reelected in 1982, 1988, 1994, 2000 and 2006. In 2012, Lugar was defeated in a primary challenge by Indiana State Treasurer Richard Mourdock, ending his 36-year tenure in the U.S. Senate. Mourdock went on to lose the general election to Democrat Joe Donnelly. Lugar ran for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 1996 but did not win any primaries or caucuses.
During Lugar's tenure, he served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1985 to 1987 and from 2003 to 2007, serving as the ranking member of the committee from 2007 until his retirement in 2013. Lugar also twice served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, from 1995 to 2001 and briefly again in part of 2001. Much of Lugar's work in the Senate was toward the dismantling of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons around the world, co-sponsoring his most notable piece of legislation with Georgia Democrat Sam Nunn: the Nunn-Lugar Act.
He is also the longest-serving senator in Indiana's history and until his defeat was the most senior Republican member of the Senate.
After leaving the Senate, Lugar created a nonprofit organization that specializes in the policy areas he pursued while in office. The Lugar Center focuses on food and energy security, the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and effective bipartisan governance. Located in Washington, D.C., the Center works with academics, experts, and policymakers in order to create proposals for these 21st century issues. The Center works to highlight these specific topics and their implications, as well as educating the public on them.
- 1 Early life, education, and early career
- 2 Indianapolis politics
- 3 U.S. Senate
- 4 1996 presidential campaign
- 5 Political positions
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 Awards and honors
- 8 Outside activities
- 9 The Lugar Center
- 10 Personal life
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Early life, education, and early career
Richard Lugar was born on April 4, 1932 in Indianapolis, Indiana, the son of Bertha (née Green) and Marvin Lugar. He is of part German descent. Lugar attended the Indianapolis Public School. During this time he attained the Boy Scouts' highest rank: Eagle Scout. Later, he became a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America. He graduated first in his class at Shortridge High School in 1950 and from Denison University in 1954 where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi. He went on to attend Pembroke College, Oxford, England, as a Rhodes Scholar, and received a second bachelor's degree and a master's degree in 1956. He served in the U.S. Navy from 1956 to 1960; one of his assignments was as an intelligence briefer for Admiral Arleigh Burke. He achieved the rank of Lieutenant, Junior Grade.
Lugar manages his family's 604-acre (244 ha) Marion County corn, soybean and tree farm. Before entering public life, he helped his brother Tom manage the family's food machinery manufacturing business in Indianapolis.
Lugar served on the Indianapolis Board of School Commissioners from 1964 to 1967. At the age of 35, he was elected mayor of Indianapolis in 1967, defeating incumbent Democrat John J. Barton, and began serving the first of two mayoral terms in 1968. A political cartoon of the time questioned how an Eagle Scout could survive in the world of politics. He is closely associated with the adoption of Unigov in 1970, which unified the governments of Indianapolis and Marion County. The Unigov plan helped trigger Indianapolis's economic growth and earned Lugar the post of president of the National League of Cities in 1971. In 1972 Lugar was the keynote speaker at the Republican National Convention. During this time he became known as "Richard Nixon's favorite mayor" owing to his support for devolving federal powers to local communities. In 1971 he was elected president of the National League of Cities.
Lugar won reelection to a sixth term, defeating Libertarian Steve Osborn (87%-13%). The Democratic Party did not field a candidate. His was the highest-percentage win of the 2006 Senate elections despite a Democratic takeover of Washington.
Lugar ran for reelection to a seventh term but was defeated in the Republican primary by State Treasurer Richard Mourdock (61%-39%), who went on to lose the general election to Democratic Rep. Joe Donnelly. The only two counties that Lugar carried were Boone and Marion. Lugar is the first six-term U.S. Senator to lose his seat in a primary election since Kenneth McKellar in 1952.
Future Governor of Indiana Mitch Daniels served as his chief of staff from 1977 to 1982. During the 1980 Republican National Convention, Lugar was rumored as a potential Vice Presidential nominee for Presidential nominee Ronald Reagan.
