Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus, University of Ulster
|Born||1930 (age 85–86)
|Alma mater||University of Cambridge|
|Known for||Race and intelligence|
Richard Lynn (born 1930) is an English professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Ulster and assistant editor of the controversial journal Mankind Quarterly. Lynn studies intelligence and is known for his belief in racial differences in intelligence. Lynn was educated at King's College, Cambridge in England. He has worked as lecturer in psychology at the University of Exeter and as professor of psychology at the Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, and at the University of Ulster at Coleraine. He has written or co-written 11 books and more than 200 journal articles spanning five decades. Two of his recent books are on dysgenics and eugenics.
Lynn's research on racial and national differences in intelligence is controversial. In the late 1970s, Lynn wrote that he found that Northeast Asians have a higher average intelligence quotient (IQ) than Europeans and Europeans have a higher average IQ than Sub-Saharan Africans. In 1990, he proposed that the Flynn effect – the gradual increase in IQ scores observed around the world since the 1930s – could possibly be explained by improved nutrition. In two books co-written with Tatu Vanhanen, Lynn and Vanhanen argued that differences in developmental indexes among various nations are partially caused by the average IQ of their citizens. However, Earl Hunt and Werner Wittmann (2006) questioned the validity of their research methods and the highly inconsistent quality of the available data points that Lynn and Vanhanen used in their analysis. Lynn has also argued that the high fertility rate among individuals of low IQ constitutes a major threat to Western civilization, as he believes people with low IQ scores will eventually outnumber high-IQ individuals. He has argued in favor of political measures to prevent this, including anti-immigration and eugenics policies, provoking heavy criticism internationally. Lynn's work was among the main sources cited in the book The Bell Curve and he was one of 52 scientists who signed an opinion piece in the Wall Street Journal entitled "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", which endorsed a number of the views presented in the book.
Lynn sits on the editorial boards of the journals Intelligence, Personality and Individual Differences, and Mankind Quarterly, which has been called a white supremacist publication. He's also on the board of the Pioneer Fund, which funds Mankind Quarterly, and has also been described as racist in nature. A number of scientists, including Leon Kamin, have criticised Lynn's work on racial and national demography and intelligence for lacking scientific rigour and for promoting a racialist political agenda. A number of people, such as historian of psychology William Tucker, have said that Lynn is associated with a network of academics and organisations that promote scientific racism.
Early life and career
Lynn is the son of Sydney Cross Harland (1891—1982), a botanist and Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS), known for his work on cotton genetics. Lynn's parents divorced when he was young and he was 19 when he met his father who had moved abroad to work in Trinidad and then Peru before returning to England in 1949 for a position as professor of genetics at the University of Manchester.
Lynn was educated at Bristol Grammar School and University of Cambridge in England. He has worked as lecturer in psychology at the University of Exeter, and as professor of psychology at the Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, and at Ulster University at Coleraine.
In 1974, Lynn published a positive review of Raymond Cattell's A New Morality from Science: Beyondism, in which he expressed the opinion that "incompetent societies have to be allowed to go to the wall" and that "the foreign aid which we give to the under-developed world is a mistake, akin to keeping going incompetent species like the dinosaurs which are not fit for the competitive struggle for existence." In recent years, Lynn has cited the work of Cattell and Cyril Burt as important influences on his own thought.
Publication on secular increases in IQ
Lynn's 1983 article in Nature played some part in bringing the phenomenon of massive score gains on standardized intelligence tests over time to widespread attention. This phenomenon was called the "Flynn effect" in Richard Herrstein and Charles Murray's book The Bell Curve published in 1994. The term "Flynn effect" is now standard in the psychological literature to refer to secular increases in IQ. Some authors refer to the phenomenon under the name "Lynn-Flynn effect".
Race and national differences in intelligence
In the late 1970s, Lynn wrote that he found a higher average IQ in Northeast Asians compared to Europeans (6 points higher in his meta-analysis), and Europeans to be about 2 standard deviations (or 30 points) higher than Sub-Saharan Africans.
Lynn's psychometric studies were cited in the 1994 book The Bell Curve and were criticised as part of the controversy surrounding that book. In his article, "Skin color and intelligence in African Americans," (2002) published in Population and Environment, Lynn concluded that lightness of skin color in African Americans is positively correlated with IQ, which he claims derives from the higher proportion of Caucasian admixture. However, Lynn failed to control for childhood environmental factors that are related to intelligence, and his research was criticized by a subsequent article published in the journal.
Lynn’s work on national IQ differences attracted hostility from mainstream establishment media. Major publishers would not publish them and many major journals would not review them. After quoting Lynn’s work, Nobel Laureate James Watson was forced to retire from Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory in 2007. Lynn's work gradually received more citations, and, according to James Thompson, "Despite all attempts to ignore his findings, Lynn’s dogged accumulation of data made a considerable contribution to understanding human differences."
