Richard Simmons

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Richard Simmons
Simmons in September 2011
Milton Teagle Simmons

(1948-07-12) July 12, 1948 (age 73)
Other names
  • Milton Simmons
  • Richard Teagle Simmons
OccupationFitness personality
Years active1968–2014

Milton Teagle "Richard" Simmons (born July 12, 1948) is an American fitness personality. He is best known for his eccentric, flamboyant, and energetic personality, and the popular weight-loss programs he most prominently marketed through his Sweatin' to the Oldies line of aerobics videos.

Simmons began his weight-loss career by opening his gym Slimmons in Beverly Hills, California, which catered to the overweight, and he became widely known through exposure on television and through the popularity of his consumer products. He is often parodied and was a frequent guest of late night television and radio talk shows, such as the Late Show with David Letterman and The Howard Stern Show. He continued to promote health and exercise for decades and later broadened his activities to include political activism, such as in 2008, when he supported a bill mandating non-competitive physical education in public schools as a part of the No Child Left Behind Act.[1][2]

Simmons abruptly retreated from public life in February 2014, and speculation and expressions of concern about his well-being began to surface in the media by March 2016. Both Simmons and his publicist said the concerns were unwarranted as he simply chose to be less publicly visible.

Early life[edit]

Milton Teagle Simmons was born in New Orleans on July 12, 1948, the son of Shirley May (née Satin) and Leonard Douglas Simmons Sr. His parents were both involved in show business and raised him in the French Quarter of New Orleans. He has an older brother named Lenny.[3] His father was raised Methodist and worked as a master of ceremonies and later in thrift stores. His mother was a Russian-Jewish immigrant who was a traveling fan dancer and later a store cosmetics saleswoman.[4] Simmons later converted to Catholicism and attended Cor Jesu High School.[5][6][7] He attended the University of Louisiana at Lafayette before graduating from Florida State University with a BA in Art.[8]

Simmons became obese during his early childhood and adolescence.[9] He began to overeat and became overweight as early as the age of 4 or earlier, and by the age of 5, he knew it was perceived negatively.[9] At the age of 15, he weighed 182 pounds (83 kg). As a young man, he considered being a priest.[10][11] As a young adult art student, he had appeared among the "freak show" characters in Frederico Fellini's films Satyricon (1968) and The Clowns (1970), and eventually reached a peak weight of 268 pounds (122 kg).[12][9][13] He adopted the name "Richard" after an uncle who paid for his college tuition.[11] His first job in New Orleans was selling pralines as a child.[10]


Fitness career[edit]

Upon moving to Los Angeles in the 1970s, Simmons worked as the maître d'hôtel at Derek's, a restaurant in Beverly Hills.[4]: 157  He developed an interest in fitness. Exercise studios of the day favored the already fit customer, so there was little help for those who needed to gain fitness from an otherwise unhealthy state. He established gyms, and his interest in fitness helped him lose 123 lb (56 kg).

He later opened his own exercise studio, originally called "The Anatomy Asylum," where emphasis was placed on healthy eating in proper portions and enjoyable exercise in a supportive atmosphere. The business originally included a salad bar restaurant called Ruffage, a pun on the word roughage (dietary fiber), though it was eventually removed as the focus of the Asylum shifted solely to exercise.[14] Later renamed "Slimmons," the establishment continued operations in Beverly Hills and Simmons taught motivational classes and aerobics throughout the week.[15] Slimmons closed in November 2016.[16]

In 2010, Simmons stated he had kept off his own 100+ pound (45 kg) weight loss for 42 years, had been helping others lose weight for 35 years, and that in the course of his fitness career, had helped humanity lose approximately 12 million pounds (5.5 million kg).[17] Simmons used the Internet as a method of outreach by running his own membership-based website and also has official pages on numerous social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, and YouTube.[18]

In media[edit]

Simmons in 1998

Simmons began to draw media attention due to the success of his health club that began with him on Real People, where he was shown at work. He introduced customers whom he had helped to lose weight. He later had guest roles on Battlestars, Body Language, Super Password, Win, Lose or Draw, Match Game (ABC), Price Is Right, $25,000 Pyramid, Hollywood Squares (syndicated), and Nickelodeon's Figure It Out.[citation needed]

Positive viewer reactions landed Simmons a recurring role as himself in General Hospital over a 4-year period.[19] This, as well as being in shopping malls, where he taught exercise classes, led to further media attention. In the early 1980s, Simmons hosted two shows – Slim Cookin and the Emmy Award-winning talk show The Richard Simmons Show, in which he focused on personal health, fitness, exercise, and healthy cooking. The Richard Simmons Show drew thousands of exercise enthusiasts, including SAG/AFTRA actress Lucrecia Sarita Russo, who reportedly transported an entire bus filled with women from Pam's Figure Tique for a lively workout on the show.[citation needed]

In 1998, Simmons provided the voice of Boone in Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer: The Movie.

