International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development
|Last chairman||Aurel Braun|
|Address||1001 de Maisonneuve Blvd|
The International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Rights & Democracy), was created to be a non-partisan, independent Canadian institution. It was established by an act of the Canadian parliament in 1988 to "encourage and support the universal values of human rights and the promotion of democratic institutions and practices around the world." R&D received around C$11m per year in funding from the Canadian government.
R&D was charged with working with individuals, organizations and governments in Canada and abroad to promote the human and democratic rights defined in the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). To this end, R&D sought to develop tools for Human Rights Impact Assessment that can be applied by civil society groups.
The Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney established Rights & Democracy as an agency reporting to parliament under the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development Act of 1988. The founding president was Ed Broadbent, former national leader of the New Democratic Party. Broadbent was succeeded by former Liberal cabinet minister Warren Alllmand.
Although a Canadian organization, its mandate was international, centred on the twin goals of the organization's title: international human rights and the development of democracy, especially in less developed countries. Thus Rights & Democracy held consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council, among other international bodies. It funded projects in North and South America, Africa, East and Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. The organization's activities were outlined in an annual report to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Canada and to parliament.
John Humphrey Freedom Award
The centre offered an annual prize, called the John Humphrey Freedom Award (named after John Peters Humphrey), to an organization or person from any part of the world, including Canada, for outstanding achievement in promoting democratic development or respect for human rights. The award consisted of $25.000 (later $30,000) endowment and a speaking tour to Canadian cities to increase the awareness of the laureate’s work. Notable winners include Kimy Pernía Domicó (Colombia), Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo (East Timor), Cynthia Maung and Min Ko Naing, (Burma).
R&D had been criticized intensely for allegedly promoting antidemocratic positions and allying with radical groups that supported policies inconsistent with Canadian values. In particular, after the Harper government declared that in the UN Durban Review Conference, scheduled for Geneva in 2009, Canada would not participate and no government funds could be used in support of the event on the grounds that it the Harper government believed it to be antisemitic. R&D reportedly defied this policy. On October 29, 2009, in a parliamentary hearing of the standing committee on Foreign Affairs, MP James Lunney asked Rémy Beauregard, appointed as R&D's president by the previous Liberal government, "Did Rights and Democracy play any role, directly or indirectly, in planning for or participating in the conference in Durban?" Beauregard replied: "No, we did not," but an R&D staff member reported that during 2008, the organization had in fact been active in the preparations for this event. Reports also noted that "at least seven R&D employees were working in Geneva" at the time, and when Deloitte & Touche audited the funding, it was "impossible to identify" how more than $140,000 in R&D funds had been spent.
In the midst of these activities and conflicts, the Harper government changed R&D's leadership, naming Professor Aurel Braun, from the University of Toronto, as chair of R&D's board of directors in January 2009. Beauregard immediately clashed with Braun, and the conflicts expanded after Braun was joined on the board by David Matas. After the Durban controversy, board members protested funding to three groups, accusing two of having links to terrorism and the other of being unworthy of funding (one Israeli and two Palestinian) - Al-Haq, Al Mazen, and B'Tselem.
Following a particularly hostile board meeting in January 2010, Beauregard died of a heart attack, and board members Sima Samar, Payam Akhavan and Guido Riveros resigned. Riveros wrote an extensive public letter demanding Braun's resignation. Subsequently 45 of the centre's 47 staff (some of them hired during Beauregard's tenure) called for Braun's resignation, accusing him of "a pattern of harassment." Suggesting a conspiracy that resulted in the heart attack, four hold-over members of the board requested "a full investigation of the circumstances surrounding Mr. Beauregard's death, with a focus on the role and conduct of the board". A Report of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Canadian House of Commons recommended a number of reforms in the Board of Directors of Rights and Democracy and found several aspects of the controversy "unclear and disputed." It nonetheless included among its recommendations that "current Board of Rights and Democracy issue an apology to Mr. Beauregard`s family for any statements damaging his reputation."
In April 2012, the Canadian government announced that it was closing down R&D and would transfer the organization’s functions to the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. It stated that the closure was due to the controversies surrounding the agency.
Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird said, "For some time, the many challenges of the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, also known as Rights & Democracy, have been well publicized. It is time to put these past challenges behind us and move forward."
Rights & Democracy's chief executive was its president, appointed by the government. Seven presidents held office during the organization's history:
- Ed Broadbent, 1988-1996
- Warren Allmand, 1997-2002
- Jean-Louis Roy, 2002-2007
- Jean-Paul Hubert (interim), November 2007-July 2008
- Rémy Beauregard, July 2008-January 2010
- Jacques Gauthier (interim) January–March 2010
- Gérard Latulippe, March 2010-July 2012
- Siddiqui: Stephen Harper's homegrown human rights problem, Toronto Star, Jan 24 2010.
- "International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development Act". Canada, Justice Laws Website. 1988.
- Library and Archives Canada. "International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Rights and Democracy) Fonds, descriptive record".
- "International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development - annual report".
- Funds for NGOs
- Glavin, Terry (March 21, 2012). "Replace Rights and Democracy". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 14, 2012.
- Matas, David (February 26, 2010). "The Rights and Democracy twist". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- Rights and Democracy torn by dissent
- Steinberg, Gerald (2012). The Politics of Canadian Government Funding for Advocacy NGOs. NGO Monitor.
- House of Commons Committees – FAAE (40–3) – Situation at Rights and Democracy – RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY: MOVING TOWARDS A STRONGER FUTURE. Parl.gc.ca.
- Troubled Rights and Democracy agency to be closed
- Seeking ‘clean slate,’ Baird pulls plug on Rights & Democracy
- Minister Baird Announces Closing of International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development
- Former official website via Archive.org
- Getting it Right Human Rights Impact Assessment Guide
- Maclean's article on internal troubles
- Radio documentary from CBC Radio'sThe Current on Rights and Democracy's internal strife: Part I Part II
- Sourcewatch article
- The Politics of Canadian Government Funding for Advocacy NGOs, Gerald M. Steinberg and Steven Seligman, February 01, 2012
- Rights and Democracy annual reports