Richard Stallman

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Richard Stallman
Portrait - Denmark DTU 2007-3-31.jpg
Richard Stallman at DTU in Denmark 2007
Born (1953-03-16) March 16, 1953 (age 65)
United States Manhattan, New York, USA
Occupation President, Free Software Foundation as an unpaid volunteer

Richard Matthew Stallman (often abbreviated as RMS) (born March 16, 1953) is an acclaimed software freedom activist, hacker, and software developer. In September 1983, he launched the GNU Project to create a free Unix-like operating system, and has been the project's lead architect and organizer. With the launch of the GNU project he started the free software movement, and in October 1985 set up the Free Software Foundation. He co-founded the League for Programming Freedom. Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft and is the main author of several copyleft licenses including the GNU General Public License, the most widely used free software license.[4] Since the mid-1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time as a political campaigner advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against both patenting software and expansions of copyright law. Stallman's renowned software accomplishments include developing the original Emacs, the GNU C Compiler, and the GNU Debugger.

Early years

Stallman was born in 1953 in Manhattan, New York. Hired by the IBM New York Scientific Center, Stallman used the summer after his high-school graduation writing his first program, a preprocessor for the PL/I programming language on the IBM 360.

During this time, Stallman was also a volunteer Laboratory Assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University. Although he was already moving toward a career in mathematics or physics, his teaching professor at Rockefeller thought he would have a future as a biologist.[1]

In June 1971, as a first year student at Harvard University, Stallman became a programmer at the AI Laboratory of MIT. There he became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, "RMS" (which was the name of his computer accounts). In the first edition of the Hacker's Dictionary, he wrote, "'Richard Stallman' is just my mundane name; you can call me 'rms'."[2] Stallman graduated from Harvard magna cum laude earning a BA in Physics in 1974. He then enrolled at MIT as a graduate student, but abandoned his pursuit of graduate degrees while remaining a programmer at the MIT AI Laboratory. In 1977, Stallman published an AI truth maintenance system called dependency-directed backtracking. The paper[3] was co-authored by Gerald Jay Sussman.[4]

As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects like TECO, Emacs, and the Lisp Machine Operating System. He would become an ardent critic of restricted computer access in the lab. When MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) installed a password control system in 1977, Stallman cracked the password system to reset passwords to null strings and sent users messages informing them of the removal of the password system. Although Stallman boasted of the success of his campaign for many years afterward,[5] passwords ultimately triumphed.

MIT's hacker culture declines

In the late 1970s and 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived in began to fragment. To prevent software from being used on their competitors' computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution. Such proprietary software had existed before, and it became apparent that it would become the norm. This shift in the legal characteristics of software can be regarded as a consequence triggered by the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, as stated by Stallman's MIT fellow Brewster Kahle.[6]

When Brian Reid in 1979 placed "time bombs" in Scribe to restrict unlicensed access to the software, Stallman proclaimed that "the prospect of charging money for software was a crime against humanity."[7]

In 1980, Stallman and some other hackers at the AI Lab were not given the software's source code for the Xerox 9700 laser printer (code-named Dover), the industry's first. The hackers had modified the software on the other printers, so it electronically messaged a user when the person's job was printed, and would message all logged-in users when a printer was jammed. Not being able to add this feature to the Dover printer was a major inconvenience, as the printer was on a different floor from all the users. This one experience convinced Stallman of the ethical need to require free software. At that time, it became clear that he wanted people to discard proprietary software.[8]

In 1980, Richard Greenblatt, a fellow AI Lab hacker, founded Lisp Machines, Inc. (LMI) to market Lisp machines, which he and Tom Knight designed at the lab. Greenblatt rejected outside investment, believing that the proceeds from the construction and sale of a few machines could be profitably reinvested in the growth of the company. In contrast, the other hackers felt that the venture capital-funded approach was better. As no agreement could be reached, they founded Symbolics, with the aid of Russ Noftsker, an AI Lab administrator. Symbolics recruited most of the remaining hackers including notable hacker Bill Gosper, who then left the AI Lab. Symbolics forced Greenblatt to also resign by citing MIT policies. While both companies delivered proprietary software, Stallman believed that LMI, unlike Symbolics, had tried to avoid hurting the lab. For two years, from 1982 to the end of 1983, Stallman singlehandedly duplicated the efforts of the Symbolics programmers, in order to prevent them from gaining a monopoly on the lab's computers.[9]

However, he was the last of his generation of hackers at the lab. He rejected a future where he would have to sign non-disclosure agreements not to share source code or technical information with other software developers and perform other actions he considered betrayals of his principles. He chose instead to share his work with others in what he regarded as a classical spirit of collaboration. While Stallman did not participate in the 1960s era counterculture, he was inspired by its rejection of the pursuit of wealth as the primary goal of living.

