Right to the city
The right to the city is an idea and a slogan that was first proposed by Henri Lefebvre in his 1968 book Le Droit à la ville. Lefebvre summarizes the ideas as a "demand...[for] a transformed and renewed access to urban life". David Harvey described it as follows:
The right to the city is far more than the individual liberty to access urban resources: it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city. It is, moreover, a common rather than an individual right since this transformation inevitably depends upon the exercise of a collective power to reshape the processes of urbanization. The freedom to make and remake our cities and ourselves is, I want to argue, one of the most precious yet most neglected of our human rights.
It has been suggested that the phrase has taken on a variety of meanings and Marcelo Lopes de Souza has argued that as the right to the city has become "fashionable these days", "[t]he price of this has often been the trivialisation and corruption of Lefebvre's concept" and called for fidelity to the original radical meaning of the idea.
A number of popular movements, such as the shack dwellers' movement Abahlali baseMjondolo in South Africa, the Right to the City Alliance in the United States of America, Recht auf Stadt, a network of squatters, tenants and artists in Hamburg, and various movements in Asia and Latin America, have incorporated the idea of the right to the city into their struggles.
- Samara, Tony Roshan (June 2007). "Grassroots organizing: Right to the city". Z Magazine (Z Communications) 20 (6). Archived from the original on June 2007.
- Purcell, Mark (October 2002). "Excavating Lefebvre: The right to the city and its urban politics of the inhabitant". GeoJournal, special issue: Social Transformation, Citizenship, and the Right to the City (Springer) 58 (2-3): 99–108. doi:10.1023/B:GEJO.0000010829.62237.8f. JSTOR 41147756. Pdf.
- Unger, Knut (14 February 2009). "“Right to the City” as a response to the crisis: “Convergence” or divergence of urban social movements?". Reclaiming Spaces. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012.
- Lefebvre, Henri (1996), "The right to the city", in Kofman, Eleonore; Lebas, Elizabeth, Writings on cities, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell, p. 158, ISBN 9780631191889.
- Attoh, Kafui (October 2011). "What kind of right is the right to the city?". Progress in Human Geography (Sage) 35 (5): 669–685. doi:10.1177/0309132510394706.
- Harvey, David (September–October 2008). "The right to the city". New Left Review (New Left Review) II (53): 23–40.
- Gorgens, Tristan; van Donk, Mirjam (2011). "From basic needs towards socio-spatial transformation: coming to grips with the 'Right to the City' for the urban poor in South Africa". isandla.org.za. The Isandla Institute. Pdf.
- Lopes de Souza, Marcelo (May 2010). "Which right to which city? In defence of political-strategic clarity". Interface (via WordPress) 2 (1): 315–333. Pdf.
- Abahlali_3 (17 January 2013). "S’bu Zikode & Richard Pithouse debating Pallo Jordan on the Record of the ANC – Oslo, 22 November 2012". abahlali.org. Abahlali baseMjondolo. (Campaigns and Statements on The Right to the City.)
- Leavitt, Jackie; Roshan Samara, Tony; Brady, Marnie (Fall 2009). "The Right to the City Alliance: time to democratize urban governance (blog)". Progressive Planning, Planners Network.
- Staff writer (2011). "Congress theses on The Right to the City". wiki.rechtaufstadt.net. Recht Auf Stadt.
- Mayer, Margit (2012), "The "right to the city" in urban social movements", in Brenner, Neil; Marcuse, Peter; Mayer, Margit, Cities for people not for profit: critical urban theory & the right to the city, New York: Routledge, pp. 63–85, ISBN 9780415601771.
- Staff writer (14 October 2011). "Implementing the Right to the City in Brazil". sustainablecitiescollective.com. Sustainable Cities Collective.
- World Charter for the Right to the City (PDF)
- World Charter for the Right to the City (HTML)
- Proposal for a Charter for Women's Right to the City
- Proposals and Experiencies towards the Right to the City, Ana Sugranyes and Charlotte Mathivet (editors) 03-16-2010