During the August recess of 2005, Lugar and freshman Senator Barack Obama visited Russia, Azerbaijan, and Ukraine to inspect nuclear facilities there. He was detained for three hours at an airport in the city of Perm, near the Ural Mountains, where they were scheduled to depart for a meeting with the President and the Speaker of the House of Ukraine. He was released after a brief dialogue between U.S. and Russian officials, and the Russians later apologized for this incident. In January 2007, President Bush signed into law the Lugar-Obama Proliferation and Threat Reduction Initiative, which was furthering Lugar's work with Senator Nunn in deactivating weapons in the former Soviet Union. The Lugar-Obama program focuses on terrorists and their use of multiple types of weapons. In April 2006, Time magazine selected Lugar as one of America's 10 Best Senators.
Although Lugar's party was in the minority in the Senate, he had good relationships with President Obama and Vice President Joe Biden. Lugar was named an honorary co-chairman of their inauguration. On the day of the final 2008 presidential debate, Lugar gave a speech at the National Defense University praising Obama's foreign policy approach and warning against the isolationist, reactive policies espoused by Senator McCain. At that debate, Obama also listed Lugar as among the individuals "who have shaped my ideas and who will be surrounding me in the White House". There were rumors that either Obama or McCain would select Lugar to be Secretary of State, but that he preferred to keep his Senate seat.
On March 18, 2009, Lugar cast his 12,000th Senate vote, putting him in 13th place for most votes. During his 32 years as senator, he had a 98% attendance record.
1996 presidential campaign
Lugar ran for the Republican nomination for President in 1996. He declared his candidacy on 19 April 1995 in Indianapolis. The primaries and caucuses began in January 1996. He ran on a campaign slogan of "nuclear security and fiscal sanity", but his campaign failed to gain traction.
He came in 7th in the Iowa caucuses on 12 February with 4% and he came in 4th in the New Hampshire primary on 20 February with 5%. In the Delaware primary on 24 February he also won 5%, and in the Arizona and North Dakota primaries on 27 February he came in last with 1%. He was on the ballot in seven of the nine contests on Super Tuesday on 5 March, winning 1% in Colorado, Connecticut and Maryland, 2% in Massachusetts, 3% in Maine and Rhode Island and 14% in Vermont, which was the best result he managed, though he still only came in 4th. He quit the race on the next day, 6 March. Lugar's fellow senator, and eventual Republican nominee, Bob Dole had won all nine contests and Lugar endorsed him.
He remained on the ballot in a number of states, winning 2% of the vote in Florida, then 1% each in Oregon, Illinois, Ohio and California, 5% in Pennsylvania and 1% in North Carolina and West Virginia. He finished sixth overall, with 127,111 votes, or 0.83%, though he did not win any contests or delegates. In retrospective, David Corn of Mother Jones called his presidential campaign "ludicrous".
As Chairman of the Agriculture Committee, Lugar built bipartisan support for 1996 federal farm program reforms, ending 1930s-era federal production controls. He worked to initiate a biofuels research program to help increase U.S. utilization of ethanol and combustion fuels, and led initiatives to streamline the U.S. Department of Agriculture, reform the food stamp program, and preserve the federal school lunch program.
Lugar believes that the U.S. sanctions on Cuba have failed and wrote to President Obama that "additional measures are needed...to recast a policy that has not only failed to promote human rights and democracy, but also undermines our broader security and political interests". He supports the Freedom to Travel to Cuba Act (S.428), which would lift the restrictions on U.S. citizens visiting Cuba that have been in place since the early 1960s.
Lugar takes a conservative approach to economics. He voted for Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. He voted against the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
Lugar is also one of the strongest known Republican supporters of gun control, and has supported a number of gun legislations and weapons bans. Senator Lugar has an F rating from the National Rifle Association of America. He has an F rating from Gun Owners of America and a 53% positive rating from the Brady Campaign to Prevent Handgun Violence.
Health care reform
Lugar opposed President Barack Obama's health reform legislation, voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009, and voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.
Senator Lugar has a generally liberal stance on immigration, supporting the DREAM Act under the Obama Administration and the McCain-Kennedy Comprehensive Immigration Reform bill under the Bush Administration, both of which died in Congress. Both were described by critics as "amnesty".
