Right- and left-hand traffic
||This article may have too many links to other articles, and could require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (August 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic, unless otherwise directed, to keep to the right or to the left side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road.
About two thirds of the world's population (163 countries and territories) are RHT, with the remaining (76 countries and territories) LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area and a quarter of its roads. In the early 1900s some countries like Canada, Spain, and Brazil, had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT, and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched sides.
Most regions with concentrations of LHT are where there were once many British colonies such as the Caribbean, southern Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. In Europe, only four countries still drive on the left: the United Kingdom, Ireland, Malta, and Cyprus, all of which are islands. Japan is one of the few countries outside the former British Empire (along with Thailand, Nepal, Bhutan, Mozambique, Suriname, East Timor and Indonesia) to drive on the left.
Nearly all countries use one side or the other throughout the entire country. Exceptions are due to historical considerations and involve islands not attached the main country. China is RHT except the Special Administrative Regions of China of Hong Kong and Macau. The United States is RHT except the United States Virgin Islands. The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT.
In RHT jurisdictions, vehicles are configured with left hand drive (LHD), with the driver sitting on the left side. In LHT jurisdictions, the reverse is true. The driver's side, the side closest to the centre of the road, is sometimes called the offside, while the passenger side, the side closest to the side of the road, is sometimes called the nearside.
According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is RHT. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations provide for passing on the right, both in the air and on water.
Light rail vehicles generally follow the same rules as other road traffic in the country. In many countries where automobiles are RHT, trains are LHT where they nations kept left-handed rail traffic after switching automobile traffic to LHT. China switched to RHT in 1946 but kept its left-handed railways.
- 1 History
- 2 Worldwide distribution by country
- 3 Changing sides at borders
- 4 Road vehicle configurations
- 5 Traffic behaviour
- 6 See also
- 7 Gallery
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman troops kept to the left when marching. Which side of the road the Ancient Romans drove on is disputed. Roman roads in Turkey suggest Romans used the right-hand side of the road.[unreliable source?] In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon. The grooves in the road on the left side (viewed facing down the track away from the quarry) were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry heavily loaded, and enter it empty.
Some historians, such as C. Northcote Parkinson, believed that ancient travellers on horseback or on foot generally kept to the left, since most people were right handed. If two men riding on horseback were to start a fight, each would edge toward the left. In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left.
In the late 1700s, traffic in the United States was RHT based on teamsters' use of large freight wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. The wagons had no driver's seat, so a postilion sat on the left rear horse and held his whip in his right hand. Seated on the left, the driver preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of oncoming wagons.
In France, traditionally foot traffic had kept right, while carriage traffic kept left. Following the French Revolution, all traffic kept right. Following the Napoleonic Wars, the French imposed RHT on parts of Europe. During the colonial period, RHT was introduced by the French in New France, French West Africa, the Maghreb, French Indochina, the West Indies, French Guiana and the Réunion, among others.
Meanwhile, LHT traffic was introduced by the British in Atlantic Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the East Africa Protectorate, the British India, Southern Rhodesia and the Cape Colony (now Zimbabwe and South Africa), British Guiana, and British Hong Kong. LHT was also introduced by the Portuguese Empire in Portuguese Macau, Colonial Brazil, East Timor, Portuguese Mozambique, and Angola.
The first keep-right law in the United States was passed in 1792 and applied to the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike. New York formalised right-hand traffic in 1804, New Jersey in 1813 and Massachusetts in 1821.
In 1915 left-hand traffic was introduced everywhere in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918 the Empire was split up into several countries, and they all changed eventually to RHT, as in the switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia.
Sweden was LHT from about 1734 to 1967, despite having land borders with RHT countries, and virtually all the cars on the road in Sweden were LHD. A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT. Nevertheless, the government ordered a conversion that took place at 5am on Sunday, 3 September 1967, which was known in Swedish as Dagen H (H-Day), the 'H' being for Högertrafik or right traffic. The accident rate dropped sharply after the change, but soon rose back to near its original level.
