- Armand-Jean du Plessis (1585–1642), better known in English-speaking countries as Cardinal Richelieu, a Cardinal of the Catholic Church, Duke of Richelieu and of Fronsac, noted French politician who served as Louis XIII's chief minister
- Alphonse-Louis du Plessis de Richelieu (1582–1653), French Carthusian, bishop and Cardinal; brother to Cardinal Armand Richelieu
- Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (1696–1788), marshal of France, grandnephew of the cardinal
- Emmanuel-Armand de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon, Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu, duc d'Aiguillon (1720–1782), statesman, nephew of the marshal
- Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel Sophie Septemanie du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (1766–1822), statesman, grandson of the marshal
- Duke of Richelieu, a title in the peerage of France created for cardinal Richelieu
- Andreas du Plessis de Richelieu (1852-1932), a Danish naval officer and businessman who became a Siamese admiral and minister of the navy
- Richelieu Levoyer, Military and politician of the Republic of Ecuador.
- Richelieu, Mauritius, Mauritius
- Richelieu, Indre-et-Loire, France
- Richelieu, Quebec, Canada
- Richelieu River, Quebec, Canada
- Richelieu (electoral district)
Literature and film
- Richelieu (novel), a novel written by George Payne Rainsford James, 1829
- Richelieu (play), a play written by Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1839
- Richelieu (film), a 1914 film based on the play, featuring Lon Chaney, Sr.
- French ironclad Richelieu (1873)
- French patrol boat Richelieu (1915)
- French battleship Richelieu (1939)
- French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle (R91), originally named Richelieu
- Richelieu (CSL ship), a lake freighter for Canada Steamship Lines
- Richelieu Foods, a private-label food industry manufacturer
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