In IQ and the Wealth of Nations (2002), Lynn and Vanhanen argued that differences in nations' per capita gross domestic product (GDP) are partially caused by IQ differences, meaning that certain nations are wealthier in part, because their citizens are more intelligent. K Richardson wrote in the journal Heredity that "an association between IQ and national wealth is hardly surprising, though its causal direction is the opposite of that assumed by L&V. But I would not take the 'evidence' presented in this book to serve arguments either way." Other economists who reviewed the book also pointed to numerous flaws throughout the study, from unreliable IQ statistics for 81 of the 185 countries used in the analysis, to insecure estimates of the national IQ in the remaining 101 countries in the sample that did not have published IQ data. This was in addition to the highly unreliable GDP estimates for present-day developing countries and the even more unreliable historical data estimating GDP and national IQ dating back to the early 19th century, well before either concept even existed. Even the data on the 81 countries where direct evidence of IQ scores were actually available were highly problematic. For example, the data sets containing Surinamese, Ethiopian, and Mexican IQ scores were based on unrepresentative samples of children who had emigrated from their nation of birth to the Netherlands, Israel, and Argentina, respectively. In a book review for the Journal of Economic Literature, economist Thomas Nechyba wrote, "Such sweeping conclusions based on relatively weak statistical evidence and dubious presumptions seem misguided at best and quite dangerous if taken seriously. It is therefore difficult to find much to recommend in this book."
Lynn's 2006 Race Differences in Intelligence is the largest review of the global cognitive ability data. The book organises the data by nine global regions,[verification needed] surveying 620 published studies from around the world, with a total of 813,778 tested individuals.
Lynn's meta-analysis lists the average IQ scores of East Asians (105), Europeans (99), the Inuit (91), Southeast Asians and indigenous peoples of the Americas each (87), Pacific Islanders (85), Middle Easterners (including South Asians and North Africans) (84), East and West Africans (67), Australian Aborigines (62) and Bushmen and Pygmies (54).
Lynn has previously argued that nutrition is the best-supported environmental explanation for variation in the lower range, and a number of other environmental explanations have been advanced. Ashkenazi Jews average 107–115 in the US and Britain due to their better performance in verbal and reasoning tests even though they performed lower in visual and spatial ability tests, but those in Israel average lower.
Another of Lynn's books is The Global Bell Curve, published in June 2008. In describing the book, Lynn says "it concludes that IQ is a key explanatory variable for the social sciences, analogous to gravity in physics." It was reviewed by J. Philippe Rushton around the time of publication.
In a paper published in 2005 about IQ in Mexico, Lynn reported that Mexicans of European descent had an IQ of 98, Mestizos in Mexicos had an IQ of 94 and indigenous peoples of Mexico had an IQ of 83, explaining the lower than expected IQ of Indians on their poor nutrition and other social factors:
In a 2010 paper about IQ in Italy, Lynn contends that IQs are highest in the north (103 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia) and lowest in the south (89 in Sicily) and correlated with average incomes, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lack of any actual IQ test data among other methodological issues and Lynn's consequent conclusions were criticised.
Other large surveys in Italy show much smaller differences in educational achievement. Moreover, several subsequent studies based on the direct assessment of IQs failed to report significant differences among Italian regions. On the contrary, the results from the Southern half of the country are sometimes higher than those from the North Central regions.
Sex differences in intelligence
Lynn's research correlating brain size and reaction time with measured intelligence led him to the problem that men and women have different-sized brains in proportion to their bodies. In 1994, Lynn conducted a meta-analysis and claimed that an IQ difference of roughly 4 points does appear from age 16 and onwards, but detection of this had been complicated by the faster rate of maturation of girls up to that point, which compensates for the IQ difference. However, there is consensus in the field of psychology that there are no sex differences in intelligence.
Despite some criticism, their theory was supported by subsequent research at the time. However, in the following years, researchers such as Timothy Keith, Johannes Rojahn and Alan Kaufman found contradictory results in gender IQ differences with Keith even finding an adult female latent advantage in general factors and Kaufman finding no difference in general intelligence. Keith said that the difference in Lynn's findings can be attributed to not using latent factors to measure their meta-analysis of sex differences. Rojahn's study found the discrepancies between the gender development were smaller than predicted by Lynn and in fact were so small that they have little or no practical importance.
Lynn stated that the intelligence differences between men and women, on average, are slight and that "the real difference only emerges as we rise up the IQ scale to the sort of level that the really top jobs require and as we drop lower down the scale - because men, as it turns out, have a much wider range of intelligence than women." Lynn stated that there were far more men of extremely high intelligence but also far more men of extremely low intelligence than women due to wider range of intelligence. According to Lynn, the reason men are more intelligent than women is evolution: men were the hunters in ancient hunting-gathering societies, so they needed more intellect to successfully hunt animals. Lynn also said evolution gave men and women different kinds of intelligence. He believes men were given superiority in mathematical and spatial reasoning because they needed it to successfully hunt. Women were given high verbal reasoning abilities because it benefited their social interaction with their children while raising them.