Iceland switched to RHT the following year.
In the late 1960s the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT but declared it unsafe and too costly. Consequently, road building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length.
During the planning of the Pan American Highway from Alaska to Cape Horn in the 1930s, it was decided that the road should use right-hand driving on its entire length. Many countries changed to RHT. Guyana and Suriname are the only two remaining countries in the mainland Americas that drive on the left.
Much of the Caribbean is LHT.
Asia and the Pacific
China adopted RHT in 1946. Taiwan changed to driving on the right at the same time. Hong Kong and Macau continue to be LHT.
After the defeat of Japan during World War II, Okinawa was ruled by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands and compelled to drive on the right. Okinawa was returned to Japanese control in 1972 and changed back to driving on the left six years later, at 06:00 on 30 July 1978. The conversion operation was known as 730 (Nana-San-Maru, which means Nana(7)-San(3)-Maru(0)). Okinawa is one of few places to have changed from right- to left-hand traffic in the late 20th century.
Burma switched to RHT in 1970.
Samoa, a former German colony, had been RHT for more than a century. It switched to LHT in 2009, being the first territory in almost 40 years to switch. The move was legislated in 2008 to allow Samoans to use cheaper RHD vehicles imported from Australia, New Zealand, or Japan, and to harmonise with other South Pacific nations. A political party, The People's Party, was formed to try to protest the change, a protest group which launched a legal challenge, and an estimated 18,000 people attending demonstrations against it. The motor industry was also opposed as 14,000 of Samoa's 18,000 vehicles are designed for right-hand traffic and the government has refused to meet the cost of conversion. After months of preparation, the switch from right to left happened in an atmosphere of national celebration. There were no reported incidents. At 05:50 local time, Monday 7 September, a radio announcement halted traffic, and an announcement at 6:00 ordered traffic to switch to LHT. The change coincided with more restrictive enforcement of speeding and seat-belt laws. That day and the following day were be public holidays, to reduce traffic. The change included a three-day ban on alcohol sales, while police mounted dozens of checkpoints, warning drivers to drive slowly.
Ghana switched to RHT in 1974.
Rwanda, a former Belgian colony in central Africa, is RHT but is considering switching to LHT, to bring the country in line with other members of the East African Community (EAC). A survey, carried out in 2009, indicated that 54% of Rwandans were in favour of the switch. Reasons cited were the perceived lower costs of RHD vehicles as opposed to LHD versions of the same model, easier maintenance and the political benefit of harmonisation of traffic regulations with other EAC countries. The same survey also indicated that right-hand drive cars are 16 to 49 per cent cheaper than their left-hand drive equivalents. In 2014 an internal report from consultants to the Ministry of Infrastructure recommended a switch to LHT. In 2015, the ban on RHD vehicles was lifted; RHD trucks from neighbouring countries cost $1000 less than left hand drive models imported from Europe.
Worldwide distribution by country
Of United Nations recognised countries, RHT is used in 129, and LHT is used in 63. A country and its territories and dependencies is counted once.
Changing sides at borders
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Although many LHT jurisdictions are on islands, there are cases where vehicles may be driven from LHT across a border into a RHT area. The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic regulates the use of foreign registered vehicles in the 72 countries that are parties to the 1968 agreement.
Although the United Kingdom is separated from Continental Europe by the English Channel, the level of cross-Channel traffic is very high; the Channel Tunnel alone carries 3.5 million vehicles per year between the UK and France. Most vehicles crossing the Channel, whether via the Channel Tunnel or on ferries, are UK-registered RHD vehicles. Large numbers of British drivers take their RHD cars to Continental Europe for holidays and day trips. For a variety of reasons, Continental European LHD heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) have become common on the UK's roads, particularly on major routes radiating from ports and the Channel Tunnel. This affects the safety of large LHD vehicles, with blind-spots arising from the LHD and the probable inexperience of drivers with these problems.