Stallman argues that software users should have the freedom to "share with their neighbor" and to be able to study and make changes to the software that they use. He has repeatedly said that attempts by proprietary software vendors to prohibit these acts are "antisocial" and "unethical".[10] The phrase "software wants to be free" is often incorrectly attributed to him, and Stallman argues that this is a misstatement of his philosophy.[11] He argues that freedom is vital for the sake of users and society as a moral value, and not merely for pragmatic reasons — pragmatic for example: because it may lead to improved software. In January 1984, he quit his job at MIT to work full-time on the GNU project, which he had announced in September 1983. He did not complete a Ph.D. but has been awarded six honorary degrees (see list below).

GNU project

Stallman announced the plan for the GNU operating system in September 1983 on several ARPAnet mailing lists and USENET.[12]

In 1985, Stallman published the GNU Manifesto, which outlined his motivation for creating a free operating system called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix. The name GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix. Soon after, he started a non-profit corporation called the Free Software Foundation (FSF) to employ free software programmers and provide a legal infrastructure for the free software movement. Stallman is the unsalaried president of the FSF, which is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded in Massachusetts.

In 1985, Stallman invented and popularized the concept of copyleft, a legal mechanism to protect the modification and redistribution rights for free software. It was first implemented in the GNU Emacs General Public License, and in 1989 the first program-independent GNU General Public License (GPL) was released. By then, much of the GNU system had been completed. Stallman was responsible for contributing many necessary tools, including a text editor, compiler, debugger, and a build automator. The notable exception was a kernel. In 1990, members of the GNU project began a kernel called GNU Hurd, which has yet to achieve widespread usage.

By producing software tools needed to write software, and publishing a generalized license (the GPL) that could be applied to any software project, Stallman helped make it easier for others to write free software independent of the GNU project. In 1991, one such independent project produced the Linux kernel. This could be combined with the GNU system to make a complete operating system. Most people use the name Linux to refer to both the combinations of the Linux kernel itself plus the GNU system, which Stallman claims unfairly disparages the value of the GNU project, as discussed below in GNU/Linux.

Stallman's influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX[13] and the Emacs editor. On UNIX systems, GNU Emacs's popularity rivaled that of another editor vi, spawning an editor war. Stallman's humorous take on this was to jokingly canonize himself as "St. Ignucius" / "St. IGNUcius" of the Church of Emacs[14][15] and acknowledge that "vi vi vi is the mark of the beast."

A number of developers view Stallman as being difficult to work with from a political, interpersonal, or technical standpoint. Around 1992, developers at Lucid Inc. doing their own work on Emacs clashed with Stallman and ultimately forked the software, into what later became XEmacs. An email archive published by Jamie Zawinski documents their criticisms and Stallman's response.[16] Ulrich Drepper published complaints against Stallman in the release notes for glibc 2.2.4[17], where he accuses Stallman of attempting a "hostile takeover" of the project, referring to him as a "control freak and raging manic." Eric S. Raymond, who sometimes speaks for parts of the open source movement, has written many pieces laying out that movement's disagreement with Stallman and the free software movement, often in terms sharply critical of Stallman.[18]


Richard Stallman giving a speech about "Copyright and Community" at Wikimania (2005)

Stallman has written many essays on software freedom and since the early 1990s has been an outspoken political campaigner for the free software movement. The speeches he has regularly given are titled "The GNU project and the Free Software movement"[19], "The Dangers of Software Patents"[20], and "Copyright and Community in the age of computer networks".[21]

In 2006, during the year-long public consultation for the drafting of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, he added a fourth topic explaining the proposed changes.[22]

Stallman's staunch advocacy for free software inspired "Virtual Richard M. Stallman" (vrms), software that analyzes the packages currently installed on a Debian GNU/Linux system, and report those that are from the non-free tree.[23] Stallman would disagree with parts of Debian's definition of free software.[24] Instead, Stallman endorses 6 distributions of GNU/Linux, those being Ututo, gNewSense, BLAG Linux and GNU, Dynebolic, GNUstep and Musix.[25][26]

In 1999, Stallman called for development of a free on-line encyclopedia through the means of inviting the public to contribute articles. See GNUPedia.[27]