Dysgenics and eugenics
In Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations, Lynn reviewed the history of eugenics, from the early writings of Bénédict Morel and Francis Galton through the rise of eugenics in the early 20th century and its subsequent collapse. He identifies three main concerns of eugenicists such as himself: deterioration in health, intelligence and conscientiousness. Lynn asserts that natural selection in pre-industrial societies favoured traits such as intelligence and character but no longer does so in modern societies. He argues that due to the advance of medicine, selection against those with poor genes for health was relaxed.
Lynn examined sibling studies and concluded that the tendency of children with a high number of siblings to be the least intelligent is evidence of dysgenic fertility. He said there has been a genuine increase in phenotypic intelligence, but that this is caused by environmental factors and is masking a decline in genotypic intelligence.
According to Lynn, those with greater educational achievement have fewer children, while children with lower IQs come from larger families, which he viewed as evidence that intelligence and fertility are negatively correlated. He also believes that socioeconomic status. Lynn agreed with Lewis Terman's comment in 1922 that "children of successful and cultivated parents test higher than children from wretched and ignorant homes for the simple reason that their heredity is better". Lynn claimed that socio-economic status is positively correlated with indicators of conscientiousness such as work ethic and moral values and negatively with crime. Next the genetic basis of differences in conscientiousness is discussed, and Lynn concludes that twin studies provide evidence of a high heritability for the trait. The less conscientious, such as criminals, have more offspring.
Lynn presented counter-arguments, such as the traits discussed are not genetically determined, intelligence and fertility can be inversely related without dysgenics, socio-economic status does not differ genetically, and there is no such thing as a 'bad gene', and dismissed all of the counter-arguments on the basis that the trends he found represent a serious problem, leading him to announce his support of eugenics.
A review of Dysgenics by W. D. Hamilton, Royal Society research professor in evolutionary biology at the University of Oxford, was published posthumously in 2000. Hamilton wrote a lengthy review stating that Lynn, "discussing the large bank of evidence that still accumulates on heritability of aptitudes and differentials of fertility, shows in this book that almost all of the worries of the early eugenicists were well-founded, in spite of the relative paucity of their evidence at the time".
Another review of Dysgenics was written in 2002 by Nicholas Mackintosh, emeritus professor of experimental psychology in the University of Cambridge. Mackintosh wrote that, "with a cavalier disregard for political correctness, he argues that the ideas of the eugenecists were correct and that we ignore them at our peril." While recognising that the book provides a valuable and accurate source of information, he criticised Lynn for "not fully acknowledg[ing] the negative relationship between social class and education on the one hand, and infant mortality and life expectancy on the other." He questioned Lynn's interpretation of data. He also points out that according to Lynn's reading of the theory of natural selection, "if it is true that those with lower IQ and less education are producing more offspring, then they are fitter than those of higher IQ and more education". According to Mackintosh, eugenicist arguments are not based on a "biological imperative, but rather on a particular set of value judgements."
In Eugenics: A Reassessment (2001), Lynn claimed that embryo selection as a form of standard reproductive therapy would raise the average intelligence of the population by 15 IQ points in a single generation (p. 300). If couples produce a hundred embryos, he argues, the range in potential IQ would be around 15 points above and below the parents' IQ. Lynn argues this gain could be repeated each generation, eventually stabilising the population's IQ at a theoretical maximum of around 200 after as little as six or seven generations.
Lynn currently serves on the board of directors of the Pioneer Fund, and is also on the editorial board of the Pioneer-supported journal Mankind Quarterly, both of which have been the subject of controversy for their dealing with race and intelligence and eugenics, and have been accused of racism, e.g., by Avner Falk and William Tucker. Lynn's Ulster Institute for Social Research received $609,000 in grants from the Pioneer Fund between 1971 and 1996. On the other hand, Ulrich Neisser writes that "Pioneer has sometimes sponsored useful research—research that otherwise might not have been done at all."
Lynn's 2001 book The Science of Human Diversity: A History of the Pioneer Fund is a history and defence of the fund, in which he argues that, for the last sixty years, it has been "nearly the only non-profit foundation making grants for study and research into individual and group differences and the hereditary basis of human nature ... Over those 60 years, the research funded by Pioneer has helped change the face of social science."
