Riemann xi function
in the complex plane
. The color of a point
encodes the value of the function. Darker colors denote values closer to zero and hue encodes the value's argument
In mathematics, the Riemann Xi function is a variant of the Riemann zeta function, and is defined so as to have a particularly simple functional equation. The function is named in honour of Bernhard Riemann.
Riemann's original lower-case "xi"-function, was renamed with an upper-case (Greek letter "Xi") by Edmund Landau. Landau's lower-case ("xi") is defined as
for . Here denotes the Riemann zeta function and is the Gamma function.
The functional equation (or reflection formula) for Landau's is
Riemann's original function, rebaptised upper-case by Landau, satisfies
and obeys the functional equation
Both functions are entire and purely real for real arguments.
The general form for positive even integers is
where Bn denotes the n-th Bernoulli number. For example:
The function has the series expansion
where the sum extends over ρ, the non-trivial zeros of the zeta function, in order of .
This expansion plays a particularly important role in Li's criterion, which states that the Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to having λn > 0 for all positive n.
A simple infinite product expansion is
where ρ ranges over the roots of ξ.
To ensure convergence in the expansion, the product should be taken over "matching pairs" of zeroes, i.e., the factors for a pair of zeroes of the form ρ and 1−ρ should be grouped together.
- ^ a b Landau, Edmund (1974) . Handbuch der Lehre von der Verteilung der Primzahlen [Handbook of the Study of Distribution of the Prime Numbers] (Third ed.). New York: Chelsea. §70-71 and page 894.
This article incorporates material from Riemann Ξ function on PlanetMath, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.