Riddles (Arabic)

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Riddles are historically a significant genre of Arabic verse, and extensive scholarly collections have also been made of riddles in oral circulation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Analysis of this literary form has, however, been neglected by modern scholars.[1]

Terminology[edit]

Riddles are known in Arabic principally as lughz (Arabic: لُغز‎) (pl. alghāz ألغاز), but other terms include uḥjiyya (pl. aḥājī), and ta'miya.[2] The term mu‘ammā (literally 'blinded' or 'obscured') is sometimes used as a synonym for lughz (or to denote cryptography or codes more generally), but it can be used specifically to denote a riddle which is solved 'by combining the constituent letters of the word or name to be found'.[3]

Lughz is a capacious term.[4] As al-Nuwayrī (1272–1332) puts it in the chapter on alghāz and aḥājī in his Nihāyat al-arab fī funūn al-adab:

Lughz is thought to derive from the phrase alghaza ’l-yarbū‘u wa-laghaza, which described the action of a field rat when it burrows its way first straight ahead but then veers off to the left or right in order to more successfully elude its enemies (li-yuwāriya bi-dhālika) so that it becomes, as it were, almost invisible (wa-yu‘ammiya ‘alā ṭālibihī). But in fact our language also has many other names of lughz such as mu’āyāh, ’awīṣ, ramz, muḥāgāh, abyāt al-ma’ānī, malāḥin, marmūs, ta’wīl, kināyah, ta‘rīd, ishārah, tawgīh, mu‘ammā, mumaththal. Although each of these terms is used more or less interchangeably for lughz, the very fact that there are so many of them is indicative of the varied explanations which the concept of lughz can apparently support.[5]

This array of terms goes beyond those covered by riddle in English, into metaphor, ambiguity, and punning, indicating the fuzzy boundaries of the concept of the riddle in literary Arabic culture.[6]

Early attestations[edit]

As of 2011, 'the emergence of the Arabic literary riddle needs yet to be studied'.[7] The Koran does not contain riddles as such, though it does contain conundra.[8] But riddles are attested in early Arabic literary culture, 'scattered in old stories attributed to the pre-Islamic bedouins, in the ḥadīth and elsewhere; and collected in chapters'.[9]

According to Pieter Smoor, discussing a range of ninth- to eleventh-century poets,

There is a slow but discernable development which can be traced in the Arabic riddle poem through the course of time. The earlier poets, like Ibn al-Rūmi, al-Sarī al-Raffā’ and Mutanabbī composed riddle poems of the 'narrow' kind, i.e. without the use of helpful homonyms ... Abu ’l-‘Alā’'s practise, however, tended toward the reverse: in his work 'narrow' riddles have become comparatively rare ... while homonymous riddles are quite common.[10]

Since early Arabic poetry often features rich, metaphorical description, and ekphrasis, there is a natural overlap in style and approach between poetry generally and riddles specifically;[11] literary riddles are therefore often a subset of the descriptive poetic form known as wasf.[12]

Pre-Abbasid (pre-750 CE)[edit]

There is little evidence for Arabic riddling in the pre-Islamic period. A riddle contest, supposedly between the sixth-century CE Imru' al-Qais and ‘Abīd ibn al-Abraṣ, exists,[13] but is not thought actually to have been composed by these poets.[14] One of the earliest reliably attested composers of riddles was Dhu al-Rummah (c. 696-735), whose verse riddles 'undoubtedly contributed' to the 'rooting and spread' of Arabic literary riddles, particularly his uHjyat al-‘Arab ('the riddle-poem of the Arabs'). This comprises a nasīb (stanzas 1-14), travel faHr (15-26) and then a series of enigmatic statements (28-72).[15] Odes 27, 64, 82 and 83 also contain riddles.[16][17][18] For example, 82 runs:

وَجَارِيَةٍ لَيْسَت مِنَ ٱلْإنْسِ تَسْتَحِى وَلَاٱلْجِنِّ قَدْ لَاعَبْتُهَا وَمَعِى دُهْنِى
فَأَدْخَلْتُ فِيهَا قَيْدَ شِبْرٍ مُوَفَّرٍ فَصَاحَتْ وَلَا وَٱﷲِ مَا وُجِدَتْ تَزْنِى
فَلَمَّا دَنَتْ اهْرَاَقَةُ ٱلْمَآء أَنْصَتَتْ لِأَعْزِلَةٍ عَنْهَا وَفِى ٱلنَّفْسِ أَنْ أُثْنِى[19]

And many a shy maid neither human nor genie have I dallied with while I had my oil with me.
So I inserted into her an ample span-length and she cried out. And no, by God! she was not found to be committing fornication.
And when the time of emission (pouring forth of water) came near she became quiet in order that I might have the emission outside though desiring that I do it again.[20]

The solution to this riddle is that the narrator is drawing water from a well. The 'shy maid' is a bucket. The bucket has a ring on it, into which the narrator inserts a pin which is attached to the rope which he uses the draw up the water. As the bucket is drawn up, it makes noise, but once at the top it is still and therefore quiet. Once the bucket is still, the narrator can pour out the water, and the bucket desires to be filled again.

Abbasid (750-1258 CE)[edit]

Anthologies[edit]

Collections of riddles appear, alongside other poetry, in Abbasid anthologies. They include chapter 89 of al-Zahra by Ibn Dā’ūd al-Iṣbahāni (868-909 CE), part of book 25 of al-ʿIqd al-Farīd (specifically the section entitled Bāb al-lughz) by Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih (860–940), and Ḥilyat al-muḥāḍara by al-Ḥātimī (d. 998). Among the diverse subjects covered by riddles in this period, the pen was particularly popular in this period: the Dhakhīrah of Ibn Bassām (1058-1147), for example, presents examples by Ibn Khafājah, Ibn al-Mu‘tazz, Abu Tammām and Ibn al-Rūmī and al-Ma‘arrī.[21] Musical instruments are another popular topic.[22]

Riddles were also discussed by literary commentators, prominently including Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Abu ’l-Fatḥ Naṣr Allāh Ibn al-Athīr's al-Mathal al-sāʾir (chapter 21). These texts are also important repositories of riddles.[23]

In narrative contexts[edit]

Riddles also came to be integrated into the episodic anthologies known as maqamat ('assemblies'). An early example was the Maqamat by Badi' az-Zaman al-Hamadhani (969–1007 CE), for example in assemblies 3, 29, 31, 35. This example of one of al-Hamadhānī's riddles comes from elsewhere in his diwan, and was composed for Sahib ibn Abbad:

Akhawāni min ummin wa-ab Lā yafturāni ‘ani l-shaghab



Mā minhumā illā ḍanin Yashkū mu‘ānāta l-da’ab



Wa-kilāhumā ḥaniqu l-fu’ā Di ‘alā akhīhi bi-lā sabab



Yughrīhimā bi-l-sharri sib Ṭu l-rīḥi wa-bnu abī l-khashab



Mā minhumā illā bihī Sharṭu l-yubūsati wa-l-ḥarab



Fa-lanā bi-ṣulḥihimā radan Wa-lanā bi-ḥarbihimā nashab



Yā ayyuhā l-maliku l-ladhī Fī kulli khaṭbin yuntadab



Akhrijhu ikhrāja l-dhakiy Yi fa-qad waṣaftu kamā wajab

[There are] two brothers from [the same] mother and father
Who will not give up quarreling

Both of them are worn out
Complaining about the pains of perseverance

Each of the two has a heart enraged
Against his brother for no reason

The grandson of the wind
And the son of the father of wood provoke evil from them

Only by it do they satisfy
The condition of separation and anger

Their reconciliation brings about destruction for us
While their war yields property for us

O king who
Is always promptly obeyed

Figure it out the way a sharp-witted person does
For I gave an adequate description.[24]

The brothers are millstones, driven by a waterwheel made of wood.

