|Sand martin (Riparia riparia)|
T. Forster, 1817
These are small or medium-sized swallows, ranging from 11–17 cm in length. They are brown above and mainly white below, and all have a dark breast band.
These species are closely associated with water. They nest in tunnels usually excavated by the birds themselves in a natural sand bank or earth mound. They lay white eggs, which are incubated by both parents, in a nest of straw, grass, and feathers in a chamber at the end of the burrow. Some species breed colonially.
Riparia martins, like other swallows, take insects in flight over water, grassland, or other open country.
There are six species. In taxonomic order, they are:
|Image||Scientific name||Common name||Distribution|
|R. paludicola (Vieillot, 1817)||brown-throated martin||Africa|
|R. chinensis (J.E. Gray, 1830)||grey-throated martin||Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent to southern China, Taiwan, and the northern Philippines|
|R. congica (Reichenow, 1887)||Congo martin||Congo River and its tributary, the Ubangi.|
|R. riparia (Linnaeus, 1758)||sand martin or bank swallow||southern Africa, South America and the Indian Subcontinent.|
|R. diluta (Sharpe & Wyatt, 1893)||pale martin or pale sand martin||central Asia to southeastern China|
|R. cincta (Boddaert, 1783||banded martin||Africa from Cameroon and Zaire to Ethiopia south to the Cape in South Africa|
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