Lynn's work on national differences, including his compilation of a database of national IQ has received favourable comments by many other researchers. Biochemist Gerhard Meisenberg describes him as "prominent protagonist of this approach in recent years". In the Bell Curve, Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray describes him as "a leading scholar of racial and ethnic differences". Former president of the Estonian Psychological Association Jüri Allik wrote that "Many of these [Cross-cultural studies of personality traits] were inspired by Richard Lynn’s pioneering research and by the sometimes uncomfortable questions he had the courage to ask. The study of national differences in personality have lagged behind similar studies of intelligence, but when influenced by Lynn’s prevailing ideas, they have nevertheless reached a satisfying level of sophistication." Donald Templer said Lynn "is to intellectual group differences as Charles Darwin is to biology." Richard Lynn’s 1971 book, Personality and National Character has been described as "a breakthrough in the study of national cultures".
However, his review work on global racial differences in cognitive ability has been cited for misrepresenting the research of other scientists, and has been criticised for unsystematic methodology and distortion.
The datum that Lynn and Vanhanen used for the lowest IQ estimate, Equatorial Guinea, was taken from a group of children in a home for the developmentally disabled in Spain. Corrections were applied to adjust for differences in IQ cohorts (the "Flynn" effect) on the assumption that the same correction could be applied internationally, without regard to the cultural or economic development level of the country involved. While there appears to be rather little evidence on cohort effect upon IQ across the developing countries, one study in Kenya (Daley, Whaley, Sigman, Espinosa, & Neumann, 2003) shows a substantially larger cohort effect than is reported for developed countries (p.?)
In a critical review of The Bell Curve, psychologist Leon Kamin faulted Lynn for "disregarding scientific objectivity", "misrepresenting data", and for "racism". Kamin argues that the studies of cognitive ability of Africans in Lynn's meta-analysis cited by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray show strong cultural bias. Kamin also reproached Lynn for concocting IQ values from test scores that have no correlation to IQ. Kamin also notes that Lynn excluded a study that found no difference in White and Black performance, and ignored the results of a study which showed Black scores were higher than White scores.
Journalist Charles Lane criticised Lynn's methodology in his article in the The New York Review of Books, "The Tainted Sources of The Bell Curve" (1994). Pioneer Fund president Harry Weyher, Jr. published a response accusing the reviewer of errors and misrepresentation; Lane also replied to this with a rebuttal.
In 2002 an academic dispute arose after Lynn claimed that some races are inherently more psychopathic than others, and other psychologists criticised his data and interpretations. Psychologist Leon Kamin has said that "Lynn's distortions and misrepresentations of the data constitute a truly venomous racism, combined with the scandalous disregard for scientific objectivity".
In 2010, on his 80th birthday, Lynn was celebrated with a special issue of Personality and Individual Differences dedicated to his work that was edited by Danish psychologist Helmuth Nyborg with contributions by Nyborg, J. Philippe Rushton, Satoshi Kanazawa and several others.
Lynn says he want to be remembered this way: "some loved him, some hated him, but everyone accepted that he kept the faith and told the truth as he saw it".
Lynn is listed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) in their extremist files as a white nationalist. The SPLC has kept a record of Lynn's controversial statements, for example, in a 2011 interview with neo-Nazi Alex Kurtajic, Lynn stated, "I am deeply pessimistic about the future of the European peoples because mass immigration of third world peoples will lead to these becoming majorities in the United States and westernmost Europe during the present century. I think this will mean the destruction of European civilization in these countries." In 1995, Lynn was quoted by the media watchdog group Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR) saying, "What is called for here is not genocide, the killing off of the population of incompetent cultures. But we do need to think realistically in terms of the ‘phasing out’ of such peoples...Evolutionary progress means the extinction of the less competent. To think otherwise is mere sentimentality."
FAIR also quoted Lynn as stating:
I think the only solution lies in the breakup of the United States. Blacks and Hispanics are concentrated in the Southwest, the Southeast and the East, but the Northwest and the far Northeast, Maine, Vermont and upstate New York have a large predominance of whites. I believe these predominantly white states should declare independence and secede from the Union. They would then enforce strict border controls and provide minimum welfare, which would be limited to citizens. If this were done, white civilization would survive within this handful of states."
The SPLC stated that "Since the 1970s, Richard Lynn has been working tirelessly to place race, genes, and IQ at the center of discussions surrounding inequality. Through his own writings and those published by his Ulster Institute for Social Research, in Northern Ireland, Lynn argues that members of different races and nations possess innate differences in intelligence and behavior, and that these are responsible for everything from the incarceration rate of black Americans to the poverty of developing nations. Lynn is also an ethnic nationalist who believes that countries must "remain racially homogenous" in order to flourish" The center has also stated that "Lynn uses his authority as professor (emeritus) of psychology at the University of Ulster to argue for the genetic inferiority of non-white people."
- Lynn, Richard (2001). Eugenics: A reassessment. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 9780275958220.
- Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 9780275975104.
- Lynn, Richard (2011) . Dysgenics: Genetic deterioration in modern populations. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 9780275949174.
- Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu (2012). Intelligence: A unifying construct for the social sciences. Ulster: Ulster Institute for Social Research. ISBN 9780956881175.
- "Psychology Research Institute", Ulster.ac.uk
- "Richard Lynn", RLynn.co.uk
- Quarterly, Mankind. "Mankind Quarterly - About". mankindquarterly.org. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
- Revoir, Paul; Firth, Niall (14 October 2009), "Channel 4 to screen controversial documentary that asks whether IQ is linked to race", Daily Mail
- Hunt, E; Wittmann, W (2008). "National intelligence and national prosperity". Intelligence. 36 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.11.002.
- Kamin, Leon. "Behind the Bell Curve" (PDF). Scientific American. p. 100.
Lynn's distortions and misrepresentations of the data constitute a truly venomous racism, combined with the scandalous disregard for scientific objectivity
- Ahmed, Rabia (19 Apr 2014), Forget polio, Pakistan is ‘BIGGER’ than India and size is all that matters!, retrieved 1 Jun 2016
- Valone, David A. (2002). "Richard Lynn: Eugenics: A Reassessment, review". Isis. 93 (3): 534. doi:10.1086/374143.
- Gottfredson, Linda (13 December 1994), "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", Wall Street Journal, p. A18
- Intelligence, Elsevier
- Personality and Individual Differences, Elsevier
- Kincheloe, Joe L. (1997), Measured Lies: The Bell Curve Examined, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 39
- Tucker, William H. (2002), The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund, University of Illinois Press, p. 2
- Velden, Manfred (2010). Biologism-: The Consequence of an Illusion. V&R unipress GmbH. p. 118.
- Wilson, Carter A. (1996). Racism: From Slavery to Advanced Capitalism. SAGE. p. 229.
At best Lynn's approach is racial propaganda or biased research driven by a strong prejudice against blacks and a strong need to believe in their genetic inferiority. At worst, Lynn's research arises out of a malicious and dishonest effort to demonstrate the genetic inferiority of blacks
- Barnett, Susan M.; Williams, Wendy (2004). "National Intelligence and The Emperor's New Clothes.". PsycCRITIQUES. 49 (4): 389–396. doi:10.1037/004367.
Among this book's strengths are that it argues for a point of view unpopular within the scientific community, it relies on hard data to make its points, its organization and clarity. Also, the book is expansive in its thinking and argumentation. All of these strengths considered, however, we believe that the arguments advanced in the book are flawed by an omnipresent logical fallacy and confusion of correlation with causation that undermines the foundation of the book.
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- Sussman, Robert Wald (2014). The Myth of Race: The Troubling Persistence of an Unscientific Idea. Harvard University Press.
- Nyborg, Helmuth (July 2012). "A conversation with Richard Lynn". Personality and Individual Differences. 53 (2): 79–84. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.033.
- Lynn, Richard (Winter 1974). "Review: A New Morality from Science: Beyondism". Irish Journal of Psychology. 2 (#3).
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The question of whether human kind is becoming more intelligent as a function of such factors as improved nutrition, better health, and increased education has become known as the Flynn Effect.
- Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas (13 June 2011). Personality and Individual Differences. Wiley. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-4051-9927-8. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
Flynn effect The finding by sociologist James Flynn that there are generational increases in IQ across nations.
- Flanagan, Dawn P.; Kaufman, Alan S. (2009). Essentials of WISC-IV Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment (2nd ed.). Hoboken (NJ): Wiley. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-470-18915-3. Lay summary (19 May 2013).
It is not unusual for the Flynn effect (Flynn, 1987) and statistical regression to the mean to lead to lower scores for an extreme scoring group upon retesting with a new cognitive measure.
- Fletcher, Richard B.; Hattie, John (11 March 2011). Intelligence and Intelligence Testing. Taylor & Francis. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-136-82321-3. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Lay summary (15 September 2013).
Indeed, this effect, now called the 'Flynn effect', is well established. Nations, almost without exception, have shown gains of about 20 IQ points per generation (30 years).
- Freeman, Joan (2010). Gifted Lives: What Happens when Gifted Children Grow Up. London: Routledge. pp. 290–291. ISBN 978-0-415-47009-4. Lay summary (16 May 2013).
A strange new phenomenon has been growing since about 1950, called the 'Flynn Effect' after Professor James Flynn of the University of Otago, New Zealand. In his book What is Intelligence ?, Flynn describes a year-on-year rise in measured intelligence, about three IQ points a decade. Yet while advanced countries may even be reaching a plateau by now, developing countries have yet to see it at all.
- Johnson, Wendy (2012). "How Much Can We Boost IQ? An Updated Look at Jensen's (1969) Question and Answer". In Slater, Alan M.; Quinn, Paul C. Developmental Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. Psychology: Revisiting the Classic Studies. Thousand Oaks (CA): SAGE. pp. 118–131, 125–126. ISBN 978-0-85702-757-3. Lay summary (19 May 2013).