In Venezuela, Stallman has delivered public speeches and promoted the adoption of free software in the state's oil company (PDVSA), in municipal government, and in the nation's military. In 2004, Stallman attended a speech by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, at a conference of Artists and Intellectuals in Defense of Humanity. In an encounter with Chávez, Stallman questioned recent laws passed over television broadcasting that challenged free speech rights.[28] Stallman is on the Advisory Council of teleSUR, a Latin American television station.[29]

In August 2006 at his meetings with the government of the Indian State of Kerala, he persuaded officials to discard proprietary software, such as Microsoft's, at state-run schools. This has resulted in a landmark decision to switch all school computers in 12,500 high schools from Windows to a free software operating system.[30]

After personal meetings, Stallman has obtained positive statements about free software movement from the 11th President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam[5], French 2007 presidential candidate, Ségolène Royal[6], the president of Ecuador, Rafael Correa[7].


Stallman places great importance on the words and labels people use to talk about the world, including the relationship between software and freedom. He untiringly asks people to say "free software", "GNU/Linux", and to avoid the term "intellectual property". His requests that people use certain terms, and his ongoing efforts to convince people of the importance of terminology, are a source of regular mis-understanding and friction with parts of the free and open source software community.

One of his criteria for giving an interview to a journalist is that the journalist agree to use his terminology throughout their article.[31] Sometimes he has even required journalists to read parts of the GNU philosophy before an interview, for "efficiency's sake".[32] He has been known to turn down speaking requests over some terminology issues.[33]

Stallman rejects a common alternative term "open-source software" because it does not call to mind what Stallman sees as the value of the software: freedom.[34] Thus it will not inform people of the freedom issues, and will not lead to people valuing and defending their freedom.[35] Two alternatives which Stallman does accept are "libre software" and "unfettered software", however, "free software" is the term he asks people to use in English. For similar reasons, he argues for the term "proprietary software" rather than "closed source software", when referring to software that is not free software.

FSF artwork of the gnu (GNU mascot) and the penguin Tux (Linux kernel mascot) representing their viewpoint on "GNU/Linux"

Stallman repeatedly asks that the term "GNU/Linux", which he pronounces "GNU Slash Linux", be used to refer to the operating system created by combining the GNU system and the Linux kernel. Stallman refers to this operating system as "a variant of GNU, and the GNU Project is its principal developer."[36] He claims that the connection between the GNU project's philosophy and its software is broken when people refer to the combination as merely "Linux."[37] Starting around 2003, he began also using the term "GNU+Linux", which he pronounces "GNU plus Linux".

Stallman argues that the term "Intellectual Property" is designed to confuse people, and is used to prevent intelligent discussion on the specifics of copyright, patent, and trademark laws, respectively, by lumping together areas of law that are more dissimilar than similar. He also argues that by referring to these laws as "property" laws, the term biases the discussion when thinking about how to treat these issues.

"These laws originated separately, evolved differently, cover different activities, have different rules, and raise different public policy issues. Copyright law was designed to promote authorship and art, and covers the details of a work of authorship or art. Patent law was intended to encourage publication of ideas, at the price of finite monopolies over these ideas--a price that may be worth paying in some fields and not in others. Trademark law was not intended to promote any business activity, but simply to enable buyers to know what they are buying."[38]

An example of cautioning others to avoid other terminology while also offering suggestions for possible alternatives, is this sentence of an email by Stallman to a public mailing list:

"I think it is ok for authors (please let's not call them "creators", they are not gods) to ask for money for copies of their works (please let's not devalue these works by calling them "content") in order to gain income (the term "compensation" falsely implies it is a matter of making up for some kind of damages)." [39]

In an essay, "Words to avoid" posted on the GNU Web site, he suggests the following:

  • "Software idea patents" rather than the more common "software patents", arguing that the latter gives the wrong impression that the patent covers an entire piece of software.
  • "(UFO) Uniform Fee Only" as a replacement for "(RAND) Reasonable and Non Discriminatory Licensing" arguing that a mandatory royalty of any amount discriminates against free software because distributors of free software cannot count the number of copies in existence. This concern is shared by much of the free software and open source communities[40], but Stallman's term is not widely used.
  • Avoiding "piracy" for the act of copying information, arguing that "piracy" has always designated the act of robbery or plunder at sea, and that the term is misused by corporations to lend a greater importance to the act of copying software or other intangible things.
  • "Corrupt discs" or "Fake CDs" to describe digital audio compact discs which employ Copy Control or other similar technology to prevent copying, arguing that they break the Red Book standard and noting that recently such discs are printed without the Compact Disc logo.
  • "Treacherous Computing" rather than "Trusted Computing", which limits the freedoms of users by denying them the ability to control their computers.
  • "Website Revision System (WRS)" as a replacement for "Content management system (CMS)" arguing that:
The term “content management” takes the prize for vacuity. Neither word has any specific meaning; “content” means “some sort of information”, and “management” in this context means “doing something with it”. So a “content management system” is a system for doing something to some sort of information.
  • Stallman refers to "Digital Rights Management" (DRM) as "Digital Restrictions Management", because DRM is designed to limit what the user can do, not grant the user more rights. He also suggests calling it "handcuffware", a term which has not caught on. The Free Software Foundation has started the "Defective by Design" campaign in response to these issues.