He featured as himself on numerous television series, including Whose Line Is It Anyway?, CHiPs, Saturday Night Live, The Larry Sanders Show, and in the Arrested Development episode "Bringing Up Buster." In 1999, he hosted the short-lived television series DreamMaker. In 2007, he filmed the PBS pledge drive special Love Yourself and Win.

He also featured in television advertisements for Sprint, Yoplait, and Herbal Essence Shampoos. In late 2007, he was in a "This is SportsCenter" commercial on ESPN as the show's "conditioning coach". In Canada, Simmons was in an advertisement for Simmons mattresses. The mattress company hired the exercise celebrity because of the similarity in name, and for his appeal to the company's target audience of women over 35.[citation needed] Beyond this, there is no further business partnership between the two.

In the Rocko's Modern Life episode "No Pain, No Gain," Simmons voiced an exercise trainer bearing his animated likeness, leading a class filled with large anthropomorphic animals.

From 2006 to 2008, he hosted a radio show on Sirius Stars (Sirius Satellite Radio channel 102) titled Lighten Up with Richard Simmons.[20][21]

  • Simmons was a guest on The Rosie O'Donnell Show on November 18, 1997, together with Celine Dion.
  • Simmons portrayed himself in Steven Spielberg's 1986 Amazing Stories Season 1: Episode 10 ("Remote Control Man").[citation needed]
  • He was a frequent guest on The Howard Stern Show in the 1980s and 1990s. The two had a brief friendship off the air, which both Simmons and Stern discussed several times on air. While he resolved at one point to refuse future involvement after Stern repeatedly insulted him, he returned to the show on November 16, 2006, then returned again January 24, 2012, and finally September 24, 2013.[citation needed]
  • Simmons was also a frequent guest on Late Night with David Letterman (NBC) and the Late Show with David Letterman (CBS).[citation needed] On November 22, 2000, they had a falling out after an incident on that night's show. Simmons (while dressed as a turkey) was sprayed in the face by Letterman with a fire extinguisher after Simmons grabbed Letterman as if to hug or kiss him, causing Simmons to have a severe asthma attack.[22] Simmons did not attend the Letterman show for 6 years, finally returning on November 29, 2006. During that time, Letterman once again set Simmons up for a prank. While Simmons was demonstrating a steamer branded with his name, Letterman insisted on placing a tray under the steamer which Simmons did not believe belonged there. When Simmons turned the steamer on, something in the tray exploded and caught fire, sending Simmons running for his life. Despite the scare, Simmons took the incident in fairly good nature, even joking that he "felt like Michael Jackson" (referring to a mishap where Jackson's hair was accidentally set on fire by pyrotechnics while filming a Pepsi commercial).[23]
  • He was a guest on the U.S. version of Whose Line Is It Anyway?.
  • Simmons is on tracks 1 and 10 of Bob Rivers's 1997 holiday album More Twisted Christmas.
  • Simmons has multiple times been on The Glenn Beck Program on HLN.[24]
  • In September 2005, he appeared on Entertainment Tonight to discuss the effects of Hurricane Katrina on his family in his hometown of New Orleans, and his involvement in aiding those affected by the hurricane. On August 29, 2006, he was on Your World with Neil Cavuto while making a return visit to New Orleans one year after the flooding, a visit he repeated on March 2, 2007. He talked about his recent trip to Washington, D.C., to promote and raise awareness about The Strengthening Physical Education Act of 2007 (H.R. 1224).[citation needed]
  • He is featured heavily in the film clip of "Hawker Boat" by Tobacco, taken from the album Fucked Up Friends.[25]
  • He provides the voice for Coach Salmons, a recurring character modeled after his own likeness, for Fish Hooks, a Disney Channel Original Series that premiered on September 24, 2010. Fish Hooks ended after three seasons.
  • In 2011, Simmons starred in "Fit to Fly with Richard Simmons", an Air New Zealand inflight safety briefing video modeled after his aerobic workouts.[26]
  • In 2012, he was in a Canadian commercial for Telus wireless phone.
  • In 2013, he appeared on Extreme Weight Loss as a surprise guest, leading a workout with the contestants.
  • During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, he began to upload archival content to his YouTube channel (recorded before his decision to withdraw from public life) to help people stay fit at home.[27]