Though the Raven is still regarded by many as a very pure indicator of general intelligence, this now seems very unlikely given the observation since 1969 of what is now known as the Flynn Effect (Flynn, 1987). This is the robust observation that, throughout the 20th century, scores on intelligence tests of all kinds rose throughout the world, on average about three IQ points per decade. There have been differences in the rate of gain by type of test and region of the world, but the overall pattern of consistent gains has held.
- Kaufman, Alan S. (2009). IQ Testing 101. New York: Springer Publishing. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-0-8261-0629-2. Lay summary (10 August 2010).
The Flynn Effect James Flynn (1984) made the intriguing discovery that the IQs of Americans increased, on average, by 3 points peer decade. Children and adults in the United States performed better on IQ tests from generation to generation at a steady, predictable rate.
- Mackintosh, N. J. (2011). IQ and Human Intelligence (second ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-19-958559-5. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
Subsequent research, documented and summarized by Flynn (1984, 1987, 2007; see also Neisser, 1998) has shown that these studies actually underestimated the true rate of increase in test scores. It is now clear that average test scores increased at a remarkable rate in most industrialized societies throughout the twentieth century—a finding now known as the Flynn effect.
- Urbina, Susana (2004). Essentials of Psychological Testing. John Wiley & Sons. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-471-41978-5. Lay summary (10 October 2013).
A puzzling longitudinal trend in the opposite direction, known as the 'Flynn effect,' has been well documented in successive revisions of major intelligence tests (like the S-B and the Wechsler scales) that invariably involve the administration of both the old and new versions to a segment of the newer standardization sample, for comparative purposes. Data from revisions of various intelligence tests in the United States as well as in other countries—extensively analyzed by J.R. Flynn (1984, 1987)—show a pronounced, longterm upward trend in the level of performance required to obtain any given IQ score.
- Jones, Garett (2015). Hive Mind: How Your Nation s IQ Matters So Much More Than Your Own. Stanford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780804785969. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
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- Voracek, Martin (5 April 2006). "Phlogiston, fluid intelligence, and the Lynn–Flynn effect". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 29 (02). doi:10.1017/s0140525x06389030.
- Richard Lynn, reply by Charles Lane (2 February 1995) ‘The Bell Curve’ and Its Sources The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 10 January 2014
- "Publications". Rlynn.co.uk. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Hill, Mark E. (2002). "Skin Color and Intelligence in African Americans: A Reanalysis of Lynn's Data". Population and Environment. 24 (2): 209–214. doi:10.1023/A:1020704322510.
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- Nechyba, Thomas J. (March 2004), "Review of IQ and the Wealth of Nations", Economic Literature, 42 (1): 220–221
- Richardson, K (2004), "Review of IQ and the Wealth of Nations", Heredity, 92 (4): 359, doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800418
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- Race Differences in Intelligence, Washington Summit Books, 2006, ISBN 1-59368-020-1
- Herrnstein and Murray 1994; Lynn 1991a; Lynn 2006
- Rushton, J. P. (2006). "Lynn Richard, Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis, Washington Summit Books, Augusta, Georgia (2005) ISBN 1-59368-020-1, 318 pages., US$34.95". Personality and Individual Differences. 40 (4): 853–855. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.10.004.
- Lynn, R. and Vanhanen, T. (2002). IQ and the wealth of nations. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97510-X
- In RDiI Lynn surveys NGO reports of four different signs of severe malnutrition – underweight, anemia, wasting, and stunting – for five developing regions, ranking Latin America as suffering the least malnutrition, followed by the Middle-east, Asia/Pacific, Africa, and finally South Asia, suffering the worst malnutrition of any region (ch. 14).
- Lynn's data is somewhat weak on Ashkenazi Jews (Malloy 2006), and only allows an indirect, weighted estimate in Israel (103), compared with (similarly indirect) estimates of 91 for Israeli Oriental Jews, and 86 for Israeli Arabs. Israeli Ashkenazi's scores may average lower than U.S. and British Ashkenazi, Lynn suggests, due to selective migration effects in relation to those countries, and to immigrants from the former Soviet Block countries having posed as Ashkenazim. The data isn't necessarily strong enough, however, to rule out identical scores for Ashkenazi across these nations (Malloy 2006).
- Lynn, R. (2008). The Global Bell Curve: Race, IQ, and Inequality Worldwide. Augusta, Georgia: Washington Summit Publishers. ISBN 1-59368-028-7.
- Lynn, R. "Publications". Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- Rushton, J. P. (July 2008). "The Global Bell Curve: Race, IQ and Inequality Worldwide (Book review)". Personality and Individual Differences. 45 (1): 113–114. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.03.008.
Lynn shows in detail that similar racial IQ/socio-economic hierarchies are present within Africa, Australia, Brazil, Britain, Canada, the Caribbean, Latin America, the Netherlands, and New Zealand.