On June 25, 2007, Senator Lugar, who had been "a reliable vote for President Bush on the war", said that "Bush's Iraq strategy [is] not working and... the United States should downsize the military's role".
Lugar's blunt assessment has been viewed as significant because it showed the growing impatience and dissatisfaction with President Bush's strategy in Iraq. Lugar's speech had particular resonance given his stature as one of the party's elder statesmen on foreign policy. After Lugar finished his remarks, Senate Majority Whip Richard Durbin (D-IL), a sharp critic of the war, praised Lugar's "thoughtful, sincere and honest" speech, which Durbin said was in "finest tradition of the U.S. Senate". Senator Durbin urged his Senate colleagues to take a copy of Lugar's speech home over the Fourth of July break and study it before returning to work. Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid said, in reaction to Lugar's speech: "When this war comes to an end, and it will come to an end, and the history books are written, and they will be written, I believe that Sen. Lugar's words yesterday could be remembered as a turning point in this intractable civil war in Iraq".
Two days later, on June 27, 2007, Lugar said that Congressional measures aimed at curtailing U.S. military involvement in Iraq – including "so-called timetables, benchmarks" – have "no particular legal consequence", are "very partisan", and "will not work".
Senator Lugar believes that judicial confirmation decisions should not be purely partisan. His view is if an appointee is properly qualified for the position by their education, integrity, and other similar factors, that they should be confirmed by the Senate. Senator Lugar introduced President George W. Bush's appointee, now Chief Justice John Roberts, to the Senate at the beginning of Roberts' confirmation process and was instrumental in securing votes to confirm Roberts for the Supreme Court. Senator Lugar was the first Republican senator to announce his support for President Barack Obama's first Supreme Court nominee United States Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Sonia Sotomayor and also voted in favor of his second Supreme Court nominee Solicitor General Elena Kagan.
Senator Lugar voted for the Federal Marriage Amendment, limiting the definition of marriage to one man and one woman. However, he has also voted in favor of the Matthew Shepard Act, which expanded the federal hate crime statutes to include sexual orientation and gender identity. In October 2010, Senator Lugar voted against repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy—which prevented gays and lesbians from serving openly in the armed forces. Although Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut announced on November 18, 2010, that Senator Lugar promised to vote to repeal the policy the next time it comes up for a vote, Lugar voted against DADT repeal in both the cloture and final votes on December 18, 2010.
Lugar has been influential in gaining Senate ratification of treaties to reduce the world's use, production and stockpiling of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. In 1991 he initiated a partnership with then-Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Sam Nunn aiming to eliminate latent weapons of mass destruction in the former Soviet Union. To date, the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program has deactivated more than 7,500 nuclear warheads. In 2004, Senators Lugar and Nunn were jointly awarded the Heinz Awards Chairman's Medal for their efforts. He was an important figure in trying to get the New START Treaty approved (which passed 71-26).
In October 2008 Lugar and Joe Biden, his partner in the Committee on Foreign Relations, received the Hilal-i-Pakistan (Crescent of Pakistan) Award from the government of Pakistan for their continued support of the country. In July 2008 Lugar and Biden introduced a plan that would give $1.5 billion in aid per year to support economic development in Pakistan.
|Indianapolis mayoral election, 1967|
|Democratic||John J. Barton (incumbent)||63,284||46.7|
|Indianapolis mayoral election, 1971|
|U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 3), 1974|
|Democratic||Birch Bayh (incumbent)||889,269||50.7|
|American||Don L Lee||49,592||2.8|
|U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1976|
|Democratic||Vance Hartke (incumbent)||868,522||40.2|
|Independent||Don L Lee||14,321||0.7|
|U.S. Labor||David Lee Hoagland||2,511||0.1|
|U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1982|
|Republican||Richard Lugar (incumbent)||978,301||53.8|
|U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1988|
|Republican||Richard Lugar (incumbent)||1,430,525||68.1|
|U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1994|
|Republican||Richard Lugar (incumbent)||1,039,625||67.4|
|New Alliance||Mary Catherine Barton||15,801||1.0|
|U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 2000|
|Republican||Richard Lugar (incumbent)||1,427,944||66.6|
|Democratic||David L. Johnson||683,273||31.9|
|U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 2006|
|Republican||Richard Lugar (incumbent)||1,171,553||87.4|
|Independent||Mark Pool (write in)||444||0.0|
|Independent||John H. Baldwin (write in)||294||0.0|
|Republican US Senate Primary, 2012|
|Republican||Richard Lugar (incumbent)||262,388||39.4|
Awards and honors
Lugar has received numerous awards, including Guardian of Small Business, the Spirit of Enterprise, Watchdog of the Treasury, and 47 honorary doctorate degrees. In 2001 Lugar received the Democracy Service Medal of the National Endowment for Democracy. In June 2012 he was conferred with the Order of Lakandula by President Benigno S. Aquino III for his contributions to the enhancement of the Philippine-US alliance and friendship.
