Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
|Count of Coudenhove-Kalergi|
|Born||16 November 1894|
|Died||27 July 1972 (aged 77)|
|Father||Heinrich von Coudenhove-Kalergi|
Richard Nikolaus Eijiro, Count of Coudenhove-Kalergi (16 November 1894 – 27 July 1972) was an Austrian-Japanese politician, philosopher and Count of Coudenhove-Kalergi. A pioneer of European integration, he served as the founding president of the Paneuropean Union for 49 years. His parents were Heinrich von Coudenhove-Kalergi, an Austro-Hungarian diplomat, and Mitsuko Aoyama, the daughter of an oil merchant, antiques-dealer and major landowner in Tokyo. His childhood name in Japan was Aoyama Eijiro. He became a Czechoslovak citizen in 1919 and then took French nationality from 1939 until his death.
His first book, Pan-Europa, was published in 1923 and contained a membership form for the Pan-Europa movement, which held its first Congress in 1926 in Vienna. In 1927, Aristide Briand was elected honorary president of the Pan-Europa movement. Public figures who attended Pan-Europa congresses included Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann and Sigmund Freud.
Coudenhove-Kalergi was the first recipient of the Charlemagne Prize in 1950. The 1972–1973 academic year at the College of Europe was named in his honour. Coudenhove-Kalergi proposed Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" as the music for the European Anthem. He also proposed a Europe Day, a European postage stamp, and many artifacts for the movement (e.g. badges and pennants).
Coudenhove-Kalergi was the second son of Heinrich von Coudenhove-Kalergi (1859–1906), an Austro-Hungarian count and diplomat of mixed European and Japanese origin. His mother was Mitsuko Aoyama (1874–1941). His father, who spoke sixteen languages and embraced travel as the only means of prolonging life, yet died in his forties, had prematurely abandoned a career in the Austrian diplomatic service that took him to Athens, Constantinople, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, to devote himself to study and writing.
Coudenhove-Kalergi's parents met when his mother helped the Austro-Hungarian diplomat after he fell off a horse while riding in Japan. In commenting on their union, Whittaker Chambers described the future originator of Pan-Europe as "practically a Pan-European organization himself." He elaborated: "The Coudenhoves were a wealthy Flemish family that fled to Austria during the French Revolution. The Kalergis were a wealthy Greek family from Crete. The line has been further crossed with Poles, Norwegians, Balts, French and Germans, but since the families were selective as well as cosmopolitan, the hybridization has been consistently successful." The Kalergis family roots trace to Byzantine royalty via Venetian aristocracy, connecting with the Phokas imperial dynasty. In 1300, Coudenhove-Kalergi's ancestor Alexios Phokas-Kalergis signed the treaty that made Crete a dominion of Venice.
Youth and education
Coudenhove-Kalergi spent his adolescence on Bohemian family estates in Ronsperg, known today as Poběžovice. His father personally taught his two sons Russian and Hungarian and toughened them both physically and morally. He took them on long walks in all weather, made them sleep on straw mattresses and take cold showers, and taught them to shoot and fence so well that no one would ever dare challenge them. He also took them to Mass every Sunday. On every Good Friday, as the liturgy came to the exhortation "oremus et pro perfidis Judaeis" ("Let us also pray for the faithless Jews"), the old count allegedly rose and walked out of the church in a protest against this supposed expression of antisemitism.
Coudenhove-Kalergi studied at the Augustiner-Gymnasium in Brixen before attending the Theresianische Akademie in Vienna from 1908 until 1913. He obtained his doctorate in philosophy with a thesis on Die Objectivität als Grundprinzip der Moral (Objectivity as the Fundamental Principle of Morals) in 1917 from the University of Vienna.
During his student years, Coudenhove-Kalergi married the famous Jewish Viennese actress Ida Roland in April 1915. His marriage to a divorcée thirteen years his senior, and a commoner, caused a temporary split with his family. His mother Mitsuko did not accept Ida, considering her a "beggar living on the riverbank," a traditional Japanese point of view against actors and performers. His mother, as head of the family, banned him from the family temporarily, but retracted when Coudenhove-Kalergi became renowned for his pan-European concept.