- Lynn, R (2010). "In Italy, north–south differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy". Intelligence. 38 (1): 93–100. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2009.07.004.
- Cornoldi, Cesare; Belacchi, Carmen; Giofrè, David; Martini, Angela; Tressoldi, Patrizio (2010). "The mean Southern Italian children IQ is not particularly low: A reply to R. Lynn (2010), Intelligence". Intelligence. 38 (5): 462–470. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2010.06.003.
- "The case against Lynn's doctrine that population IQ determines levels of socio-economic development and public health status, Robinson et al. (2011)".
- "Problems in deriving Italian regional differences in intelligence from 2009 PISA data, Cornoldi et al. (2013)". Intelligence. 41: 25–33. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2012.10.004.
- "Differences in achievement not in intelligence in the north and south of Italy: Comments on Lynn (2010a, 2010b), D'Amico et al. (2012)". Learning and Individual Differences. 22: 128–132. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2011.11.011.
- McKie, Robin (6 November 2005), Who has the bigger brain?, The Guardian
- Nyborg, Helmuth (August 2005). "Sex-related differences in general intelligence g, brain size, and social status". Personality and Individual Differences. 39 (3): 497–509. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.12.011.
- Jackson, Douglas N.; Rushton, J. Philippe (September 2006). "Males have greater g: Sex differences in general mental ability from 100,000 17- to 18-year-olds on the Scholastic Assessment Test". Intelligence. 34 (5): 479–486. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.03.005.
- Colom, Roberto; Lynn, Richard (January 2004). "Testing the developmental theory of sex differences in intelligence on 12–18 year olds". Personality and Individual Differences. 36 (1): 75–82. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00053-9.
- Rojahn, Johannes; Naglieri, Jack A. (2006-05-01). "Developmental gender differences on the Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test in a nationally normed sample of 5–17 year olds". Intelligence. 34 (3): 253–260. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2005.09.004.
- Lynn, Richard (8 May 2010), "Sorry, men ARE more brainy than women (and more stupid too!) It's a simple scientific fact, says one of Britain's top dons", Daily Mail
- Richard Lynn: Dysgenics: genetic deterioration in modern populations Westport, Connecticut. : Praeger, 1996., ISBN 978-0-275-94917-4
- Ramsden, E. (2007). "A differential paradox: The controversy surrounding the Scottish mental surveys of intelligence and family size". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 43 (2): 109–134. doi:10.1002/jhbs.20219. PMID 17421031.
- Hamilton, W.D. (2000). "A review of Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations". Ann. Hum. Genet. 64 (4): 363–374. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2000.6440363.x.
- Mackintosh, N.J. (2002). "Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations. By Richard Lynn. Pp. 237. (Praeger, 1996.) £48.95, 0-275-94917-6, hardback". J. Biosoc. Sci. 34 (2): 283–284. doi:10.1017/S0021932002212833.
- Richard Lynn (2001), Eugenics: A reassessment Praeger, Westport, Conn, p. 301. ISBN 978-0-275-95822-0
- Avner Falk. Anti-semitism: a history and psychoanalysis of contemporary hatred. Abc-Clio, 2008, pg. 18
- Andrew Wroe. The Republican party and immigration politics: from Proposition 187 to George W. Bush. University of Illinois Press, 2008, pg. 81
- "ISAR". Ferris.edu. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Rowman & Littlefield; ISBN 0-7618-2041-8
- Meisenberg, Gerhard (July 2012). "National IQ and economic outcomes". Personality and Individual Differences. 53 (2): 103–107. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.022.
- Murray, Richard J. Herrnstein ; Charles (1994). Bell curve : Intelligence and class structure in American life. (1st pbk. ed.). New York [u.a.]: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-6848-2429-1.
- Allik, Jüri (July 2012). "National differences in personality". Personality and Individual Differences. 53 (2): 114–117. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.05.011.
- Templer, Donald I. (July 2012). "Richard Lynn and the evolution of conscientiousness". Personality and Individual Differences. 53 (2): 94–98. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.05.023.
- Hofstede, Geert; McCrae, Robert R. (1 February 2004). "Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture". Cross-Cultural Research. 38 (1): 52–88. doi:10.1177/1069397103259443.
- Kanazawa, Satoshi (July 2012). "The evolution of general intelligence". Personality and Individual Differences. 53 (2): 90–93. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.05.015.
- Call for re-think on eugenics BBCNews Friday, 26 April 2002
- Wicherts, J. M.; Dolan, C. V.; van der Maas, H. L. J. (2010). "A systematic literature review of the average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans" (PDF). Intelligence. 38 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2009.05.002. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- Kamin, Leon (February 1995). "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life". Scientific American. Vol. 272.
