Rickshaw began as a two or three-wheeled passenger cart, called a pulled rickshaw, generally pulled by one man with one passenger. The first known use of the term was in 1887. Over time, cycle rickshaws, also called pedicabs, auto rickshaws, electric rickshaws and solar rickshaws were invented.
Pulled rickshaws created a popular form of transportation, and a source of employment for male laborers, within Asian cities in the 19th century. Their appearance was related to newly acquired knowledge of ball-bearing systems. Their popularity declined as cars, trains and other forms of transportation became widely available.
Auto rickshaws are becoming more popular in some cities in the 21st century as an alternative to taxis because of their low cost.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Types
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Additional reading
Rickshaws were invented in Japan about 1869, after the lifting of a ban on wheeled vehicles from the Tokugawa period (1603-1868), and at the beginning of a rapid period of technical advancement in Japan.
There are several theories about the inventor.
- It was invented in Japan in 1869, by Izumi Yosuke, who formed a partnership with Suzuki Tokujiro and Takayama Kosuke to build the vehicles.
- Yosuke and two other men, Suzuki Tokujiro, and Takayama Kosuke, invented the rickshaw, having been "inspired by the horse carriages that had been introduced to the streets of Tokyo a few years earlier".
- Jonathan Scobie (or Jonathan Goble), an American missionary to Japan, is also said to have invented the rickshaw around 1869 to transport his invalid wife through the streets of Yokohama.
- An American blacksmith Albert Tolman is said to have invented the rickshaw, or "man drawn lorry", in 1846 in Worcester, Massachusetts, for a South American bound missionary.
- In New Jersey, the Burlington County Historical Society claims an 1867 invention by carriage maker James Birch, and exhibits a Birch rickshaw in its museum.
Japan historian Seidensticker wrote of the theories:
Though the origins of the rickshaw are not entirely clear, they seem to be Japanese, and of Tokyo specifically. The most widely accepted theory offers the name of three inventors, and gives 1869 as the date of invention.
The vehicle had a wooden carriage that rode on "superior Western wheels" and was a dramatic improvement over earlier modes of transportation. Whereas the earlier sedan chairs required two people, the rickshaw generally only required one. More than one person was required for hilly or mountainous areas. It also provided a smoother ride for the passenger. Other forms of vehicles at the time were drawn by animals or were wheelbarrows.
The Powerhouse Museum has had a rickshaw in its collection for 120 years. It was made about 1880 and is described as:
A rickshaw, or Jinrikisha, is a light, two-wheeled cart consisting of a doorless, chairlike body, mounted on springs with a collapsible hood and two shafts. Finished in black lacquer-ware over timber, it was drawn by a single rickshaw runner.
Late 19th century
It became an inexpensive, popular mode of transportation across Asia. Peasants who migrated to large Asian cities often worked first as a rickshaw runner. It was "the deadliest occupation in the East, [and] the most degrading for human beings to pursue."[nb 1]
Starting in 1870, the Tokyo government issued a permit to build and sell 人力車 (jinrikisha : rickshaws in Japanese) to the trio that are believed in Asia to be the rickshaw's inventors: Izumi Yosuke, Takayama Kosuke, and Suzuki Tokujiro. In order to operate a rickshaw in Tokyo, a seal was required from these men. By 1872, they replaced the palanquins and became the main mode of transportation in Japan, with about 40,000 rickshaws in service. At that time man-power was much cheaper than horse-power; horses were generally only used by the military. Some of the rickshaws were artistically decorated with paintings and rear elevations. In this time, the more exuberant styles of decorations were banned. If the families were well-off financially they might have their own rickshaw runner. Generally, runners covered 32 to 48 kilometres (20 to 30 mi) in a day, at an average traveling speed of 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) per hour.
Japanese rickshaw manufacturers produced and exported rickshaws to Asian countries and South Africa.
Singapore received its first rickshaws in 1880 and soon after they were prolific, making a "noticeable change in the traffic on Singapore's streets." Bullock carts and gharries were used prior to the introduction of rickshaws.
Many of the poorest individuals in Singapore in the late nineteenth century were poverty-stricken, unskilled people of Chinese ancestry. Sometimes called coolies, the hardworking men found that pulling a rickshaw was a new opportunity for employment.
In China, the rickshaw was first seen in 1873 and was used for public transportation the following year. Within a year there were 10,000 rickshaws in operation. Around 1880 rickshaws appeared in India, first introduced in Simla by Reverend J. Fordyce. At the turn of the century they were introduced in Calcutta, India, and by 1914 were a conveyance for hire. The rickshaw was also introduced to Korea in the late 19th century.
After World War II, there was a major shift in the use of man-powered rickshaws:
Hand-pulled rickshaws became an embarrassment to modernizing urban elites in the Third World, and were widely banned, in part because they were symbolic, not of modernity, but of a feudal world of openly marked class distinctions. Perhaps the seated rickshaw passenger is too close to the back of the laboring driver, who, besides, is metaphorically a draught animal harnessed between shafts.
The cycle rickshaw was built in the 1880s and was first used with regularity starting in 1929 in Singapore. They were found in every south and east Asian country by 1950. By the late 1980s there were estimated 4 million cycle rickshaws in the world.
Rickshaws were introduced to Durban, South Africa, and by 1904 there were about 2,000 registered rickshaw pullers.  Rickshaws operated in Nairobi in the beginning of the 20th century; pullers went on strike there in 1908. In the 1920s, they were used in Bagamoyo, Tanga, Tanzania and other areas of East Africa for short distances.