Some countries have borders where drivers must switch from LHT to RHT and vice versa. LHT Thailand has four RHT neighbors. Most of its borders use a simple traffic light to do the switch, but there are also interchanges which enable the switch while keeping up a continuous flow of traffic. Brazil funded construction of Takutu River Bridge, from Bonfim to Lethem, Guyana, the only remaining land border in Americas where traffic change sides, since its opening in 2009.
There are four road border crossing points between Hong Kong and China. The largest and busiest is Lok Ma Chau Control Point, which features two separate changeover systems on the mainland side, the Huanggang Port. In 2006, the daily average number of vehicle trips recorded at Lok Ma Chau was 31,100. The next largest is Man Kam To, where there is no changeover system and the border roads on the mainland side Wenjindu intersect as one-way streets with a main road.
In the south-west of Guyana, near Lethem, work was finally completed on 26 April 2009 on the Takutu River Bridge across the Takutu River into neighbouring Brazil, which drives on the right. The changeover system is on the Guyana side, with one lane passing under the other on the bridge's access road.
Road vehicle configurations
Research in 1969 by J. J. Leeming showed that countries driving on the left have a lower collision rate than countries driving on the right, although he acknowledged that the sample of left-hand rule countries he had to work with was small, and he was very careful not to claim that his results proved that the differences were due to the rule of the road. It has been suggested that this is partly because humans are more commonly right-eye dominant than left-eye dominant. In left-hand traffic, the predominantly better-performing right eye is used to monitor oncoming traffic and the driver's wing mirror (side mirror). In right-hand traffic, oncoming traffic and the driver's wing mirror are handled by the predominantly weaker left eye. In addition, it has been argued that left-sided driving is safer for elderly people given the likelihood of their having visual attention deficits on the left side and the need at intersections to watch out for vehicles approaching on the nearside lane. Furthermore, in an RHD car with manual transmission, the driver has the right hand, which for most people is dominant, on the steering wheel at all times and uses the left hand to change gears and operate most other controls.[original research?]
Cyclists, motorcyclists and horse riders typically mount from the left-hand side, with motorcycle side stands almost always located on the left. This places them on the kerb when driving on the left.
Driver seating position
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
In specialised cases the driver will sit on the nearside, or kerbside, such as street sweepers and delivery vehicles. Visitors from outside a country are usually permitted to drive temporarily, for example British visitors to France. The newest Unimog models can be changed from left-hand drive to right-hand drive in the field to permit operators to work on the more convenient side of the truck. In Spain trucks were RHD until the 1950s, to enable drivers to watch for unstable road edges. In Canada, right-hand drive vehicles are heavily used by Canada Post employees who deliver mail to rural areas. RSMCs (rural and suburban mail carriers) are provided RHD vehicles by Canada Post or are acquired privately through dealers across Canada. These RHD vehicles are often imported from other countries such as Japan where they are suitable for designated RHD mail routes in Canada. Mail delivery imports became popular in the early 2000s when more modern vehicles like the Mitsubishi Pajero or Honda CRV became eligible for import into Canada. Such imports are fitted with daytime running lights and DOT tyres in order to make them HTA-compliant and safe for Canadian roads.
Buses typically have passenger doors only on the kerbside, depending on the driving side of the country. This configuration is adequate for most city networks where passengers board and alight from a kerb. Some BRT systems operate with buses that have doors only (or mainly) on the off-kerb side, intended to operate at stations or bus stops in the centre of an avenue with dedicated lanes, such as TransMilenio (LHD) in Bogotá, Colombia and Rea Vaya (RHD), in Johannesburg, South Africa.
On older-style buses with passenger access at the rear, it is possible to retrofit passenger access doors to match the opposite kerbside, on buses with relatively low floor height; the many traditional British double-deckers sold on for tourist use in the US and some areas in Canada are examples.