Lynn's distortions and misrepresentations of the data constitute a truly venomous racism, combined with scandalous disregard for scientific objectivity. Lynn is widely known among academics to be an associate editor of the racist journal "Mankind Quarterly" and a major recipient of financial support from the nativist, eugenically oriented Pioneer Fund.
- Kamin, Leon (February 1995). "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life". Scientific American. Vol. 272.
In 1992 Owen reported on a sample of coloured students that had been added to the groups he had tested earlier. The footnote in "The Bell Curve" seems to credit this report as proving that South African colored students have an IQ "similar to that of American blacks," that is, about 85 (the actual reference does not appear in the book's bibliography). That statement does not correctly characterize Owen's work. The test used by Owen in 1992 was the "nonverbal" Raven's Progressive Matrices, which is thought to be less culturally biased than other IQ tests. He was able to compare the performance of colored students with that of the whites, blacks and Indians in his 1989 study because the earlier set of pupils had taken the Progressive Matrices in addition to the Junior Aptitude Tests. The black pupils, recall, had poor knowledge of English, but Owen felt that the instructions for the Matrices "are so easy that they can be explained with gestures." Owen's 1992 paper again does not assign IQs to the pupils. Rather he gives the mean number of correct responses on the Progressive Matrices (out of a possible 60) for each group: 45 for whites, 42 for Indians, 37 for coloreds and 28 for blacks. The test's developer, John Raven, repeatedly insisted that results on the Progressive Matrices tests cannot be converted into IQs. Matrices scores, unlike IQs, are not symmetrical around their mean (no "bell curve" here). There is thus no meaningful way to convert an average of raw Matrices scores into an IQ, and no comparison with American black IQs is possible.
- Kamin, Leon (February 1995). "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life". Scientific American. Vol. 272. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007.
Lynn chose to ignore the substance of Crawford-Nutt's paper, which reported that 228 black high school students in Soweto scored an average of 45 correct responses on the Matrices—HIGHER than the mean of 44 achieved by the same-age white sample on whom the test's norms had been established and well above the mean of Owen's coloured pupils.
- More by Charles Lane. "The Tainted Sources of 'The Bell Curve' | The New York Review of Books". Nybooks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- More by Charles Lane, Harry F. Weyher. "'The Bell Curve' and Its Sources | The New York Review of Books". Nybooks.com. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- Race and Psychopathic Personality: Racial differences in "average personality." by Richard Lynn, 2002, American Renaissance
- Psychopathic personality and racial/ethnic differences reconsidered: a reply to Lynn (2002) Jennifer L. Skeem, John F. Edens, Glenn M. Sanford, Lori H. Colwell, Personality and Individual Differences 35 (2003) 1439–1462 doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00361-6
- "Richard Lynn". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2016-02-07.
- Evolution of race and sex differences in intelligence and personality: Tribute to Richard Lynn at eighty. Personality and Individual Differences. Volume 53, Issue 2, July 2012. Helmuth Nyborg (ed.)
- "Racism Resurgent". FAIR. Jim Naureckas. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
- Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, P., & Piazza, A. (1994). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
- Flynn, J. (1982). "Lynn, the Japanese, and environmentalism". Bulletin of the British Psychological Society. 35: 411.
- Flynn, J (1984). "The mean IQ of Americans: massive gains 1932 to 1978". Psychological Bulletin. 95: 29–51. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.95.1.29.
- Flynn, J (1987). "Massive gains in 14 nations: what IQ tests really measure". Psychological Bulletin. 101 (2): 171–91. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.171.
- Lykken, D (2004). "The New Eugenics". Contemporary Psychology. 49: 670–672.
- Lynn, Richard (1978). "Ethnic and Racial Differences in Intelligence, International Comparisons". Human variation: The biopsychology of age, race, and sex. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-529050-0.
- Lynn, Richard (1982). "IQ in Japan and the United States shows a growing disparity". Nature. 297 (5863): 222–3. doi:10.1038/297222a0.
- Lynn, Richard (1990). "The role of nutrition in secular increases of intelligence". Personality and Individual Differences. 11 (3): 273–285. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(90)90241-i.
- Lynn, Richard (1996). Dysgenics: Genetic Deterioration in Modern Populations. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94917-6.
- Lynn, Richard (2001). Eugenics: A Reassessment. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-95822-1.
- Lynn, Richard. (2010). In Italy, north–south differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy. Intelligence, Volume 38, Issue 1, January–February 2010, Pages 93–100
Malloy, J. (2006). "A World of Difference: Richard Lynn Maps World Intelligence". Gene Expression. Retrieved 22 February 2006.
- Martin, N (2001). "Retrieving the 'eu' from eugenics". Nature. 414 (6864): 583. doi:10.1038/414583a.
- Neisser, U. (1997). Rising Scores on Intelligence Tests. American Scientist, Sept.-Oct