Aristocratic in his origins and elitist in his ideas, Coudenhove-Kalergi identified and collaborated with such politicians as Engelbert Dollfuss, Kurt Schuschnigg, Otto von Habsburg, Winston Churchill, and Charles de Gaulle. His ideal political constituent was a gentleman who must respect and protect ladies, a person adhering to honesty, fair play, courtesy, and rational discourse. He strove to replace the nationalist German ideal of racial community with the goal of an ethnically heterogeneous European nation based on a commonality of culture, a nation whose geniuses were the "great Europeans" such as abbé de Saint-Pierre, Kant, Napoleon, Giuseppe Mazzini, Victor Hugo, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Pan-European political activist
Coudenhove-Kalergi is recognized as the founder of the first popular movement for a united Europe. His intellectual influences ranged from Immanuel Kant, Rudolf Kjellén and Oswald Spengler to Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. In politics, he was an enthusiastic supporter of "fourteen points" made by Woodrow Wilson on 8 January 1918 and pacifist initiatives of Kurt Hiller. In December 1921, he joined the Masonic lodge "Humanitas" in Vienna. In 1922, he co-founded the Pan-European Union (PEU) with Archduke Otto von Habsburg, as "the only way of guarding against an eventual world hegemony by Russia." In 1923, he published a manifesto entitled Pan-Europa, each copy containing a membership form which invited the reader to become a member of the Pan-Europa movement. He favored social democracy as an improvement on "the feudal aristocracy of the sword" but his ambition was to create a conservative society that superseded democracy with "the social aristocracy of the spirit." European freemason lodges supported his movement, including the lodge Humanitas. Pan-Europa was translated into the languages of European countries (excluding Italian, which edition was not published at that time), the constructed language Occidental and a multitude of other languages, except for Russian.
According to his autobiography, at the beginning of 1924 his friend Baron Louis de Rothschild introduced him to Max Warburg who offered to finance his movement for the next three years by giving him 60,000 gold marks. Warburg remained sincerely interested in the movement for the remainder of his life and served as an intermediate for Coudenhove-Kalergi with influential Americans such as banker Paul Warburg and financier Bernard Baruch. In April 1924, Coudenhove-Kalergi founded the journal Paneuropa (1924–1938) of which he was editor and principal author. The next year he started publishing his main work, the Kampf um Paneuropa (The fight for Paneuropa, 1925–1928, three volumes). In 1926, the first Congress of the Pan-European Union was held in Vienna and the 2,000 delegates elected Coudenhove-Kalergi as president of the Central Council, a position he held until his death in 1972.
His original vision was for a world divided into only five states: a United States of Europe that would link continental countries with French and Italian possessions in Africa; a Pan-American Union encompassing North and South Americas; the British Commonwealth circling the globe; the USSR spanning Eurasia; and a Pan-Asian Union whereby Japan and China would control most of the Pacific. To him, the only hope for a Europe devastated by war was to federate along lines that the Hungarian-born Romanian Aurel Popovici and others had proposed for the dissolved multinational Empire of Austria-Hungary. According to Coudenhove-Kalergi, Pan-Europe would encompass and extend a more flexible and more competitive Austria-Hungary, with English serving as the world language, spoken by everyone in addition to their native tongue. He believed that individualism and socialism would learn to cooperate instead of compete, and urged that capitalism and communism cross-fertilise each other just as the Protestant Reformation had spurred the Catholic Church to regenerate itself.
Coudenhove-Kalergi attempted to enlist prominent European politicians in his pan-European cause. He offered the presidency of the Austrian branch of the Pan-European Union to Ignaz Seipel, who accepted the offer unhesitatingly and rewarded his beneficiary with an office in the old Imperial palace in Vienna. Coudenhove-Kalergi had less success with Tomáš Masaryk, who referred him to his uncooperative Prime Minister Edvard Beneš. However, the idea of pan-Europe elicited support from politicians as diverse as the Italian anti-Fascist politician Carlo Sforza and the German President of the Reichsbank under Hitler, Hjalmar Schacht. Although Coudenhove-Kalergi found himself unable to sway Benito Mussolini, his ideas influenced Aristide Briand through his inspired speech in favour of a European Union in the League of Nations on 8 September 1929, as well as his famous 1930 "Memorandum on the Organisation of a Regime of European Federal Union."
Coudenhove-Kalergi proposed Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" as the Anthem of Europe in 1929, which he later proposed in 1955 as Anthem for the European Union. In 1930, he proposed a Europe Day in May and in 1932 he proposed to celebrate every 17 May, the anniversary of Aristide Briand's "Memorandum" being published in 1930. However, his Pan-Europeanism earned vivid loathing from Adolf Hitler, who excoriated its pacifism and mechanical economism and belittled its founder as "a bastard." Hitler's view of Coudenhove-Kalergi was that the "rootless, cosmopolitan, and elitist half-breed" was going to repeat the historical mistakes of Coudenhove ancestors who had served the House of Habsburg. In 1928, Hitler wrote about his political opponent in his Zweites Buch, describing him as "Aller welts bastarden (commonplace bastard) Coudenhove".