Lugar was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) for his efforts to reduce Weapons of Mass Destruction and supporting NATO. Lugar was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit, from Germany, in 2013 for his work on fostering transatlantic cooperation. In 2014, Lugar received the Golden Laurel Branch award, the highest honor given by the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Lugar was recognized for his contributions to Bulgaria's accession to NATO.
- Richard Lugar represented Indiana in the United States Senate for more than 30 years. An internationally respected statesman, he is best known for his bipartisan leadership and decades-long commitment to reducing the threat of nuclear weapons. Prior to serving in Congress, Senator Lugar was a Rhodes Scholar and Mayor of Indianapolis from 1968 to 1975. He currently serves as President of the Lugar Center.
Senator Lugar is a member the Indiana Society of the Sons of the American Revolution as well as a member of the Society of Indiana Pioneers, based on his descent from very early settlers in the state.
He joined the Rotary Club of Indianapolis in 1957 and spoke at the club annually during his time in the U.S. Senate. He remains an active Rotarian. On February 16, 2013, Lugar was named the Rotarian of the Century.
Senator Lugar is a member of the board of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI).
The Lugar Center
Under the leadership of Senator Lugar, the Lugar Center seeks to become a prominent voice in many of the global issues that defined the Senator's work in Congress. Among these are Global Food Security, WMD Nonproliferation, Foreign Aid Effectiveness, and Bipartisan Governance. Since its inception in January of 2013, the Lugar Center has served as a source of education and awareness on these pertinent issues.
Some of the Center's initiatives include the following: working in conjunction with the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University to establish the Bipartisan Index, partnering with the Arms Control Association to establish the Bipartisan Nuclear and WMD Policy Dialogue Project, and compiling a comprehensive selection of bibliographical resources for researchers and policymakers interested in global food security.
In addition, the Lugar Center was awarded a grant by the Delegation of the European Union to conduct policy research regarding transatlantic cooperation. The grant permitted the Center to partner with the German Marshall Fund of the United States to work on bolstering trans-Atlantic energy security and economic cooperation, particularly in relation to the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.
In January of 2015, the University of Pennsylvania’s Think Tank & Civil Societies Program named the Lugar Center a “Best New Think Tank”.
Lugar married Charlene Smeltzer on September 8, 1956. The couple have four sons and thirteen grandchildren.
He is a member of the United Methodist Church.
- "About the Center"
- Ancestry of Dick Lugar
- Townley, Alvin (2007) [December 26, 2006]. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 123–132, 237. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved December 29, 2006.
- "Distinguished Eagle Scouts" (PDF). Scouting.org. Retrieved November 4, 2010.
- "Biography of Senator Dick Lugar". United States Senate: Richard G. Lugar. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- "Dick Lugar". Nndb.com. September 8, 1956. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- "Senator Dick Lugar - Biography - Project Vote Smart". Votesmart.org. Retrieved May 6, 2012.
- Witherbee, Amy. 2008. "Richard Lugar". Our States: Indiana.
- Hallow, Ralph Z. (April 3, 1995). "Lugar takes a walk on the wild side". News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- "Indiana - Summary Vote Results". C-SPAN. May 9, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
- "Mitch Daniels". IndyStar. November 1, 2005. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
- Richard V. Allen (2000), How the Bush Dynasty Almost Wasn't, Hoover Digest, 2000 no 4.