When Sweden drove on the left prior to September 1967, city buses were among the very few vehicles in that country which conformed to the normal opposite-steering wheel rule, being RHD while most of the rest of the road traffic was LHD. The same was true in Iceland. Buses were rebuilt or replaced during the transition period in Sweden, with governmental financial support, a large part of the cost for the change of side.
Conversely in Italy, where driving is on the right, some buses were built with RHD until the mid-1960s. These buses had a layout with passenger doors directly behind the driver. Some cities (e.g. Turin and Padua) continued to operate RHD buses until approximately 1980.
Headlamps and other lighting equipment
Low beam headlamps for use in RHT throw most of their light forward-rightward; LHT does the opposite. In Europe, headlamps approved for use on one side of the road must be adaptable to produce adequate illumination with controlled glare for temporarily driving on the other side of the road by affixing masking strips or prismatic lenses to a designated part of the lens or by moving all or part of the headlamp optic so all or part of the beam is shifted or the asymmetrical portion is occluded.
|Unless overtaking stay on the||left||right|
|On roundabouts traffic rotates||clockwise||counterclockwise|
|Driver sits on the||right||left|
|Oncoming traffic is seen coming from the||right||left|
|Traffic must cross oncoming traffic when turning||right||left|
|Most traffic signs are on the||left||right|
|Pedestrians crossing a two-way road look first for traffic from their||right||left|
|Dual carriageway ramps are on the||left||right|
|After stopping at a red light it may be legal to turn||left||right|
A highway close to Madrid (Spain)
Left-hand traffic in Vienna, c.1930
A sign on Australia's Great Ocean Road reminding foreign motorists to keep left. Such signs are placed at the exit of parking areas associated with scenic views, where other road traffic may at times be sparse.
The N2 approaching Cape Town
Road sign near Uluru/Ayers Rock reminding foreign drivers to keep left.
Vehicles entering and leaving Macau cross over each other at the Lotus Bridge.
Headlamp sold in Sweden not long before Dagen H change from left- to right-hand traffic. Opaque decal blocks lens portion that would provide low beam upkick to the right, and bears warning "Not to be removed before 3 September 1967".
Mumbai Pune Expressway, India
A road in downtown Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands.
The entrance to the Channel Tunnel in France.
Traffic driving on the right in Savoy Court in London.
- Draper, Geoff (1993). "Harmonised Headlamp Design for Worldwide Application". Motor Vehicle Lighting. Society of Automotive Engineers. pp. 23–36.
- Kincaid, Peter (December 1986). The Rule of the Road: An International Guide to History and Practice. Greenwood Press. pp. 86–88, 99–100, 121–122, 198–202. ISBN 0-313-25249-1.
- "Right-Hand Traffic versus Left-Hand Traffic". The Basement Geographer. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Barta, Patrick. "Shifting the Right of Way to the Left Leaves Some Samoans Feeling Wronged". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 December 2016.(subscription required)
- Watson, Ian. "The rule of the road, 1919-1986: A case study of standards change" (PDF). Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Travel Tips | US Virgin Islands". Usvitourism.vi. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Nearside (dictionary definition)". Dictionary.reverso.net. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- FAR Sec. 91.115(c): "When aircraft, or an aircraft and a vessel, are approaching head-on, or nearly so, each shall alter its course to the right to keep well clear."
- Anderson, Charles (2003). Puzzles and Essays from the Exchange Essays. Haworth Information Press. pp. 2–3.
- Pielkenrood, Jan (2003). "Why Left or Right Traffic?". Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2006.