Hitler did not share the ideas of his Austrian compatriot. He argued in his 1928 Secret Book that they are unfit for the future defense of Europe against America. As America fills its North American lebensraum, "the natural activist urge that is peculiar to young nations will turn outward." But then "a pacifist-democratic Pan-European hodgepodge state" would not be able to oppose the United States, as it is "according to the conception of that commonplace bastard, Coudenhove-Kalergi..." Nazi criticism and propaganda against Coudenhove-Kalergi, and his European worldview, would decades later form the basis of the racist Kalergi plan conspiracy theory.
Nazis considered the Pan-European Union to be under the control of Freemasonry. In 1938, a Nazi propaganda book Die Freimaurerei: Weltanschauung, Organisation und Politik was released in German. It revealed Coudenhove-Kalergi's membership of Freemasonry, the organization suppressed by Nazis. On the other hand, his name was not to be found in Masonic directories 10,000 Famous Freemasons published in 1957–1960 by the United States' freemasons. He had already left the Viennese Masonic Lodge in 1926 to avoid the criticism that had occurred at that time against the relationship between the Pan-European movement and Freemasonry. He wrote about his Masonic membership in Ein Leben für Europa (A Life for Europe) published in 1966. In fact, its Nazi propaganda book also described his action in 1924–1925 only. However, this propaganda also stated that "The Grand Lodge of Wien went enthusiastically to work for the Pan European Union in a call to all Masonic chief authorities. Even the Masonic newspaper The Beacon enthused about the thoughts of the higher degree Freemason Coudenhove-Kalergi, and stated in March 1925: "Freemasonry, especially Austrian Freemasonry, may be eminently satisfied to have Coudenhove-Kalergi among its members. Austrian Freemasonry can rightly report that Brother Coudenhove-Kalergi fights for his Pan European beliefs: political honesty, social insight, the struggle against lies, striving for the recognition and cooperation of all those of good will. In this higher sense, Brother Coudenhove-Kalergi's program is a Masonic work of the highest order, and to be able to work on it together is a lofty task for all brother Masons.""
After the annexation of Austria by the Third Reich in 1938, Coudenhove-Kalergi fled to Czechoslovakia, and thence to France. As France fell to Germany in 1940, he escaped to the United States by way of Switzerland and Portugal. When he passed a few days after the successful escape to the United States, he listened to the radio announcing the possibility that he had died. During World War II, he continued his call for the unification of Europe along the Paris-London axis. His wartime politics and adventures served as the real life basis for fictional Resistance hero Victor Laszlo, the Paul Henreid character in Casablanca. He published his work Crusade for Paneurope in 1944. His appeal for the unification of Europe enjoyed some support from Winston Churchill, Allen Dulles, and "Wild Bill" Donovan. After the announcement of the Atlantic Charter on 14 August 1941, he composed a memorandum entitled "Austria's Independence in the light of the Atlantic Charter" and sent it to Winston Churchill and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In his position statement, Coudenhove-Kalergi took up the goals of the charter and recommended himself as head of government in exile. Both Churchill and Roosevelt distanced themselves from this document. From 1942 until his return to France in 1945, he taught at the New York University, which appointed him professor of history in 1944. At the same university Professor Ludwig von Mises studied currency problems for Coudenhove-Kalergi's movement.
On 22 July 1943, Nazis deprived him of his Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Vienna, with the racist argument, that as a "Jew" he was not considered dignified an academic degree of a German university ("eines akademischen Grades einer deutschen Hochschule unwürdig") – even though he was not Jewish nor was his family Jewish. His doctorate degree was only regranted on 15 May 1955 – a very long time after the end of Nazism.
The end of the World War II inaugurated a revival of pan-European hopes. In the winter of 1945, Harry S. Truman read an article in the December issue of Collier's magazine that Coudenhove-Kalergi posted about the integration of Europe. His article impressed Truman, and it was adopted to the United States' official policy. Winston Churchill's celebrated speech of 19 September 1946 to the Academic Youth in Zurich commended "the exertions of the Pan-European Union which owes so much to Count Coudenhove-Kalergi and which commanded the services of the famous French patriot and statesman Aristide Briand." In November 1946 and the spring of 1947, Coudenhove-Kalergi circulated an enquiry addressed to members of European parliaments. This enquiry resulted in the founding of the European Parliamentary Union (EPU), a nominally private organization that held its preliminary conference on 4–5 July at Gstaad, Switzerland, and followed it with its first full conference from 8 to 12 September. Speaking at the first EPU conference, Coudenhove-Kalergi argued that the constitution of a wide market with a stable currency was the vehicle for Europe to reconstruct its potential and take the place it deserves within the concert of Nations. On less guarded occasions he was heard to advocate a revival of Charlemagne's empire. In 1950 he received the first annual Karlspreis (Charlemagne Award), given by the German city of Aachen to people who contributed to the European idea and European peace. In Japan, a politician Ichirō Hatoyama was influenced by Coudenhove-Kalergi's fraternity in his book The Totalitarian State Against Man. It was translated into Japanese by Hatoyama and published in 1952. Coudenhove-Kalergi was appointed the honorary chairman of the fraternal youth association that Hatoyama, with the influence of his book, had established in 1953.