- Zelany, Jeff (September 23, 2005). "A foreign classroom for junior senator". Retrieved November 2, 2008.
- Schnitzler, Peter (November 1, 2008). "Could Obama call on Lugar?: Presidential hopeful frequently praises foreign policy guru". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
- "Richard Lugar: The Wise Man". Time. April 14, 2006. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
- "Indiana Senator hits unexpected Milestone". Retrieved January 5, 2009.[dead link]
- Graham-Silverman, Adam (October 15, 2008). "Obama's 'Diplomacy' Wins a Republican Endorsement". Retrieved November 2, 2008.[dead link]
- Transcript of Final Presidential Debate
- "Lugar Addresses Rumors Of Possible Obama Appointment". TheIndyChannel.com. November 12, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2008.
- "Lugar Boosts Senate Clout With History-Making Vote". TheIndyChannel.com. March 18, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2009.
- "Richard Lugar's Loss Devastates Moderate Republicans". The Huffington Post. 9 May 2012.
- "Now It's a Three-Way Race". CNN/Time AllPolitics. March 6, 1996.
- "Why Washington Needs Dick Lugar". Mother Jones. 8 May 2012.
- "Indiana". NARAL Pro-Choice America. Archived from the original on November 27, 2008. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- "Federal NRLC Scorecard – 110th Congress, Combined Sessions". National Right to Life Committee. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- Langan, Michael (April 2, 2009). "Key US senator urges Obama to reach out to Cuba". Yahoo!. Retrieved April 4, 2009.[dead link]
- Brice, Arthur (March 31, 2009). "Bill to allow travel to Cuba has a better shot". CNN. Retrieved April 4, 2009.
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress – 1st Session".
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 1st Session".
- Washington Post: Richard Lugar targeted by new ads from conservative groups. April 9, 2012. Accessed February 16, 2015.
- "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Flaherty, Anne (June 26, 2007). "GOP senator says Iraq plan not working". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007.
- "Lugar urges Bush to change course soon in Iraq". CNN. June 26, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007.
- The Swamp: Sen. Harry Reid: Lugar Iraq speech a 'turning point'
- "Lugar: Plans To End The War Are ‘Very Partisan,’ ‘Will Not Work’", ThinkProgress.com, June 27, 2007
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 109th Congress – 2nd Session".
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 1st Session".
- "Lieberman confident about 60 votes for ‘Don’t Ask’ repeal".
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 2nd Session".
- "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 2nd Session".
- The Heinz Awards, Richard Lugar and Sam Nunn profile
- Baker, Peter (December 22, 2010). "Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty with Russia, 71-26". NY Times.
- Zeeshan, Haider (October 28, 2008). "Pakistan gives awards to Biden, Lugar for support". Reuters. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
- Bodenhamer, David J.; Barrows, Robert Graham (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Vanderstel, David Gordon. Indiana University Press. p. 1356. ISBN 0-253-31222-1. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- National Endowment for Democracy, Democracy Service Medal
- "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- "Clarence A Cook SAR Newsletter" (PDF). Winter 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Yearbook, Society of Indiana Pioneers, published annually by the Society
- National Endowment for Democracy, November 6, 2003, Official Commemoration of the Twentieth Anniversary of the National Endowment for Democracy, Retrieved August 5, 2010
- "Board". IFES. 2009. Retrieved Oct 16, 2009.
- Bergner, Jeffrey T., and Richard Lugar, eds. The Next American Century: Essays in Honor of Richard G. Lugar (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003)
- Shaw, John T. (2012). Richard G. Lugar, Statesman of the Senate: Crafting Foreign Policy from Capitol Hill. Indiana UP. p. 73.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Richard Lugar.|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- The Lugar Center
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Project Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Profile at SourceWatch
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Bills sponsored by Senator Lugar in the 110th Congress from the Library of Congress
- The Richard G. Lugar Collection at the Digital Mayoral Archives, University of Indianapolis
- Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy". Washington Monthly. Retrieved May 15, 2010.