Rino Rappuoli

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Rino Rappuoli
Born 1952 (age 63–64)[1]
Radicofani
Alma mater University of Siena
Occupation immunologist
Employer Harvard University, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Imperial College London, Chiron Corporation
Awards Fellow of the Royal Society, Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize, Feltrinelli Prize, Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal
Website
www.aditecproject.eu/about-aditec/project-management/dr-rino-rappuoli.html

Rino Rappuoli is Chief Scientist & Head of External Research and Development (R&D) at GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Vaccines. Previously, he has served as visiting scientist at Rockefeller University and Harvard Medical School and held roles at Sclavo, Vaccine Research and CSO, Chiron Corporation, and Novartis Vaccines.[2][3][4]

Education[edit]

Rappuoli earned his doctoral and bachelor's degrees in biological sciences at the University of Siena.[1]

Career and research[edit]

He is known globally for his work in vaccines and immunology. He co-founded the field of cellular microbiology, a discipline combining cell biology and microbiology, and pioneered the genomic approach to vaccine development known as reverse vaccinology.[1]

Rappuoli led Chiron Corporation's development of adjuvanted influenza vaccines, MENJUGATE(R) conjugate vaccine against meningococcal-C disease and the first recombinant bacterial vaccine against pertussis. Currently,[when?] Rappuoli is actively involved in the research and development of further vaccines against meningococcal disease and avian and pandemic influenza.

Rappuoli joined Chiron as head of European vaccines research in 1992 with the acquisition of Italian vaccines company Sclavo SpA, where he served as head of research and development. Rappuoli, was previously the Global Head of Vaccines Research for Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics (Siena, Italy)[1] Since 2015, Dr. Rappuoli serves as the Chief Scientist and Head of External R&D at the vaccines division of GlaxoSmithKline and is based in Siena, Italy.[5]

Major achievements include development of CRM197[6] used in Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis,[7] and pneumococcus vaccines; an acellular pertussis vaccine containing a genetically detoxified pertussis toxin; the first conjugate vaccines against meningococcus; MF59 adjuvant for influenza;[8][9] the meningococcus B genome-derived vaccine.[2][10]

During his career, he has introduced several novel scientific concepts: genetic detoxification in 1987;[11] cellular microbiology in 1996;[12] reverse vaccinology in 2000;[13] pan-genome in 2005.[2][14]

Honors and awards[edit]

Rappuoli is the recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize in 1991. He is a member of numerous international associations, including the European Molecular Biology Organization and the American Society for Microbiology. He also serves as a member of the research directors group of the European Commission and was elected to National Academy of Sciences of the United States.[when?] He was also awarded the Italian President Gold Medal in 2005 and the Albert Sabin Gold Medal in 2009.[2] In 2013 he was nominated third most influential person worldwide in the field of vaccines by Terrapin. In 2015 he was awarded Fellowship of Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine and the Maurice Hilleman Award.[2]

In 2016 he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Trivedi, B. (2006). "Profile of Rino Rappuoli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (29): 10831–10833. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604892103. PMC 1544134Freely accessible. PMID 16832044. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Dr Rino Rappuoli ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2016-04-29.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where:

    “All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.” --Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies at the Wayback Machine (archived September 25, 2015)

  3. ^ Covacci, A. (1999). "Helicobacter pylori Virulence and Genetic Geography". Science. 284 (5418): 1328–1333. doi:10.1126/science.284.5418.1328. 
  4. ^ Anon (2007). "Rino Rappuoli". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 6 (9): 694–694. doi:10.1038/nrd2419. 
  5. ^ "Dr Rino Rappuoli". 
  6. ^ Bröker, Michael; Costantino, Paolo; DeTora, Lisa; McIntosh, E. David; Rappuoli, Rino (2011). "Biochemical and biological characteristics of cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin: Use as a conjugation protein in vaccines and other potential clinical applications". Biologicals. 39 (4): 195–204. doi:10.1016/j.biologicals.2011.05.004. 
  7. ^ Tettelin, H. (2000). "Complete Genome Sequence of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Strain MC58". Science. 287 (5459): 1809–1815. doi:10.1126/science.287.5459.1809. 
  8. ^ O’Hagan, Derek T; Ott, Gary S; Nest, Gary Van; Rappuoli, Rino; Giudice, Giuseppe Del (2014). "The history of MF59® adjuvant: a phoenix that arose from the ashes". Expert Review of Vaccines. 12 (1): 13–30. doi:10.1586/erv.12.140. 
  9. ^ O’Hagan, Derek T; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio; Tsai, Theodore; Del Giudice, Giuseppe (2014). "MF59 adjuvant: the best insurance against influenza strain diversity". Expert Review of Vaccines. 10 (4): 447–462. doi:10.1586/erv.11.23. 
  10. ^ Pizza, M. (2000). "Identification of Vaccine Candidates Against Serogroup B Meningococcus by Whole-Genome Sequencing". Science. 287 (5459): 1816–1820. doi:10.1126/science.287.5459.1816. 
  11. ^ Pizza, Mariagrazia; Fontana, Maria Rita; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Rappuoli, Rino (1996). "Genetic Detoxification of Bacterial Toxins". 4: 91–110. doi:10.1385/0-89603-334-1:91. 
  12. ^ Cossart, P.; Boquet, P.; Normark, S.; Rappuoli, R. (1996). "Cellular Microbiology Emerging". Science. 271 (5247): 315–316. doi:10.1126/science.271.5247.315. 
  13. ^ Rappuoli, Rino (2001). "Reverse vaccinology, a genome-based approach to vaccine development". Vaccine. 19 (17-19): 2688–2691. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00554-5. 
  14. ^ Medini, Duccio; Donati, Claudio; Tettelin, Hervé; Masignani, Vega; Rappuoli, Rino (2005). "The microbial pan-genome". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 15 (6): 589–594. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2005.09.006.