Retreat from public life[edit]

Simmons has not made any major public appearances since 2014 and stopped appearing in public altogether in February of that year. In March 2016, speculation began that he was being held hostage by his housekeeper.[28][29] In response, Simmons gave an audio interview on the Today Show to deny the rumors on March 14, 2016.[30] In November, the Slimmons fitness gym closed, without any public announcement from Simmons.[16] In February 2017, the podcast Missing Richard Simmons launched, investigating why Simmons left public life so suddenly.[31]

In March 2017, LAPD detectives visited Simmons' home to conduct a welfare check, issuing a statement that Simmons is "perfectly fine" and that "right now he is doing what he wants to do and it is his business".[32] On April 19, 2017, following a hospitalization for severe indigestion, Simmons made his first public comment in over a year, posting a photo of himself on Facebook with the caption, "I'm not 'missing', just a little under the weather."[33] However, the picture included in the post was from as far back as 2013, leading to speculation that the person who posted the message might not actually have been Simmons.[34][35][36]

In May 2017, Simmons sued the National Enquirer, Radar Online, and American Media, Inc. for libel and false claims that he was undergoing gender reassignment.[37] In September 2017, he lost the lawsuit and was ordered to pay the defendants' attorney's fees. The judge ruled, "Because courts have long held that a misidentification of certain immutable characteristics do not naturally tend to injure one's reputation, even if there is sizeable portion of the population who hold prejudices against those characteristics, misidentification of a person as transgender is not actionable defamation absent special damages."[38]

In June 2018, Simmons sued a Los Angeles private investigator, claiming he had placed a tracking device over a year earlier on the only vehicle Simmons used for transportation and noting that such tracking is in violation of California law.[39] In July, Simmons amended the suit to allege that the investigator had been hired by In Touch Weekly, and prosecutors filed a criminal complaint.[40] In May 2020, a California appellate court upheld a trial judge's decision allowing Simmons' lawsuit to move forward.[41]


In 2004, Simmons slapped a man at an airport. The altercation took place after the man said, "Hey everybody, it's Richard Simmons, let's drop our bags and rock to the '50s'".[42]

In 2008, Bridgestone tires ran an ad during Super Bowl XLII showing a car driver avoiding several hazards while driving at night, including threatening to run down Simmons, who was embodying a homophobic sissy stereotype. Ad Age critic Bob Garfield described the advert as "grounded in homophobia".[43][44]

Personal life[edit]

Simmons in 2007

Simmons used his energetic and motivational demeanor to encourage people to lose weight, and his high energy level is always featured in his workout videos. His trademark attire consisted of candy-striped dolphin shorts and tank tops decorated with Swarovski crystals.[11][45]

Simmons interacted at a personal level with people using his products. This began by personally answering fan mail he received as a cast member of General Hospital. As of 2008, he personally answered emails and letters and made hundreds of phone calls each week to those seeking his help.[46][needs update]

Simmons claimed to have few friends, saying, "I don't have a lot to offer to one person. I have a lot to offer to a lot of people." Aside from his three Dalmatians and two maids, Simmons lives alone in Beverly Hills, California.[46] While his sexual orientation has been the subject of much speculation, he has never publicly discussed it.[47][48][49][50][51]

In a 2012 interview with Men's Health, Simmons said, "When the king gets depressed, he doesn't call for his wife or the cook. He turns to the little man with the pointed hat and says to the court jester 'make me laugh'. And I am that court jester."[52]

Print and other media[edit]