In the 1960s, Coudenhove-Kalergi urged Austria to pursue "an active policy of peace", as a "fight against the Cold War and its continuation, the atomic war". He advocated Austrian involvement in world politics in order to keep the peace, as "active neutrality". He continued his advocacy of European unification in memoranda circulated to the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy. He recommended negotiations between the European Community and the European Free Trade Association towards forming a "European customs union" that would be free of political and military connections, but would eventually adopt a monetary union.
Views on race and religion
In his 1925 book Practical Idealism, Coudenhove-Kalergi envisioned an all-encompassing race of the future made up of "Eurasian-Negroid[s]," replacing "the diversity of peoples" and "[t]oday's races and classes" with a "diversity of individuals."
In an interview in the first Pan-European Congress in 1926, he expressed the support of Jews by the Pan-European movement and the benefits to Jews with the elimination of racial hatred and economic rivalry brought by the United States of Europe. In 1932, Coudenhove-Kalergi composed, and had his publishing house reissue, a preface for a new edition of his father Heinrich von Coudenhove-Kalergi's condemnation of antisemitism in his later life. In 1933, he responded to the ascendance of Nazism by collaborating with Heinrich Mann, Arthur Holitscher, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Max Brod in writing and publishing the pamphlet Gegen die Phrase vom jüdischen Schädling (Against the Phrase 'Jewish Parasite').
Journeys to Japan
First return to Japan
The Pan-European idea influenced a young Japanese diplomat – in the future, the president of Kajima Corporation – Morinosuke Kajima during his residence in Berlin in 1922. Coudenhove-Kalergi formed a friendship with Kajima and then asked him to translate the book Pan-Europa into Japanese. He proposed Pan-Asia to Kajima and promised to give Dutch East Indies as their friendship after the realization of the task to establish Pan-Asia. Kajima published Pan-Europa in Japanese in 1927. In 1930 Kajima retired from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to become MP. His ambition to become an MP was due to Coudenhove-Kalergi's influence. In 1970–1971 he published the complete works of Coudenhove-Kalergi from Kajima Institute Publishing that was established by Morinosuke Kajima. He respected Coudenhove-Kalergi over a lifetime, dreaming of the realization of Pan-Asia.
In Japan, the Pan-European idea also influenced a journalist Yoshinori Maeda, the president of NHK. He became a pioneer of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union with the image of Pan-Europa that he read in his student days.
In 1953 Ichirō Hatoyama established Yuai Youth Association (later Yuai Association), the fraternal association as the successor of fraternity that Coudenhove-Kalergi mentioned in The Totalitarian State Against Man. The Japanese word yūai (友愛) has several meanings but especially the word used by Hatoyama means fraternity and in German brüderlichkeit. It can also be considered equivalent to "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" (Brotherhood), the motto of the French Republic. An educator Kaoru Hatoyama became the second president of the association after her husband Ichirō, the first president, died in 1959.
In 1967 Coudenhove-Kalergi was awarded the Kajima Peace Award, and was invited to Japan by Morinosuke Kajima as the president of Kajima Institute of International Peace, Yoshinori Maeda as the president of NHK, and Kaoru Hatoyama as the president of Yuai Youth Association. Together with his second wife Alexandra in a wheelchair, Coudenhove-Kalergi stayed in Japan from 26 October to 8 November. He was also accompanied by his young brother Gerolf's daughter Barbara. Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi was also awarded First Order of the Sacred Treasure of Japan. He was granted an audience with the Emperor Hirohito, Empress Kōjun, their son Crown Prince Akihito to whom he had presented his book in 1953 in Switzerland, and Crown Princess Michiko. This time, he had returned to Japan for the first time since his childhood 71 years earlier. He gave several lectures and met various leaders. Coudenhove-Kalergi spent 2 weeks in Japan as a guest of Japanese TV, radio, newspaper, magazines and other media. While in Japan, Coudenhove-Kalergi specifically asked for a meeting with the president of Soka Gakkai, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, as Coudenhove-Kalergi had been interested in Ikeda's work for many years. After their first meeting in October 1967, Coudenhove-Kalergi described Ikeda as "very energetic, life-loving, honorable, friendly and intelligent."