Al-Hamadhani's Maqamat were an inspiration for the Maqāmāt of Al-Hariri of Basra (1054–1122 CE), which contain several different kinds of enigmas (assemblies 3, 8, 15, 24, 29, 32, 35, 36, 42 and 44) and establish him as one of the pre-eminent riddle-writers of the medieval Arab world.[25] One of his riddles runs as follows:

Then he said 'now here is another for you, O lords of intellect, fraught with obscurity:

One split in his head it is, through whom ‘the writ’ is known, as honoured recording angels take their pride in him;
When given to drink he craves for more, as though athirst, and settles to rest when thirstiness takes hold of him;
And scatters tears about him when ye bid him run, but tears that sparkle with the brightness of a smile.

After we could not guess who whis might be, he told us he was riddling upon a reed-pen.[26]

Several stories in One Thousand and One Nights also involve riddles. For example, a perhaps tenth-century CE story about the legendary poet Imru' al-Qais features him insisting that he will marry only the woman who can say which eight, four, and two are. Rather than 'fourteen', the answer is the number of teats on, respectively, a dog, a camel, and a woman. In the face of other challenges, successful prosecution of al-Qais's marriage continues to depend on the wit of his new fiancée.[27]

By poets[edit]

Thw diwan of Al-Sarī al-Raffā’ (d. ) contains several riddles on mundane objects.[28] composed several Abū al-‘Alā’ al-Mar‘arrī (973-1057) is also noted as an exponent of riddles.[29] Al-Mar‘arrī's lost work Gāmi‘ al-awzān is thought to have contained many riddles, some of which are preserved by later scholars, principally Ibn al-‘Adīm.[30]

Modern attestations[edit]

Riddles have been collected by scholars throughout the Arabic-speaking world, and we can arguably 'speak of the Arabic riddle as a discrete phenomenon'.[31] Examples of modern riddles, as categorised and selected by Chyet, are:[32]

  • Nonoppositional
    • Literal: Werqa ‘ala werqa, ma hiya? (l-beṣla) [leaf upon leaf, what is she? (an onion)] (Morocco)
    • Metaphorical: Madīnatun ḥamrā’, ǧidrānuhā ḩaḍrā’, miftāḥuḥa ḥadīd, wa-sukkānuhā ‘abīd (il-baṭṭīḩ) [a red city, its walls are green, its key is iron, and its inhabitants are black slaves (watermelon)] (Palestine)
    • Solution included in the question: Ḩiyār ismo w-aḩḍar ǧismo, Allāh yihdīk ‘alā smo (il-ḩiyār) ['Ḩiyār {='cucumber'} is its name and green its body, may God lead you to its name [=to what it is] (cucumber)] (Palestine)
  • Oppositional
    • Antithetical contradictive (only one of two descriptive elements can be true): Kebīra kēf el-fīl, u-tenṣarr fī mendīl (nāmūsīya) [big as an elephant, and folds up into a handkerchief (mosquito net)] (Libya)
    • Privational contradictive (second descriptive element denies a characteristic of the first descriptive element): Yemšī blā rās, u-yeqtel blā rṣāṣ (en-nher) [goes without a head, and kills without lead (a river)] (Algeria)
      • Inverse privational contradictive: Gaz l-wad ‘ala ržel (‘okkaz) [crossed the river on one leg (walking stick/cane)] (Morocco)
    • Causal contradictive (things don't add up as expected; a time dimension is involved): Ḩlug eš bāb, kber u-šāb, u-māt eš bāb (el-gamra) [was born a youth, grew old and white, and died a youth (the moon)] (Tunisia)
  • Contrastive (a pair of binary, non-oppositional complements contrasted with each other): mekkēn fī kakar, akkān dā ġāb, dāk ḥaḍar (iš-šams wil-gamar) [two kings on a throne, if one is absent, the other is present (the sun and the moon)] (Sudan)
  • Compound (with multiple descriptive elements, falling into different categories from those just listed): Šē yākul min ġēr fumm, in akal ‘āš, w-in širib māt (in-nār) [a thing which eats without a mouth, if it eats it lives, and if it drinks it dies (fire)] (Egypt)

