Ring chromosome 14 syndrome

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Ring chromosome 14 syndrome
Ring chromosome.gif
Formation of a ring chromosome.
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 Q93.2
OMIM 616606
DiseasesDB 34753
MeSH C535487
Orphanet 1440

Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a very rare human chromosome abnormality. It occurs when one or both of the telomeres that mark the ends of chromosome 14 are lost allowing the now uncapped ends to fuse together forming a ring chromosome. It causes a number of serious health issues[1][2][3]There are other types of ring chromosomes, such as ring chromosome 13.[4]

Symptoms[edit]

The most common symptoms are intellectual disability and recurrent seizures developing in infancy or early childhood. Typically the seizures are resistant to treatment with anti-epileptic drugs.Other symptoms may include: [1][5]

Cause[edit]

Telomer-structure
Chr 14

The syndrome is caused by the loss of genetic material near the end of the long arm (q) of chromosome 14 . The break that causes the telomere(s) to be lost occurs near the end of the chromosome, and is called a constitutional ring. These rings arise spontaneously ( it is rarely inherited).Ring chromosome 14 syndrome finds itself at 14:0-107,043,718 which are the genomic coordinates.[3][1][6] [7]

The genetic abnormality occurs randomly in sperm or egg cells or it may occur in early embryonic growth, if it occurs during embryonic growth the ring chromosome may be present in only some of a person's cells.[medical citation needed]

Diagnosis[edit]

Diagnosis is achieved by examining the structure of the chromosomes through karyotyping;[8] while once born, one can do the following to ascertain a diagnosis of the condition:[7]

Management[edit]

[9]A type of anticonvulsant{Carbamazepine)

In terms of the management of ring chromosome 14 syndrome, anticonvulsive medication for seizures, as well as, proper therapy to help prevent respiratory infections in the affected individual are management measures that can be taken.[7]

Epidemiology[edit]

Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is extremely rare, the true rate of occurrence is unknown (as it is less than 1 per 1,000,000), but there are at least 50 documented cases in the literature.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Reference, Genetics Home. "ring chromosome 14 syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-03-17. 
  2. ^ "Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet". National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "OMIM Entry - # 616606 - RING CHROMOSOME 14 SYNDROME". omim.org. Retrieved 2017-03-17. 
  4. ^ "Ring chromosome 13 | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) – an NCATS Program". rarediseases.info.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-17. 
  5. ^ Zollino, Marcella; Ponzi, Emanuela; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Neri, Giovanni (2012-05-01). "The ring 14 syndrome". European Journal of Medical Genetics. 55 (5): 374–380. ISSN 1878-0849. PMID 22564756. doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2012.03.009.  – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)
  6. ^ Kelly, Evelyn B. (2013-01-07). Encyclopedia of Human Genetics and Disease. ABC-CLIO. p. 729. ISBN 9780313387135. 
  7. ^ a b c Disorders, National Organization for Rare (2003). NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 64. ISBN 9780781730631. 
  8. ^ "Ring chromosome 14 - Conditions - GTR - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-21. 
  9. ^ Wallace, Sheila J.; Farrell, Kevin (2004-02-27). Epilepsy in Children, 2E. CRC Press. p. 354. ISBN 9780340808146. 
  10. ^ RESERVED, INSERM US14 -- ALL RIGHTS. "Orphanet: Ring chromosome 14". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 

Further reading[edit]