Soka Gakkai invitation
Coudenhove-Kalergi visited Japan again at the invitation of the Soka Gakkai in October 1970. During his stay, he and Daisaku Ikeda conducted a formal dialogue over the course of several days, a total of more than 12 hours of which was recorded for posterity. He also visited the campus of Soka University in Tokyo, which was under construction at that time.
Two decades later, in 1990, Ikeda proposed that Coudenhove-Kalergi's favorite song, Beethoven's "Ode to Joy," be regularly performed at major Soka Gakkai meetings. It was reported in Japan that this was one cause of the split between the Soka Gakkai and Soka Gakkai International (SGI) from Nichiren Shoshu in 1991, as the Nichiren Shoshu priesthood objected to the song's "Christian origins."
According to a masonic report, Coudenhove-Kalergi died of a stroke. His secretary, however, indicated that Coudenhove-Kalergi possibly committed suicide. In the memoir his secretary wrote, she said his death had been kept secret so as not to disappoint those who considered him to be the great visionary of European integration. Coudenhove-Kalergi was the head of the Pan-European Union until his death. The presidency was succeeded by Otto von Habsburg.
Coudenhove-Kalergi is buried at Gruben near Gstaad. His grave, covered with wild grapes, is located in a Japanese rock garden in the Swiss Alps. The grave is unpretentious and upon it is the French epitaph "Pionnier des États-Unis d'Europe" (Pioneer of the United States of Europe), with none of the other great titles that many supporters believe he had earned.
Coudenhove-Kalergi was married three times: to Ida Roland (1881–1951), to Alexandra Gräfin von Tiele-Winkler (1896–1968), and to Melanie Benatzky-Hoffmann (1909–1983). His known children were Ida's daughter Erika and Alexandra's son Alexander, both of whom were his step-children.
- Adel (1922)
- Ethik und Hyperethik (1922); Héros ou Saint (1929), the Cahiers Internationaux series of the publisher Les Editions Rieder, 7, Place Saint-Sulpice, Paris, translated from German into French by Marcel Beaufils
- Pan-Europa (1923), Paneuropa Verlag; Pan-Europe (1926), Knopf, abridged, with an introduction by Nicholas Murray Butler
- Krise der Weltanschauung (1923)
- Pazifismus (1924)
- Deutschlands Europäische Sendung. Ein Gespräch (1924)
- Praktischer Idealismus (1925)
- Kampf um Paneuropa (3 Volumes, 1925–28)
- Held oder Heiliger (1927)
- Brüning – Hitler: Revision der Bündnispolitik (1931), Paneuropa-Verlag
- Stalin & Co. (1931)
- Gebote des Lebens (1931)
- Los vom Materialismus! (1931)
- La lutte pour l'Europe (1931)
- Revolution durch Technik (1932)
- Gegen die Phrase vom jüdischen Schädling (1933), co-authored with Heinrich Mann, Arthur Holitscher, Lion Feuchtwanger, and Max Brod
- Europa erwacht! (1934)
- Judenhaß von heute: Graf H. Coudenhofe-Kalergi. Das Wesen des Antisemitismus (1935)
- Europa ohne Elend: Ausgewählte Reden (1936)
- Judenhaß! (1937)
- Totaler Staat – Totaler Mensch (1937), Paneuropa Verlag; Totaler Mensch – Totaler Staat (1939), Herold Verlag; Totaler Mensch – Totaler Staat (1965), Herold Verlag
- The Totalitarian State Against Man, with an introduction by Wickham Steed, translated by Sir Andrew Mc Fadyean (1938), London, Frederick Muller Ltd.
- Europe Must Unite, translated by Sir Andrew Mc Fadyean (1939)
- Die europäische Mission der Frau (1940)
- Crusade for Pan-Europe (1943)
- Kampf um Europa (1949)
- Ida Roland: In Memoriam (1951)
- Die Europäische Nation (1953)
- Der Gentleman (1953)
- An Idea Conquers the World, with a preface by Winston S. Churchill (1953)
- Vom Ewigen Krieg zum Großen Frieden (1956)
- Eine Idee erobert Europa (1958)
- From War to Peace (1959)
- Ein Leben für Europa (1966)
- Für die Revolution der Brüderlichkeit (1968), Zurich, Verlag Die Waage
- Bi no Kuni – Nihon heno Kikyou (美の国 – 日本への帰郷), translated into Japanese by Morinosuke Kajima (1968), Tokyo, Kajima Institute Publishing
- Weltmacht Europa (1971)
- Bunmei – Nishi to Higashi (文明 – 西と東), interview collection with Daisaku Ikeda (1972), Tokyo, publication branch of Sankei Shimbun Co., Ltd.