- Walters, Bryn. "Huge Roman Quarry found in North Wiltshire" (PDF). ARA The Bulletin of The Association for Roman Archaeology. Autumn 1998 (Six): 8–9. ISSN 1363-7967. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- Hamer, Mike. "Left is right on the road". New Scientist (20 December 1986/1 January 1987): 16–18. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- Why We Drive on the Right of the Road, ''Popular Science Monthly'', Vol.126, No.1, (January 1935), p.37. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Weingroff, Richard. "On The Right Side of the Road". United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- "An Act Establishing the Law of the Road". Massachusetts General Court. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Högertrafik" (in Swedish). vardo.aland.fi. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 11 August 2006.
- TIME (15 September 1967). "Sweden: Switch to the Right". TIME. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- Mieszkowski, Katharine (14 August 2009). "Salon News: Whose side of the road are you on?". Salon.com. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Tom Geoghegan (7 September 2009). "Could the UK drive on the right?". BBC News Magazine. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Layout of Grade Separated Junctions" (PDF). The Highways Agency. 2006: 4.9ff.
- Andrew H. Malcolm (5 July 1978). "U-Turn for Okinawa: From Right-Hand Driving to Left; Extra Policemen Assigned". The New York Times. p. A2.
- Bryant, Nick (7 September 2009). "Samoan cars ready to switch sides". BBC News. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- Askin, Pauline (7 September 2009). "Outcry as Samoa motorists prepare to drive on left". Reuters. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- Dyer, Gwynne (1 September 2009). "Right-to-life plea fails to sway Samoan court in road appeal". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Dobie, Michael (6 September 2009). "Samoa drivers brace for left turn". BBC News. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- "Samoan drivers change from right-hand side of the road to the left". Heraldsun.com.au. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- Jackson, Cherelle (25 July 2008). "Samoa announces driving switch date". Nzherald.co.nz. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- "Rwanda wants to drive on the left". Independent.co.ug. 3 June 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- "East Africa: Rwanda Looks to the Left". allAfrica.com. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- Bari, Dr Mahabubul (29 July 2014). "The study of the possibility of switching driving side in Rwanda". European Transport Research Review. 6 (4): 439–453. doi:10.1007/s12544-014-0144-2. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Right-hand-drive vehicles return on Rwandan roads, The East African, March 13, 2015
- Tumwebaze, Peterson (9 September 2014). "Govt okays importation of right hand drive trucks, to decide on other vehicle categories in October". The New Times. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- "Afghanistan – Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- L. R. Reddy (2002). Inside Afghanistan: End of the Taliban Era?. APH Publishing. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "Algeria – Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Decreto Nacional 26965 of 10 October 1944. "TRÁNSITO ALREDEDOR DEL KILÓMETRO 0". Cai.org.ar. Retrieved 11 May 2009. Change commenced on 10 June 1945.
- "Día de la Seguridad Vial | Canal Encuentro". Encuentro.gov.ar. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- derStandard.at (2012-07-18). "ÖBB stellten um 16 Millionen Euro auf Rechtsverkehr um". Derstandard.at. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- Bahrain Government Annual Reports, Volume 8, Archive Editions, 1987, page 92
- Bahrain Government Annual Reports, Times of India Press, 1968, page 158
- Strassenbau und Strassenverkehrstechnik 25/1963
- The Rule of the Road: An International Guide to History and Practice, Peter Kincaid, Greenwood Press, 1986, page 50
- Man Who Was Compol During Hattie Visits, 7 News Belize, December 14, 2011
- "Brazilian Decree Number 18323, July 24, 1928 (in Brazilian Portuguese)". Brazilian Senate. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Nkwame, Marc (27 July 2013). "Burundi, Rwanda to start driving on the left". DailyNews Online. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- "Cambodia bans right-hand drive cars". BBC News. 1 January 2001. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
- The British Columbia Road Runner, March 1966
- Week In History: Switching from the left was the right thing to do, Vancouver Sun,
- "Nova Scotia – Highway Driving Rule Changes Sides.".
