Rindo Majhi

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Rindo Majhi was a freedom fighter who was a leader of the Kandha revolution in Kalahandi region in Orissa against the British in India[1] in 1853.

Early life[edit]

Born in Urladani situated in deepest Kalahandi region close to the boundary of Kandhamal district.

The Kondhas[edit]

Kondhas are generally worshippers of nature. They revere the soil as their mother. They have a strong belief that everybody lives in the world by mercy of the soil. So they never hesitate to sacrifice one of them for mother soil who gives and continues lives to everyone. With such customs they celebrate Maria every year. As the British treated this system as superstition and antisocial, they raided the tribal areas of Kalahandi and Phulbani under Major General Campbell.

Kalahandi under British control[edit]

On the other side the Kondhas were nearest to Kalahandi King. So they were tax free people. But, when the British captured Nagpure, Kalahandi went under their control and as per the institution of Kings and Zamindars of Kalahandi collected tax from the Kondhas. There rose the voice of Kondhas and Rindo Majhi was the key figure of the movement. Though he knew well about the power of the British attacked repeated to them and their flattering people. All the Kondhas also assisted him a lot as he was the chief among them. Right at that time another Kondha chief named Chakra Bisoi with his people attacked the Britishers repeatedly and turned non-cooperative towards them. Being fed up with the activities the British were in search of Chakra Bisoi inquisitively.

Arrest and imprisonment[edit]

In 1853 Lt. Macniell arrested Rindo Majhi and the Kondhas chief was imprisoned in Rasalkanda jail without trial. The fire of revolution grew much and worse among the Kondhas by the arrest of Rindo Majhi.[2] After two years, in 1855 Lt. Macneill with him brought Rindo Majhi who was tied with iron chain in legs and hands and moved village to village in order to created fear among the Kondhas leaders. But the Kondhas went out of toleration witnessing such brutal and inhuman act upon their leader Rindo Majhi.


On 10 December the Kondhas attacked the residence of Lt. Macneill at Urladani. But the British had guns and powers. Hundreds of people died. Lt. Macneill escaped narrowly because the Tahasildar of Kandhamal Dinabandhu Pattanaik came and rescued him and his people. The British hanged Rindo Majhi.


  1. ^ D.K. Joshi, S. Mund, M.P.Mishra, The Kandha Revolution in Kalahandi, Orissa Review, Aug 2007
  2. ^ Elliot's Report, 473; Mahatab et al., History of the Freedom Movement, 2:3-4, Senapati and Kuanr, Kalahandi, 59