Awards and honors
- 1950: Charlemagne Prize
- 1954: Officer of the Legion of Honour
- 1962: Grand Decoration of Honour in Silver with Star of the Republic of Austria
- 1965: Sonning Prize
- 1966: Europäischer Karlspreis der Sudetendeutschen Landsmannschaft
- 1967: Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class of Japan
- 1967: Kajima Peace Award
- 1972: Konrad Adenauer Prize
- 1972: Knight Commander's Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Dr. h. c. of Nihon University
- Ehrenbürgerwürde der Universität Frankfurt a. M.
- Nobel Peace Prize nominee in 42 nominations, known by 1963 so far. 1964–1972 period is still concealed.
- Federal Europe
- Ideas of European unity before 1945
- Pan-European nationalism
- Founding fathers of the European Union
- German: Richard Nikolaus Eijiro Graf von Coudenhove-Kalergi (Regarding personal names: Until 1919, Graf was a title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name. The female form is Gräfin. In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names.).
- Japanese: リヒャルト・ニコラウス・栄次郎・クーデンホーフ＝カレルギー伯爵 (Rihyaruto Nikorausu Eijirō Kūdenhōfu-Karerugī Hakushaku).
- Tozawa 2013a, chpt. (1)
- Ocaña, Juan Carlos. "Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi". Spartacus Educational. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- "Richard N. de Coudenhove-Kalergi" (in French). Paneurope Suisse on Suisse magazine. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Persson & Stråth 2007, p. 99
- Chambers 1944
- NAITO, Tetsuo (31 March 2006). "研究ノート : 欧州統合の提唱者、クーデンホーフ・カレルギーの思想と行動 An Advocate of the European Integration, Coudenhove-Kalergi's Original Idea and Activities" (PDF) (in Japanese). Saitama United Cyber Repository of Academic Resources (SUCRA). p. 169. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- Tozawa 2013a, chpt. (3): "河原乞食"
- Gehler, p. 186
- Hilton, Ronald (19 November 2004). "Democracy and the concept of gentleman: Coudenhove-Kalergi". World Association of International Studies (WAIS) at Stanford University. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
for Coudenhove-Kalergi it meant adherence to the ideals [ . . . ]: honesty, fair play, courtesy, rational discourse.
- ""Yuai" for Understanding". Yuai Association. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
... the word Gentleman as he used referred to British type Gentleman in the chivalric medieval Europe, who may be characterized by such attributes as elegant, well-educated, polite, honest, humorous, cleanly, etc. ... Gentleman, however, must bear the moral responsibility to respect and protect Lady ...
- Jajeśniak-Quast 2010, p. 131
- Dorril 2000, p. 165
- Rosamond 2000, pp. 21–22
- Ziegerhofer 2004, chpt. V – 3
- Li Pan-Europan manifest. 1926. OCLC 715498832.
- Hewitson & D'Auria 2012, p. 107
- Lipgens 1984, p. 712; Johnston 1983, pp. 320–321
- Weigall & Stirk 1992, pp. 11–15
- Guieu & Le Dréau 2009, p. 176: "il a proposé dès 1932 une journée de l'Europe qui serait célébrée chaque 17 mai, jour de la publication du Mémorandum Briand."
- Burleigh 2001, p. 426; Lipgens 1984, p. 37; Coudenhove-Kalergi once again approached Mussolini on 10 May 1933 in a futile attempt to form a union of Latin nations against the Third Reich. (Lipgens 1984, pp. 180–184)
- Persson & Stråth 2007, p. 114
- Mazower 2013, p. 691
- Hitler, Adolf (1928). Zweites Buch (in German).
Dieses Paneuropa nach Auffassung des Allerweltsbastarden Coudenhove würde der amerikanischen Union oder einem national erwachten China gegenüber einst dieselbe Rolle spielen wie der altösterreichische Staat gegenüber Deutschland oder Rußland.
- Ziegerhofer 2004, p. 425
- Hitler's Secret Book, 1928, (tr. Attanasio, Salvator, New York: Grove Press, 1962), p 107.
- "Che cos'è – o sarebbe – il "Piano Kalergi"" [What is - or would be - the "Kalergi Plan"] (in Italian). Il Post. 16 January 2018.
The reasons why Kalergi has once again become a scarecrow of the extreme right are quite evident by re-reading what Hitler wrote about him more than 80 years ago. Kalergi argued for the need to temper the differences between peoples in the name of a collective community, wider than the individual state, a recipe that can only be greeted with annoyance by the nationalists of the 1930s as well as those of the 2000s.