  1. ^ Ibanga, Imaeyen (October 15, 2008). "Richard Simmons Obesity Crusade – ABC News". Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  2. ^ Claus von Zastrow on (March 27, 2008). "Kids Aren't Well-Rounded; They're Just...Rounded". Public School Insights. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  3. ^ Simmons (1999) pp. 21–32
  4. ^ a b c Simmons, Richard (1999). Still Hungry After All These Years: My Story (1st ed.). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-1577193562.
  5. ^ "The Day - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved May 16, 2015.
  6. ^ The Denver "Richard Simmons' many secrets". The Denver Post. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  7. ^ Bynum, Chris (October 3, 2008). "New Orleans native Richard Simmons moves 'em at Harrah's". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  8. ^ Briscoe, Jake (March 24, 2017). "What Happened to Richard Simmons - 2018 Update - Gazette Review". Gazette Review. Retrieved November 28, 2018. (updated January 3, 2018)
  9. ^ a b c Mackay, Kathy (November 2, 1981). "The Sultan of Svelte". People. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
  10. ^ a b Chandler, Rick (January 19, 2007). "Church of Richard Simmons: Fitness advocate leads workout at Stateline". Tahoe Daily Tribune. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  11. ^ a b c Breen, Shannon (November 14, 2008). "My conversation with Richard Simmons". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  12. ^ Klemesrud, Judy (February 15, 1981). "Behind the Bestsellers". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  13. ^ Mackay, Kathy (April 13, 1981). "Former Fatty Richard Simmons Is the Grand Duke of Diet and the Clown Prince of Fitness". People. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  14. ^ Simmons, R. (1999) p.177-184
  15. ^ Romano, Tricia (December 23, 2009). "A Celebrity Sweats: It's Richard!". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  16. ^ a b "Richard Simmons 'Slimmons' Closes ...No Sign of Richard". TMZ. November 19, 2016.
  17. ^ "Richard Simmons' Story, Pt. 2 | The Dr. Oz Show". February 15, 2010. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  18. ^ Richard Simmons Official Site and Clubhouse: Weight Loss and Fitness Tools and Motivation Archived October 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Richard Simmons Official Site and Clubhouse: Weight Loss and Fitness Tools and Motivation". Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  20. ^ "California Governors Conference 2006". September 26, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2018. (date per google; included to cite earliest mention of the show)
  21. ^ Braley, JoLynn (October 27, 2008). "A Sad Day on Sirius Satellite Radio – No More Richard Simmons". Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  22. ^ McIntee, Michael Z. (December 26, 2006). "Show #1515". CBS Late Show with David Letterman. Archived from the original on May 14, 2007. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
  23. ^ Richard Simmons Steamer on YouTube
  24. ^ "". CNN. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  25. ^ "Tobacco – Hawker Boat". YouTube. November 13, 2008. Archived from the original on November 13, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  26. ^ "Mile-high madness with Richard Simmons!". YouTube. March 27, 2011. Archived from the original on November 13, 2021. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  27. ^ Goston, Nicki (April 6, 2020). "Richard Simmons' YouTube channel returns to help people during the coronavirus". Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  28. ^ "Richard Simmons Has Been Missing for Two Years, Friends Concerned He's Being Held Hostage". Yahoo News. March 13, 2016.
  29. ^ Andy Martino (March 12, 2016). "Where's Richard Simmons? Twisted mystery has friends concerned". New York Daily News.
  30. ^ "Richard Simmons speaks out on his absence". CNN. March 13, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2016.
  31. ^ "Missing Richard Simmons". Missing Richard Simmons. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  32. ^ Ron Dicker (March 10, 2017). "Richard Simmons Is 'Perfectly Fine', LAPD Says After Visit". The Huffington Post.
  33. ^ Holpuch, Amanda (April 19, 2017). "Richard Simmons makes statement for first time in a year: 'I'm not missing'". The Guardian. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  34. ^ "Richard Simmons Speaks Directly to Fans for First Time in Three Years". People via MSN. April 19, 2017. Archived from the original on April 20, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  35. ^ Heller, Corinne (April 19, 2017). "Why This 'New' Richard Simmons Photo and Message Make His Disappearance Even More Confusing". E! News. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  36. ^ Clarendon, Dan (April 19, 2017). "Someone Updated Richard Simmons' Facebook, and We're Not Sure It Was Him". Wetpaint. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  37. ^ Kiefer, Halle (May 8, 2017). "Richard Simmons sues media companies for libel and false accusations of being transgender". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