- A triumph for left over right Winnipeg Free Press, 30 August 2009
- (Chinese) 國民政府訓令，關於汽車改為靠右行駛一節，改於35年元旦實行，將前頒「改進市區及公路交通管理辦法」，亦改於35年1月1日起實行
- 胡茂全. 中国为何"车马靠右行". 档案 (in Chinese). 羊城晚报. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Cyprus – Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- "Trains from Břeclavi Bohumín waiting for change. After 140 years will go right". Translate.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- The Rule of the Road: An International Guide to History and Practice, Peter Kincaid, Greenwood Press, 1986, page 90
- The Rule of the Road: An International Guide to History and Practice, Peter Kincaid, Greenwood Press, 1986, pages 90 and 159
- ";Hvorfor kører nogle lande i højre side? (Why do some countries drive on the right side?)". videnskab.dk. Retrieved 31 Aug 2014.
- "Djibouti – Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Eritrea – Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Ethiopia – Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Högertrafik i Sverige och Finland". aland.net.
- 'Left is right on the road', Mick Hamer New Scientist, 25 December 1986 – 1 January 1987 No 1540/1541, p.16.
- "Right-Hand Traffic Act". Ghanalegal.com. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "Right-Hand/Left-Hand Driving Customs".
- Phil Bartle. "Studies Among the Akan People of West Africa Community, Society, History, Culture; With Special Focus on the Kwawu by Phil Bartle, PhD". Cec.vcn.bc.ca. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "Sight for sure eyes, Honest John's Agony Column". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 March 2008.
- Nick Georgano, ed. (2000). "Lancia". The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile (Vol. 2: G-O ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 867. ISBN 1-57958-293-1.
- "Why Does Japan Drive On The Left". 2pass.co.uk. Retrieved 11 August 2006.
- "Customs Services Department – Frequently Asked Questions". KRA. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Over 20,000 Right Hand Drive Cars Imported in Kyrgyzstan in 2012". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 8 May 2013.
- "Photo of All Change. Swop Over Point for the Traffic !". Panoramio. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
- "Burma Makes Road Switch". The New York Times. 7 December 1970. p. 6.
- "The Unique World of Burmese Driving". a minor diversion. 2012-03-14. Retrieved 2015-09-28.
- Peter van Ammelrooy. "De Claim links rijden – Economie – VK" (in Dutch). Volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "De geschiedenis van het linksrijden". Engelfriet.net. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- The Laws of South West Africa, Volume 2, J. Meibert, 1961
- THE SAFETY IMPLICATIONS OF STEERING CONVERSION OF VEHICLES FROM RIGHT TO LEFT HAND DRIVE, Federal Road Safety Commission
- "Travel advice by country, Oman". Foreign & Commonwealth Office (fco.gov.uk). Retrieved 8 August 2006.
- "Bits & Pieces: Driving on the Left in Panama". panamahistorybits.com.
- Panama Shifts To Right Handed Driving Of Cars, Chicago Tribune, April 25, 1943
- "Paraguay Decree 6956 of 25 January 1945". Glin.gov. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Executive Order No. 34, s. 1945". www.gov.ph.
- "Krakowska Komunikacja Miejska – autobusy, tramwaje i krakowskie inwestycje drogowe – History of the Cracow tram network". Komunikacja.krakow.eurocity.pl. 28 November 1982. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Peter. "Rwanda to adopt EAC driving standards". Rwanda Transport. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- The Rising Sun: A History of the All People's Congress Party of Sierra Leone, A.P.C. Secretariat, 1982, page 396
- ″Why Blame only the SLRTA for Right Hand Drive Vehicles?″, Awoko, 2 September 2013
- Sierra Leone Bans Right-Hand Vehicles as Hazards, Voice of America, Nina de Vries, 17 September 2013
- "Somalia – Visa service and travel information". Travcour. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- As part of Sudan.
- Moya, Aurora. "Metro de Madrid, 1919–1989. Setenta años de historia", Chapter 1
- Passed by the Legislative Yuan (1946). "違警罰法 (Act Governing the Punishment of Police Offences)". Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- Perkins 1986, p. 88.