Subgenres[edit]

Abyat al-ma'ani[edit]

Abyāt al-maʿānī is a technical term related to the genre of alghāz. In a chapter on alghāz, Al-Suyuti defines the genre as follows:[33]

There are kinds of puzzles that the Arabs aimed for and other puzzles that the scholars of language aim for, and also lines in which the Arabs did not aim for puzzlement, but they uttered them and they happened to be puzzling; these are of two kinds: Sometimes puzzlement occurs in them on account of their meaning, and most of abyāt al-maʿānī are of this type. Ibn Qutaybah compiled a good volume on this, and others compiled similar works. They called this kind [of poetry] abyāt al-maʿānī because it requires someone to ask about their meaning and they are not comprehended on first consideration. Some other times, puzzlement occurs because of utterance, construction or inflection (iʿrāb).

Mu‘ammā[edit]

The first known exponent of the mu‘ammā form seems to have been the major classical poet Abu Nuwas,[34] though other poets are also credited with inventing the form: Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Farahidi (noted for his cryptography) and Ali ibn Abi Talib.[35] It appears that the mu‘ammā form and riddles using the numerical values of letters become popular from perhaps the thirteenth century.[36]

The mu‘ammā is in verse, does not include an interrogatory element, and involves clues as to the letters or sounds of the word. One example of the form is a riddle on the name Aḥmad:

awwaluhu thālithu tuffāḥatin
wa-rābi‘u ’l-tuffāḥi thānīhī
Wa-awwalu ’l-miski lahū thālithun
wa-ākhiru ’l-wardi li-bāḳihī

Its first is the third of [the word] tuffāḥa (apple) = A;
and the fourth of [the word] tuffāḥ (apples) is its second = Ḥ;
and the first of [the word] misk (musk) is its third = M;
and the last of the word ward (roses) is the remainder of it = D[37]

Another example, cited by Ibn Dāwūd al-Iṣfahānī, has the answer 'Sa‘īd'. Here, and in the transliteration that follows, short vowels are transliterated in superscript, as they are not included in the Arabic spelling:

فَاخر الترس له أول وثالث الدرع له آخر
وخامس الساعد ثانٍ له ورابع السيف له دابر

The end of "turs" [shield] is for him the beginning / The third of "al-dir‘" [armor] is for him the end
The fifth of "al-sā‘id" [arm] is for him the second / The fourth of "al-sayf" [sword] is for him what follows[38]

Influence[edit]

Arabic riddle-traditions also influenced medieval Hebrew poetry.[39] One prominent Hebrew exponent of the form is the medieval Andalusian poet Judah Halevi, who for example wrote

What's slender, smooth and fine,
and speaks with power while dumb,
in utter silence kills,
and spews the blood of lambs?[40]

(The answer is 'a pen'.)

Collections and indices[edit]