- Levy 2007, p. 394
- The book had English edition as Freemasonry: Its World View, Organization and Policies. (English full text: http://der-stuermer.org/freemasonryen.htm)
- Schwarz 1938, p. 22: "der freimaurer Coudenhove-Kalergi"
- Denslow 1957–1960
- Jajeśniak-Quast 2010, pp. 131–132; Ziegerhofer 2004, p. 57
- Coudenhove-Kalergi 1953, p. 234 (Roy Publishers)
- Dorril 2000, pp. 166–167
- Coudenhove-Kalergi 1953, p. 247 (Hutchinson)
- "Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi". University of Vienna. 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Tozawa 2013b, chpt. (3)
- Lipgens & Loth 1988, p. 664; Churchill 2003, pp. 427–430
- Lipgens & Loth 1988, p. 537
- "Union Paneuropéenne" (PDF) (in French). 3 August 1955. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 November 2008. (digital document by CVCE)
- Praktischer Idealismus, Wien/Leipzig 1925, pages 20, 23, 50
- Jews Participate in Pan-europe Congress Sessions in Vienna, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 5 October 1926, retrieved 5 November 2014
- Hirakawa 2011, pp. 40–42
- Tozawa 2013c, chpt. (3)
- Tozawa 2013c, chpt. (2)
- Pempel & Lee 2012, p. 137
- Tozawa, Hidenori (2013). クーデンホーフ・カレルギーと日本の関係 (in Japanese). Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi Forum (School of Law, Tohoku University). Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Tozawa 2013c, chpt. (5)
- Kajima MONTHLY REPORT DIGEST 2005
- Tozawa 2013d, chpt. (1)
- Tozawa 2013d, chpt. (2)
- Ikeda, Daisaku (19 November 1978). 環境報告書2012: 環境問題は全人類的な課題 (in Japanese). SEIKYO online (Seikyo Shimbun). Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Zuber 1995
- Huseynov, Hasan (27 November 2001). Пан-европейское движение: документы (in Russian). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Jilek, p. 208
- Aizpurvit, Katerina (June 2011). "COUNT COUDENHOVE-KALERGI: SWITZERLAND AS THE MODEL OF EUROPEAN UNITY". Business Mir. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Pernhorst 2008, p. 38
- Kosch 2003, p. 374
- "Tabellarischer Lebenslauf: Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi" (in German). Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. 27 August 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Coudenhove-Kalergi, Richard Nikolaus Graf" (in German). Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Duchhardt 2005, p. 306
- "Count Richard Nicolas Coudenhove-Kalergi". Official web site of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Tozawa, Hidenori (2013a). ミツコ・クーデンホーフ・カレルギー (青山光子) (in Japanese). Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi Forum (School of Law, Tohoku University). Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Tozawa, Hidenori (2013b). リヒャルト・クーデンホーフ・カレルギー (in Japanese). Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi Forum (School of Law, Tohoku University). Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- Tozawa, Hidenori (2013c). クーデンホーフ・カレルギーと鹿島守之助 (in Japanese). Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi Forum (School of Law, Tohoku University). Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Tozawa, Hidenori (2013d). クーデンホーフ・カレルギーと創価学会 (in Japanese). Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi Forum (School of Law, Tohoku University). Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- 第3話 鹿島平和賞授賞の舞台. Kajima MONTHLY REPORT DIGEST (in Japanese). Kajima Corporation. April 2005. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Hirakawa, Hitoshi (2011). "English Edition: Dr. Morinosuke Kajima and Pan-Asianism" (PDF). SGRA Report No. 58. Atsumi International Scholarship Foundation (AISF) / Sekiguchi Global Research Association (SGRA). pp. 37–77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
- Persson, Hans-Åke; Stråth, Bo (2007). Reflections on Europe: Defining a Political Order in Time and Space. Europe plurielle / Multiple Europes. 37. Bruxelles, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang. ISBN 9789052010656.
- Chambers, Whittaker (January 1944), Historian and History Maker, The American Mercury, ISBN 9781412824590
- Gehler, Michael. "A Visionary proved Himself to be a Realist: Richard N. Coudenhove-Kalergi, Austria, and the "United States of Europe", 1923–2003" (PDF). Europe on its Way to Unity. From Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi's Pan-European Vision to the Treaty of Athens. Tokai University Human Security review [2004/2005], No. 9. pp. 171–186. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- Jilek, Lubor. "Pan-Europe de Coudenhove-Kalergi: l'homme, le projet et le mouvement paneuropéen" (PDF) (in French). Tokai University Human Security review [2004/2005], No. 9. pp. 205–209. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- Dorril, Stephen (2000), MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, Free Press, OCLC 607416701
- Rosamond, Ben (2000), Theories of European Integration, Palgrave Macmillan, OCLC 442641648
- Hewitson, Mark; D'Auria, Matthew, eds. (2012), Europe in Crisis: Intellectuals and the European Idea, 1917–1957, Berghahn Books, ISBN 9780857457288
- Ziegerhofer, Anita (2004). Botschafter Europas: Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi und die Paneuropa-Bewegung in den zwanziger und dreissiger Jahren (in German). Wien: Böhlau Verlag. ISBN 9783205772170.