- Casey, Robert H. (Winter 2009). "The Model T Turns 100". American Heritage's Invention & Technology. 23 (4). pp. 40–41. ISSN 8756-7296.
- Scott, Harrison Irving (2003). Ridge Route: The Road That United California. Torrance, California: Harrison Irving Scott. p. 283. ISBN 0-615-12000-8.
- "RHD/LHD Country Guide". toyota-gib.com. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
- "South Yemen – Postage stamps – 1977". stampworld.com.
- "2.1 "Keeping Left" – Land Transport (Road User) Rule 2004 – New Zealand Legislation". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- "Road Rules". SACarRental.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "Driving in South Africa Information". drivesouthafrica.co.za. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- The Politics of Senegambian Integration: 1958 – 1994 Peter Lang, 2008, page 184
- Trinidad and Tobago Adventure Guide, Kathleen O'Donnell, Stassi Pefkaros, Hunter Publishing, Inc, 2000, page 53
- British Forces South Atlantic Islands Families Arrivals Pack, Ministry of Defence, page 16
- Colonial Reports, Annual, Volumes 1480-1499, 1930, page 76
- Left-hand vehicles to stay, NewsDay, 30 January 2014
- Rodgers, Peter (10 April 1996). "Eurotunnel bags 140,000 passengers at Easter". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- "Left Hand Drive HGVs: Dangers and Solutions" (PDF). ROSPA. April 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- Jennings, Ken. "What Happens When Left-Hand Roads Meet Right-Hand Roads". Conde Nast Traveler. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Lethem reports increased economic activity with Takutu River Bridge". Guyana Times. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Hong Kong – Google Maps". Maps.google.com. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- "Hong Kong 2006 – Transport – Cross-Boundary Traffic". Yearbook.gov.hk. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Takutu bridge opens to traffic". Stabroeknews.com. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- "Untitled photograph". Static.panoramio.com. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- "Untitled photograph". Static.panoramio.com. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- Chaurasia, BD; Mathur, BB (1976). "Eyedness". Acta Anatomica. 96 (2): 301–5. doi:10.1159/000144681. PMID 970109.
- Reiss, MR (1997). "Ocular dominance: some family data". Laterality. 2 (1): 7–16. doi:10.1080/713754254. PMID 15513049.
- Ehrenstein, WH; Arnold-Schulz-Gahmen, BE; Jaschinski, W (Sep 2005). "Eye preference within the context of binocular functions". Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 243 (9): 926–32. doi:10.1007/s00417-005-1128-7. PMID 15838666.
- Foerch C, Steinmetz H. (2009). Left-sided traffic directionality may be the safer "rule of the road" for ageing populations. Med Hypotheses. 73(1):20-3. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.01.044 PMID 19327893
- LHD Specialist: Location of the Steering Wheel Archived 21 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Canada Post RSMC's and Right Hand Drive vehicles – Learn more". Postal-vehicles.com. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Highway Traffic Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. H.8". E-laws.gov.on.ca. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Buses and Stations Rea Vaya – Joburg, accessed 14 July 2010.
- "Back to front Routemaster – RML2481 prepared for export". Flickr. 18 April 2006.
- "Transport in Stockholm in the 1960s". Includes photographs of a RHD bus in Odenplan, 1962 and a RHD trolleybus in Vattugatan in 1964.
- "Buses in Reykjavík, Iceland, early 1960s". Transpress NZ. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Menarini Buses Italy 1919–1989". MYN Transport Log. 24 June 2014. Many illustrations of RHD buses with passenger access on the right side of the bus.
- "UN Vehicle Regulations - 1958 Agreement Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be fitted and/or be used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Right- and left-hand traffic.|
- Google Maps placemarks of border crossings where traffic changes sides (browser-based), also available as a Google Earth placemarks file (requires Google Earth)
- The Extraordinary Street Railways of Asunción, Paraguay