|Born||14 May 1943|
|Fields||Medical Statistics, Clinical Trials, Epidemiology of Smoking.|
|Institutions||Green Templeton College, Oxford University|
|Alma mater||Queens' College, University of Cambridge|
|Known for||meta-analysis, Peto's paradox, log-rank test, Peto's method|
|Notable awards||Guy Medal (Silver, 1986)
Gairdner Foundation International Award (1992)
Prince Mahidol Award (2000)
Royal Medal (2002)
Heineken Prize for Medicine (2008)
He attended Taunton's School in Southampton and subsequently studied Natural Sciences at Queens' College, Cambridge University. His career has included collaborations with Richard Doll beginning at the Medical Research Council Statistical Research Unit in London. He set up the Clinical Trial Service Unit (CTSU) in Oxford in 1975 and is currently co-director.
He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1989 for his contributions to the development of meta-analysis. He is a leading expert on deaths related to tobacco use. He was knighted for his services to epidemiology and to cancer prevention in 1999, and he received an honorary Doctor of Medical Sciences degree from Yale University in 2011. 
His brother Julian Peto, with whom he has published work in mathematical statistics (e.g. on the logrank test), is also a distinguished epidemiologist. His family runs a Thai restaurant in Oxford's Covered Market, of whose parent company he is a director.
Peto's paradox is named after him.
- Knottnerus, J. A. (2008). "The Dr A.H. Heineken Prize for Medicine 2008 awarded to Sir Richard Peto". Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde. 152 (41): 2216–2218. PMID 19009807.
- Mann, C. (1990). "Richard Peto: Statistician with a Mission". Science. 249 (4968): 479–426. doi:10.1126/science.249.4968.479. PMID 17735279. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
- "Sir Richard Peto". University of Oxford. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "Yale University: Honorary Degrees". USA: Yale University. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "Sasi's Thai". Find The Company. UK. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- Gribbin B, Pickering TG, Sleight P, Peto R. Effect of age and high blood pressure on baroreflex sensitivity in man. Circ Res. 1971 Oct;29(4):424–31. PMID 5110922.
- Peto R, Peto J. Asymptotically efficient rank invariant test procedures. J R Stat Soc Ser A 1972;135(2):185–207.
- Doll R, Peto R. Mortality in relation to smoking: 20 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J. 1976 Dec 25;2(6051):1525–36. PMID 1009386.
- Peto R, Pike MC, Armitage P, Breslow NE, Cox DR, Howard SV, Mantel N, McPherson K, Peto J, Smith PG. Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. I. Introduction and design. Br J Cancer. 1976 Dec;34(6):585–612. doi:10.1038/bjc.1976.220 PMID 795448.
- Peto R, Pike MC, Armitage P, Breslow NE, Cox DR, Howard SV, Mantel N, McPherson K, Peto J, Smith PG. Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. II. Analysis and examples. Br J Cancer. 1977 Jan;35(1):1–39. doi:10.1038/bjc.1977.1 PMID 831755.
- Peto R, Doll R, Buckley JD, Sporn MB. Can dietary beta-carotene materially reduce human cancer rates? Nature. 1981 Mar 19;290(5803):201–8. PMID 7010181.
- Doll R, Peto R. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981 Jun;66(6):1191–308. PMID 7017215.
- Peto R, Schneiderman M, eds. Quantification of occupational cancer. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1981. ISBN 0-87969-208-1.
- Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P. Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1985 Mar–Apr;27(5):335–71. doi:10.1016/S0033-0620(85)80003-7 PMID 2858114.
- Peto R, zur Hausen H, eds. Viral etiology of cervical cancer. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1986. ISBN 0-87969-221-9.
- MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J, Collins R, Sorlie P, Neaton J, Abbott R, Godwin J, Dyer A, Stamler J. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet. 1990 Mar 31;335(8692):765–74. PMID 1969518.
- Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S, Hebert P, Fiebach NH, Eberlein KA, Godwin J, Qizilbash N, Taylor JO, Hennekens CH. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet. 1990 Apr 7;335(8693):827–38. PMID 1969567.
- Peto R, Imperial Cancer Research Fund (Great Britain), World Health Organization, et al. Mortality from smoking in developed countries, 1950–2000: indirect estimates from national vital statistics. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-262619-1.
- Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Manson JE, Stampfer M, Rosner B, Cook NR, Belanger C, LaMotte F, Gaziano JM, Ridker PM, Willett W, Peto R. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 2;334(18):1145–9. PMID 8602179.
- Thun MJ, Peto R, Lopez AD, Monaco JH, Henley SJ, Heath CW Jr, Doll R. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. N Engl J Med. 1997 Dec 11;337(24):1705–14. doi:10.1056/NEJM199712113372401 PMID 9392695.
- Danesh J, Collins R, Appleby P, Peto R. Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies. JAMA. 1998 May 13;279(18):1477–82. PMID 9600484.
- Peto R, Darby S, Deo H, Silcocks P, Whitley E, Doll R. Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies. BMJ. 2000 Aug 5;321(7257):323–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7257.323 PMID 10926586.
- Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, Sleigh P, Peto R; Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003 Jun 14;361(9374):2005–16. PMID 12814710.
- Halliday A, Mansfield A, Marro J, Peto C, Peto R, Potter J, Thomas D; MRC Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) Collaborative Group. Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 May 8;363(9420):1491–502. PMID 15135594.
- Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 2004 Jun 26;328(7455):1519. doi:10.1136/bmj.38142.554479.AE PMID 15213107.
- Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney PM, Blackwell L, Buck G, Pollicino C, Kirby A, Sourjina T, Peto R, Collins R, Simes R; Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' (CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet. 2005 Oct 8;366(9493):1267–78. PMID 16214597.
- Clarke M, Collins R, Darby S, Davies C, Elphinstone P, Evans E, Godwin J, Gray R, Hicks C, James S, MacKinnon E, McGale P, McHugh T, Peto R, Taylor C, Wang Y; Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG). Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005 Dec 17;366(9503):2087–106. PMID 16360786.