The rickshaw's popularity in Japan had declined by the 1930s with the advent of automated forms of transportation like automobiles and trains. After World War II, when gasoline and automobiles were scarce, they made a temporary come-back. The rickshaw tradition has stayed alive in Kyoto and Tokyo's geisha districts. In the 1990s, German-made cycle rickshaws called velotaxis were introduced in Japanese cities, including Kobe.
In China, the rickshaw's popularity began to decline in the 1920s and particularly as a mode of passenger transportation by the 1950s. A rough form of a rickshaw is sometimes used for hauling coal, building materials or other material. Both motorized and pedal-power cycle rickshaws, or pedicabs, were used for short distance passenger travel.
In Singapore, the rickshaw's popularity increased into the 20th century. There were approximately 50,000 rickshaws in 1920 and that number had doubled by 1930. Cycle rickshaws were used in Singapore beginning in 1929. Within six years pulled rickshaws were outnumbered by cycle rickshaws, which were also used by sightseeing tourists.[nb 2]
In the 1930s cycle rickshaws were used in Kolkata, India; Jakarta, Indonesia; and Dhaka, Bangladesh. By 1950 they could be found in the countries of south and east Asia. By the end of the century there were 300,000 such vehicles in Dhaka.By the end of 2013 there were about 100,000 Electric rickshaws in Delhi.
The 21st century has seen a resurgence in rickshaws, this time in auto rickshaws, also called velotaxis, because they are about 1/3 to 1/2 the cost of regular taxis. German velotaxis are three-wheeled, powered vehicles with a space for a driver and, behind the driver, space for two passengers. Cycle rickshaws are used in American, European, and Asian cities; They are used for their novelty value as an entertaining form of transportation.
To reduce the dependence upon fossil fuels and the resulting air pollution from gas-powered rickshaws, Malcom Moss, a British environmentalist, developed a solar rickshaw with a small electric motor. In 2001 he drove it across India.
Automated cycle rickshaws, called velotaxis, are popular in Kyoto and Tokyo, Japan. Their use is growing at a rate of about 20-30% a year in Japanese cities. The traditional rickshaws are still alive for travelers in some tourist places in Japan. Rickshaws are found in Hong Kong. In China, automated and pedal-power cycle rickshaws, or pedicabs, are used for short distance passenger travel in large cities and many medium-sized cities. Most Indian cities offer auto rickshaw service; Hand-pulled rickshaws do exist in some areas, such as Kolkata (Calcutta) as a part of their transport system which also includes cycle rickshaws.
- Denmark: Copenhagen and Odense
- France: Paris and Nantes
- Germany: Lake Constance, Berlin, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hanover and other cities.
- Hungary: Budapest
- Ireland: Cork and Dublin.
- Italy: Florence, Milan, and Rome
- Norway: Oslo
- Poland: Łódź
- Russia: Saint Petersburg
- Spain: Barcelona and Valencia
- The Netherlands: Amsterdam and in the Caribbean, Willemstad
Within the United Kingdom, pedicabs operate in:
- London boasts one of the largest numbers of pedicabs, that are mostly based in central London, such as in the Soho area. Their activity is not regulated by Transport for London so as the fares operators charge.[nb 3] There are also operators in Oxford.
- Edinburgh, where vendors are hired like taxis and provide tours.
In Canada there are pedicabs in operation in Victoria and Vancouver. They are regulated in Toronto and Vancouver. Pulled rickshaws rides are available in downtown Ottawa, with tours of historical Byward Market.
In the United States, San Diego and New York City each host hundreds of pedicabs; dozens of other North American cities also have pedicab services. In New York, human powered transport is used primarily by tourists due to its cost.[nb 4] In New Orleans, pedicabs have been utilized to transport French Quarter tourists since the summer of 2012.
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Types of rickshaws include:
- a pulled rickshaw; a two-wheeled passenger cart pulled by a human runner
- a cycle rickshaw, also called a pedicab
- an auto rickshaw, also called a tuk-tuk, bajaj, mototaxi, or baby taxi
- a electric rickshaw, also called e-rickshaw.
Pulled rickshaw, Madagascar
Cycle rickshaws, Nepal
Auto rickshaw, San Francisco, California
Pulled Rickshaw in Kolkata
The solar rickshaw was introduced in the 21st century.
- In China, coolies performed rickshaw pulling. Other hard or demeaning jobs included being night soil cleaners and dock workers.
- Other means of transportation in Singapore are buses, lorries and trams.
- Rickshaws or Pedicabs as they are also known, have been operating on the streets of London for over 7 years in and around the West End, Soho, Covent Garden and Leicester Square areas.
- At a rate of $5 plus $1 per block per person, a 20-block (one mile) pedicab ride for two people will cost $50. In a taxicab, the same ride would cost under $10. According to Peter Meitzler of New York's Manhattan Rickshaw Company, a passenger has an entirely different urban experience when one rides in a rickshaw.
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FILMS A five minute observational documentary was made in 2013 on Rickshaw riders in London. The documentary, The Base by Nora Jaccaud explores the little-known world of rickshaw riders in London. Hidden beneath the city’s streets, the film dives head long into a mysterious, secret society of eccentric, fringe characters from as far-flung points on the globe as Poland, Bangladesh, Japan all bound together by a common destiny – wherever they come from or are going, they find themselves today shedding blood sweat and tears at a socioeconomic crossroads – a bizarre way-station at the margins of life in the modern city. https://vimeo.com/81446251
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