  38. ^ Kenneally, Tim (September 21, 2017). "Richard Simmons Ordered to Pay National Enquirer's Legal Fees in Transgender Story Lawsuit". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 21, 2017.[dead link]
  39. ^ Handel, Jonathan (June 5, 2018). "Richard Simmons Sues PI Over Tracking Device". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  40. ^ Gardner, Eriq (July 20, 2018). "Prosecutors Charge Private Eye With Illegal Spying on Richard Simmons". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  41. ^ "Tracking Richard Simmons' Car is Not Free Speech, Court Rules".
  42. ^ "Richard Simmons slaps man at airport". Chron. March 25, 2004. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
  43. ^ Wilke, Michael (February 13, 2008). "Commercial Closet: Super Bowl XLII Advertisers Play to Stereotypes and Homophobia". Windy City Times. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  44. ^ "Monday morning quarterback for the commercials". The Washington Times. February 5, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  45. ^ Chris Connelly, Steven Baker (February 23, 2009). "The Real Richard Simmons: 'Still Doin' It' at 60". ABC News. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
  46. ^ a b Pang, Kevin (June 4, 2008). "The many secrets of Richard Simmons". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
  47. ^ Sullivan, Andrew (December 12, 1999). "The Way We Live Now: Counter Culture; Not a Straight Story". New York Times. p. §6 p.4. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
  48. ^ Garelick, Rhonda (September 1995). "Outrageous Dieting: The Camp Performance of Richard Simmons". Postmodern Culture. Johns Hopkins University Press. 6 (1). doi:10.1353/pmc.1995.0038. ISSN 1053-1920. S2CID 143735265.
  49. ^ Kendall, Lori (March 22, 2008). "James Bond, Peter Pan, and A Sticky Night of Love: irony and masculinities in amateur animated videos". The Journal of Men's Studies. 16 (2): 124. doi:10.3149/jms.1602.124. hdl:2142/18806. ISSN 1060-8265. S2CID 144617297. The montage of Gay Peter Pan's phone contacts includes out celebrities like Richard Simmons and Rosie O'Donnell
  50. ^ Rinaldi, Ray Mark (April 23, 2000). "Heroes are hard to find when the're hiding". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. F3. We've always allowed gay men on the tube – did anyone besides my grandmother really think Liberace was heterosexual? What about Paul Lynde? Richard Simmons? — but the rules are clear. It's all right to be a flamer as long as you agree to keep it secret.
  51. ^ Wieder, Judy (January 21, 2003). "The real Rosie: 365 days of amazing challenges and feisty decisions turned America's sweetheart into the fighter she's always been—and The Advocate's leading lady for 2002. (Person of the Year)". The Advocate (15): 52. ISSN 0001-8996. When Kathy Kinney came on my show and outed Richard Simmons, I didn't try to "in" Richard Simmons. The gay community accused me of in-ing Richard Simmons, like I was trying to make people think that he was straight. I will tell you this: If Richard Simmons ever wants to discuss his private life with me on national TV, he's welcome to do so. It is not anyone else's right to do that before he decides it's time. That's the reason I said to Kathy Kinney, "We'll be right back with a commercial." I'm simply saying that that right belongs to him. [Loudly] And no matter what community you feel he's a part of or what he represents to you, it is not as relevant as his own truth.
  52. ^ Spitznagel, Eric (April 25, 2012). "The MH Interview: Richard Simmons". Men's Health.
  53. ^ Simmons, Richard (1980). Never Say Diet. New York City: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0446512091.
  54. ^ Simmons, Richard (1982). Never Say Diet Cookbook. New York City: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0446512435.
  55. ^ Simmons, Richard (1985). The Better Body Book (1st ed.). New York City: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0446512633.
  56. ^ Simmons, Richard (1987). Deal-A-Meal Cookbook (Spiral-bound ed.). Beverly Hills, California: Deal-a-meal, Inc. ASIN B00071E0XA.
  57. ^ Simmons, Richard (1986). Reach for Fitness: A Special Book of Exercises for the Physically Challenged (1st ed.). New York City: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0446513029.
  58. ^ Simmons, Richard (1993). Richard Simmons' Never Give Up: Inspirations, Reflections, Stories of Hope (1st ed.). New York City: Warner Books. ISBN 978-0446517034.