- Lipgens, Walter, ed. (1984), Documents on the History of European Integration, Volume 1: Continental Plans for European Union 1939–1945, Walter de Gruyter, OCLC 406352658
- Lipgens, Walter; Loth, Wilfried, eds. (1988), Documents on the History of European Integration, Volume 3: The Struggle for European Union by Political Parties and Pressure Groups in Western European Countries 1945–1950, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 9783110114294
- Johnston, William M. (1983), The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848–1938, University of California Press, ISBN 9780520049550
- Weigall, David; Stirk, Peter M. R., eds. (1992), The Origins and Development of the European Community, Leicester: Leicester University Press, ISBN 9780718514280
- Guieu, Jean-Michel; Le Dréau, Christophe (2009). Le " Congrès de l'Europe " à La Haye (1948–2008). Euroclio series (in French). 49. Bruxelles, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang. ISBN 9789052015736.
- Burleigh, Michael (2001), The Third Reich: A New History, Hill and Wang, OCLC 44084002
- Mazower, Mark (2013), Hitler's Empire: Nazi Rule in Occupied Europe, Penguin UK, ISBN 9780141917504
- Schwarz, Dieter (1938). Die Freimaurerei: Weltanschauung, Organisation und Politik. Berlin: Franz Eher Nachfolger GmbH. (with an introduction by Reinhard Heydrich)
- Denslow, William R. (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons. Richmond, Virginia: Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply Co., Inc. (with an introduction by Harry S. Truman)
- Jajeśniak-Quast, Dagmara (2010), "Polish Economic Circles and the Question of the Common European Market after World War I", Einzelveröffentlichungen des Deutschen Historischen Instituts Warschau Bd. 23, Fibre-Verlag, ISBN 9783938400586
- Levy, Jonathan (2007). The Intermarium: Wilson, Madison, and East Central European Federalismahren. Universal-Publishers. ISBN 9781581123692. The role of Count Coudenhove-Kalergi in east central European federalism is reexamined.
- Churchill, Winston S. (2003), Never Give In!: The Best of Winston Churchill's Speeches, Hyperion, ISBN 9781401300562
- Langmuir, Gavin I. (8 May 1990), History, Religion, and Antisemitism, ISBN 9780520912267
- Robertson, Ritchie (1999), The "Jewish Question" in German Literature, 1749–1939: Emancipation and Its Discontents, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780198186311
- Pempel, T.J.; Lee, Chung-Min (2012), Security Cooperation in Northeast Asia: Architecture and Beyond, Routledge, ISBN 9781136309847
- Zuber, Otto (1995). "RICHARD NIKOLAUS Graf COUDENHOVE-KALERGI als Freimaurer". Jahrbuch der Forschungsloge Quatuor Coronati (in German). 32. Bayreuth: Forschungsloge Quatuor Coronati.
- Pernhorst, Christian (2008). Das paneuropäische Verfassungsmodell des Grafen Richard N. Coudenhove-Kalergi (in German). Nomos Verlag. ISBN 9783832932022.
- Kosch, Wilhelm, ed. (2003). Deutsches Literatur-Lexikon. das 20. Jahrhundert Band 5: Butenschön – Dedo (in German). Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110961119.
- Duchhardt, Heinz (2005). Option Europa: deutsche, polnische und ungarische Europapläne des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts Band 2 (in German). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 9783525362877.
- Coudenhove-Kalergi, Richard Nikolaus (1925). Praktischer Idealismus [Practical Idealism] (in German). Wien-Leipzig: Pan-Europa-Verlag. UBR069031840355. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Coudenhove-Kalergi, Richard Nikolaus (1953). An Idea Conquers the World. London: Hutchinson. (New York: Roy Publishers)
- International Paneuropean Union
- European Society Coudenhove-Kalergi
- Archival sources on the Paneuropean Union and the European Parliamentary Union at the Historical Archives of the EU in Florence
- Newspaper clippings about Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
- Recordings of interviews and speeches with Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi in the Online Archive of the Österreichische Mediathek (in German). Retrieved 29 July 2019
Richard Nikolaus Eijiro Graf von Coudenhove-KalergiBorn: 16 November 1894 Died: 27 July 1972
|New creation|| International President of the Paneuropean Union
Otto von Habsburg (elected in 1973)