Personal life

By all accounts, including his own,[41] Stallman has devoted the bulk of his life’s energies to political and software activism. Professing to care little for material wealth, he explains that he has “always lived cheaply… like a student, basically. And I like that, because it means that money is not telling me what to do.”[42]

Stallman maintains no permanent residence outside his office at MIT’s CSAIL Lab,[43] describing himself as a “squatter” on campus.[44] He advocates living cheaply, and recommends not having a house, car, or children.[45] He also recommends not owning a mobile phone, for privacy reasons [46] as they track users and report users' movements to the phone company.[47] [48] His “research affiliate” position at MIT is unpaid.[49]

When asked about his influences, he has replied that he admires Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ralph Nader, and Dennis Kucinich. He has also commented: “I admire Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, even though I criticize some of the things that they did.”[50]

In a footnote to an article he wrote in 1999, he says “As an atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes find I admire something one of them has said.” [51] Stallman is a Green Party supporter. Stallman’s personal website includes a personal ad where he describes himself as a “reputedly intelligent” atheist.[41] He has had “sweethearts” before, according to interviews, but stated in March 2006 that he was not then in a relationship.[52]

As a young adult, Stallman counted folk dance among his passions,[53] and though he has since given it up due to knee injury,[54] he still performs small dance steps as a matter of spontaneous habit.[55] He enjoys a wide range of musical styles from Conlon Nancarrow to folk;[56][57] he plays the recorder.[58] His best-known original music composition, the Free Software Song, has attracted praise from his admirers and derision from some detractors.[59]

Stallman is a fan of science fiction, including works by the author Greg Egan[60]. He occasionally goes to science fiction conventions[61] and has written a few science fiction stories, notably "The Right to Read". A native English speaker, Stallman is also sufficiently fluent in French and Spanish to deliver his two hour speeches in those languages, and claims a “somewhat flawed” command of Indonesian.[62]


Stallman has received the following recognition for his work:


Notes and references

  1. ^ Williams, Sampoydne (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4.  Chapter 3. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October, 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October, 2006)
  2. ^ Stallman's 1983 personal biography, accessed on 18 February, 2005
  3. ^ Stallman, Richard M. & Sussman, Gerald J. (1977). Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking In a System for Computer-Aided Circuit analysis, published in Artificial Intelligence 9 pp.135-196
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Levy,S: Hackers, page 417. Penguin USA, 1984
  6. ^ Robert X. Cringely's interview with Brewster Kahle, around the 46th minute [2]
  7. ^ Williams, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4.  Chapter 6. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October, 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October, 2006)
  8. ^ Williams, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4.  Chapter 1. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October, 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October, 2006)
  9. ^ Levy,S: Hackers. Penguin USA, 1984
  10. ^ Various (1999). Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 1-56592-582-3. . Stallman chapter available online, accessed on 18 February, 2005
  11. ^ The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin by Peter H. Salus, accessed on 18 February, 2005.
  12. ^ new UNIX implementation
  13. ^ "POSIX® 1003.1 FAQ Version 1.12". 2006-02-02. Retrieved 2006-07-16.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  14. ^ Richard Stallman: GNU/Linux and a free society article by Takver Sunday October 10, 2004 at 08:06 AM on Melbourne Indymedia web site.
  15. ^ St IGNUcius web page at
  16. ^ "The Lemacs/FSFmacs Schism". Retrieved 2006-07-16. 
  17. ^ Drepper, Ulrich (2001-08-15). "glibc 2.2.4 release notes". mailing list. Retrieved 2006-07-16.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ "Freedom, Power, or Confusion?". Linux Today. 2001-08-17. Retrieved 2006-07-16.  Text " author Raymond, Eric S. " ignored (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ vrms: reports GFDL package autoconf-doc
  25. ^ Byfield, Bruce (2005-04-28). "Review: Ututo-e, the "only free distribution"". NewsForge. Retrieved 2006-07-16.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  26. ^ "Free GNU/Linux distributions". Retrieved 2006-07-16. 
  27. ^ Richard Stallman. "The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource". Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  28. ^ Stallman, Richard. "Encounter with President Chavez (2004-12-01 to 2004-12-06)". Richard Stallman Travel and Free Software Activities Journal.[3]
  29. ^ Chavez TV beams into South America
  30. ^ The Finacial Express: Kerala logs Microsoft out
  31. ^ Leader of the Free World, Wired Magazine, Issue 11.11, November 2003.
  32. ^ Interview with Josh Mehlman, Australian Personal Computer, accessed on 18 February, 2005
  33. ^ Linux, GNU, Freedom by Richard M. Stallman, accessed on 18 February, 2005
  34. ^ Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source", accessed on 18 February, 2005
  35. ^ Why Software Should Be Free. April 24, 1992.
  36. ^ Linux, GNU, and freedom by Richard M. Stallman
  37. ^ What's in a name? by Richard Stallman, accessed on 18 February, 2005
  38. ^ Did You Say "Intellectual Property"? It's a Seductive Mirage by Richard M. Stallman, accessed on 18 February, 2005
  39. ^ email on Top Policy Issues for Athens
  40. ^ A Call to Action in OASIS, accessed on 18 February, 2005
  41. ^ a b Stallman, Richard. "My Personal Ad". Retrieved 2006-11-26.  “My 23-year-old child, the Free Software Movement, occupies most of my life, leaving no room for more children, but I still have room to love a sweetheart.”
  42. ^ Stallman, Richard (2001-05-29). "Transcript of Richard M. Stallman's speech…". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  43. ^ Jones, K.C. "A Rare Glimpse into Richard Stallman's World". InformationWeek. 
  44. ^ Lerner, Reuven M. (1990-07-18). "Stallman wins $240,000 in MacArthur award". The Tech. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  45. ^ "Report from one of Stallman's talks where he advocates living cheaply". 
  46. ^ "Stallman recommends not carrying a mobile phone when interrupted by one ringing during a talk in 2006". 
  47. ^ "Stallman at the launch of GPLv3". 2006-01-16. 
  48. ^ "Page 4 of an article where Stallman's phone dislike is explained". 
  49. ^ "Stallman shares Takeda award of nearly $1M". MIT. 2001-10-17. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  50. ^ "FSF India: A Q & A session with Richard M. Stallman". Free Software Foundation of India. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  51. ^ Various (1999). Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 1-56592-582-3. . Stallman chapter available online, accessed on 9 December 2006
  52. ^ Poynder, Richard (2006-03-21). "Interview with Richard Stallman". Retrieved 2006-11-26.  “RS: … Last time I felt I had a home was when I had a sweetheart. Her house felt like home. That was a year and a half ago—somewhat more perhaps. … It would be nice if some day I had a sweetheart again [Stallman's voice breaks a little]. But I couldn't exactly say I am looking for one now.”
  53. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). "Impeach God". Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved 2006-11-26.  “During the middle of his sophomore year at Harvard, Stallman had joined up with a dance troupe that specialized in folk dances. What began as a simple attempt to meet women and expand his social horizons soon expanded into yet another passion alongside hacking.”
  54. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). "The Emacs Commune". Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved 2006-11-26.  “Near the end of that first year at MIT, however, disaster struck. A knee injury forced Stallman to drop out of the troupe.”
  55. ^ Poynder. “… he gets up from the sofa and spends the rest of the interview on his feet, … now and then throwing out his feet in small dance kicks. (In his younger days, Stallman was a folk dancing aficionado.)”
  56. ^ "Bruce Sterling interview where he mentions Stallman giving him a C. Nancarrow CD". 
  57. ^ "The "Humourus bio" on Stallman's homepage where he mentions liking folk". 
  58. ^ "Singapore-music.jpg". Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  59. ^ Zawinski, Jamie W. (2003-08-22). "why cooperation with RMS is impossible, part 3". Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  60. ^
  61. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  62. ^ "WGIG nominees - Richard Stallman". Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  63. ^ Award Citation
  64. ^ RESOLUCIÓN CS N° 204/04.

See also

External links


Stallman has four topics that he has spoken on often:

  1. The GNU project and the free software movement, March 3rd 2006
  2. The Dangers of Software Patents, May 24th 2004
  3. Copyright vs. Community in the Age of Computer Networks, April 19th 2001
  4. The GNU GPL, and GPLv3, April 1st 2007

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