  59. ^ Simmons, Richard (1996). Farewell to Fat (1st ed.). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-1577191025.
  60. ^ Simmons, Richard (1997). Sweetie Pie: The Richard Simmons Private Collection of Dazzling Desserts (1st ed.). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-1577192763.
  61. ^ Simmons, Richard (1999). The Food Mover Cookbook (Spiral-bound ed.). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. ISBN 978-1577197591.
  62. ^ Simmons, Richard (2000). Cookin' on Broadway (Spiral-bound ed.). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. ASIN B001TNS414.
  63. ^ Simmons, Richard (2006). Steam Away the Pounds. Rocklin, California: Pascoe Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1929862610.
  64. ^ Simmons, Richard (1991). Project Me (Compact Cassette). Beverly Hills, California: Deal-a-meal, Inc. ASIN B000GE9Y5W.
  65. ^ Simmons, Richard (1991). Take a Walk (Compact Cassette). Beverly Hills, California: Deal-a-meal, Inc. ASIN B000KMHGCI.
  66. ^ Simmons, Richard (1991). Take a Hike (Compact Cassette). Beverly Hills, California: Deal-a-meal, Inc. ASIN B000YQLSN8.
  67. ^ Simmons, Richard (1994). Sweatin' and Sharin' With Richard Simmons & Friends (Compact Cassette). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. ASIN B000GYZC8K.
  68. ^ Simmons, Richard (1995). Walk Across America (Compact Cassette). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. ASIN B000P527CE.
  69. ^ Simmons, Richard (1998). Colors of Your Life (Compact Cassette). Beverly Hills, California: The Richard Simmons Living Trust. ASIN B000F3R72G.
  70. ^ Simmons, Richard (1998). Colors of Your Life (Compact Cassette). Beverly Hills, California: The Richard Simmons Living Trust. ASIN B0009WPKQ8.
  71. ^ Simmons, Richard (1998). Secrets of the Winners (Compact Cassette). Beverly Hills, California: The Richard Simmons Living Trust. ASIN B0002JL96I.
  72. ^ Simmons, Richard (1993). Never Give Up: Inspirations, Reflections, Stories of Hope (Compact Cassette) (Abridged ed.). Southfield, Michigan: Audio Renaissance. ISBN 978-1559272193.
  73. ^ Simmons, Richard (January 3, 2006). Oh Happy Day. Somerset Entertainment (Audio CD). Austin, Texas: Mood Media. ASIN B000DGY0C0. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  74. ^ Wicked Workout. Somerset Entertainment (Audio CD). Austin, Texas: Mood Media. January 3, 2006. ASIN B000DGY0CK. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  75. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 274. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  76. ^ Richard Simmons and the Silver Foxes. Warner Home Video (DVD). Burbank, California: Warner Bros. December 14, 2004. ASIN B0004Z32ME. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  77. ^ Disco Sweat. Gaiam Vivendi Entertainment (DVD). Universal City, California: Gaiam. April 9, 2002. ASIN B0000541WK. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  78. ^ Sweatin' to the Oldies. Time Life Entertainment (DVD). New York City: Time Life. March 14, 2008. ASIN B001U2QEP2. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  79. ^ Sweatin' to the Oldies 2. Time Life Entertainment (DVD). New York City: Time Life. June 3, 2008. ASIN B0017HEYGG. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  80. ^ Sweatin' to the Oldies 3. Time Life Entertainment (DVD). New York City: Time Life. January 1, 2007. ASIN B003RLNW3G. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  81. ^ Sweatin' to the Oldies 4. Time Life Entertainment (DVD). New York City: Time Life. April 9, 2013. ASIN B000Z8H1ZE. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  82. ^ Sweatin' to the Oldies 5. Time Life Entertainment (DVD). New York City: Time Life. December 14, 2010. ASIN B003KIAWOS. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  83. ^ Reach for Fitness - A Special Video of Exercises for the Physically Challenged. Gt Media, Inc. (VHS). New York City: GT Publishing Corporation. November 15, 1994. ASIN B00000680E. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  84. ^ Sweatin' to the Oldies 3. GoodTimes Home Video (VHS). New York City: GoodTimes Entertainment. December 11, 2001. ASIN B00005T33C. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  85. ^ Broadway Sweat. GoodTimes Home Video (VHS). New York City: GoodTimes Entertainment. January 1, 2000. ASIN B0001LWYDE. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  86. ^ Farewell to Fat. Warner Home Video (VHS). Burbank, California: Warner Bros. December 1, 1998. ASIN B00000G3CA. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  87. ^ YouTube video - Hair Do (Official Music Video). August 22, 2013.
  88. ^ Richard Simmons Show 1983, YouTube, March 26, 2018

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]