  • Morgenländische Spruchweisheit: Arabische Sprichwörter und Rätsel. Aus mündlicher Überlieferung gesammelt und übtertragen, ed. and trans. by Enno Littmann, Morgenland. Darstellungen aus Geschichte und Kultur des Ostens, 29 (Leipzig, 1937)
  • S. Hillelson, 'Arabic Proverbs, Sayings, Riddles and Popular Beliefs', Sudan Notes and Records, 4.2 (1921), 76–86
  • Jeffrey Heath, Hassaniya Arabic (Mali): Poetic and Ethnographic Texts (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2003), pp. 186–87.
  • A. J. Arberry, A Maltese Anthology (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), pp. 1–37 (riddles alongside proverbs, folktales, etc., in English translation)
  • Hasan M. El-Shamy, Folk Traditions of the Arab World: A Gues to Motif Classification, 2 vols (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995)
  • A. Giacobetti, Recueil d’enigmes arabes populaires (Algiers 1916)
  • J. Quemeneur, Enigmes tunisiennes (Tunis 1937)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cf. A. A. Seyed-Gohrab, Courtly Riddles: Enigmatic Embellishments in Early Persian Poetry (Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2010), 14-18.
  2. ^ G. J. H. van Gelder, 'lughz', in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. by Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1998), II 479.
  3. ^ G. J. H. van Gelder, 'mu‘ammā', in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. by Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1998), II 534.
  4. ^ Smoor, Pieter, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312, https://www.jstor.org/stable/43377840.
  5. ^ Smoor, Pieter, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (pp. 283--84), https://www.jstor.org/stable/43377840.
  6. ^ Smoor, Pieter, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (p. 284), https://www.jstor.org/stable/43377840.
  7. ^ Nefeli Papoutsakis, Desert Travel as a Form of Boasting: A Study of D̲ū r-Rumma's Poetry, Arabische Studien, 4 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009), p. 19; cf. the 2011 article Nefeli Papoutsakis, 'Dhū l-Rumma', in Encyclopædia of Islam, THREE, ed. by Kate Fleet and others (Leiden: Brilll, 2007-), s.v. DOI:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_26011.
  8. ^ A. A. Seyed-Gohrab, Courtly Riddles: Enigmatic Embellishments in Early Persian Poetry (Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2010), pp. 14-15.
  9. ^ G. J. H. van Gelder, 'lughz', in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. by Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1998), II 479.
  10. ^ Pieter Smoor, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (p. 309), https://www.jstor.org/stable/43377840.
  11. ^ G. J. H. van Gelder, 'lughz', in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. by Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1998), II 479.
  12. ^ Yaron Klein, '[1]' (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 2009), p. 83.
  13. ^ Pieter Smoor, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (pp. 296-97).
  14. ^ Nefeli Papoutsakis, Desert Travel as a Form of Boasting: A Study of D̲ū r-Rumma's Poetry, Arabische Studien, 4 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009), p. 19 fn. 83.
  15. ^ Nefeli Papoutsakis, Desert Travel as a Form of Boasting: A Study of D̲ū r-Rumma's Poetry, Arabische Studien, 4 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009), p. 19. Ode 49 in the numbering of ʿAbd al-Qaddūs Abū Ṣāliḥ (ed.), Dīwān Dhī l-Rumma. Sharḥ Abī Naṣr al-Bāhilī, riwāyat Thaʿlab, 3 vols (Beirut 1994); ode 24 in the numbering of Carlile Henry Hayes Macartney (ed.), The dîwân of Ghailân Ibn ʿUqbah known as Dhu ’r-Rummah (Cambridge 1919).
  16. ^ In the numbering of ʿAbd al-Qaddūs Abū Ṣāliḥ (ed.), Dīwān Dhī l-Rumma. Sharḥ Abī Naṣr al-Bāhilī, riwāyat Thaʿlab, 3 vols (Beirut 1994). In the numbering of Carlile Henry Hayes Macartney (ed.), The dîwân of Ghailân Ibn ʿUqbah known as Dhu ’r-Rummah (Cambridge 1919), these are: 11, ?, 85, ?.
  17. ^ Nefeli Papoutsakis, Desert Travel as a Form of Boasting: A Study of D̲ū r-Rumma's Poetry, Arabische Studien, 4 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009), p. 20.
  18. ^ Nefeli Papoutsakis, 'Dhū l-Rumma', in Encyclopædia of Islam, THREE, ed. by Kate Fleet and others (Leiden: Brill, 2007-), s.v. DOI:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_26011.
  19. ^ The dîwân of Ghailân Ibn ʿUqbah known as Dhu ’r-Rummah, ed. by Carlile Henry Hayes Macartney (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1919), p. 645.
  20. ^ Abdul Jabbar Yusuf Muttalibi, 'A Critical Study of the Poetry of Dhu'r-Rumma' (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, SOAS, University of London, 1960), p. 171.
  21. ^ ʼAbī ʼal-Ḥasan ʻAlī ibn Bassām ʼal-Shantarīnī., ʼal-Dhakhīrah fī maḥāsin ahl ʼal-Jazīrah, ed. by Iḥsān ʻAbbās, 4 vols in 8 (Bayrūt: Dār ʼal-Thaqāfah, 1978), III: II, pp. 580ff.
  22. ^ Yaron Klein, 'Musical instruments as objects of meaning in classical Arabic_poetry and philosophy' (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 2009), pp. 83-99.
  23. ^ Pieter Smoor, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (p. 285-92).
  24. ^ Erez Naaman, Literature and the Islamic Court: Cultural life under al-Ṣāḥib Ibn ‘Abbād (London: Routledge, 2016), pp. 142-43.
  25. ^ Archer Taylor, The Literary Riddle before 1600 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1948), pp. 25-30; Pieter Smoor, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (p. 291).
  26. ^ The assemblies of al-Hariri : fifty encounters with the Shaykh Abu Zayd of Seruj, trans. by Amina Shah (London: Octagon Press, 1980), p. 209. Verse translation adapted from The Assemblies of Al-Ḥarîri. Translated from the Arabic with Notes Historical and Grammatical, trans. by Thomas Chenery and F. Steingass, Oriental Translation Fund, New Series, 3, 2 vols (London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1867–98), II, 116, https://archive.org/details/assembliesofalha015555mbp.
  27. ^ Christine Goldberg, Turandot's Sisters: A Study of the Folktale AT 851, Garland Folklore Library, 7 (New York: Garland, 1993), pp. 24-25.
  28. ^ Smoor, Pieter, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (pp. 298-300).
  29. ^ G. J. H. van Gelder, 'lughz', in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. by Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1998), II 479.
  30. ^ Smoor, Pieter, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312.
  31. ^ Michael L. Chyet, ' "A Thing the Size of Your Palm": A Preliminary Study of Arabic Riddle Structure', Arabica, 35 (1988), 267-92 (p. 291).
  32. ^ Michael L. Chyet, ' "A Thing the Size of Your Palm": A Preliminary Study of Arabic Riddle Structure', Arabica, 35 (1988), 267-92 (pp. 270-74).
  33. ^ Orfali, Bilal (1 January 2012). "A Sketch Map of Arabic Poetry Anthologies up to the Fall of Baghdad". Journal of Arabic Literature. 43 (1): 29–59. doi:10.1163/157006412X629737.
  34. ^ G. J. H. van Gelder, 'mu‘ammā', in Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, ed. by Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 1998), II 534.
  35. ^ M. Bencheneb, 'Lughz', in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edn, ed. by H. A. R. Gibb and others (Leiden: Brill, 1954-2009), s.v.
  36. ^ Pieter Smoor, 'The Weeping Wax Candle and Ma‘arrī's Wisdom-tooth: Night Thoughts and Riddles from the Gāmi‘ al-awzān', Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 138 (1988), 283-312 (pp. 309-11).
  37. ^ M. Bencheneb, 'Lughz', in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edn, ed. by H. A. R. Gibb and others (Leiden: Brill, 1954-2009), s.v.
  38. ^ Lara Harb, 'Beyond the Known Limits: Ibn Dāwūd al-Iṣfahānī's Chapter on "Intermedial" Poetry', in Arabic Humanities, Islamic Thought: Essays in Honor of Everett K. Rowson, ed. by Joseph Lowry, Shawkat Toorawa, Islamic History and Civilisation: Studies and Texts, 141 (Leiden: Brill, 2017), pp. 122-49 (pp. 136-37); doi:10.1163/9789004343290_008.
  39. ^ e.g. Nehemya Aluny, 'Ten Dunash Ben Labrat's Riddles', The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Oct., 1945), pp. 141-146, https://www.jstor.org/stable/1452496; The Dream of the Poem: Hebrew Poetry from Muslim and Christian Spain, 950–1492, ed. and trans. by Peter Cole (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), pp. 443, 530.
  40. ^ The Dream of the Poem: Hebrew Poetry from Muslim and Christian Spain, 950–1492, ed. and trans. by Peter Cole (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), p. 150.