Rishikesh

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Rishikesh
Rishikesh view and 13 storey Shiva temple across Lakshman Jhula bridge over the Ganges
Rishikesh view and 13 storey Shiva temple across Lakshman Jhula bridge over the Ganges
Nickname(s): 
Yoganagari
Rishikesh is located in Uttarakhand
Rishikesh
Rishikesh
Location in Uttarakhand
Rishikesh is located in India
Rishikesh
Rishikesh
Rishikesh (India)
Coordinates: 30°06′30″N 78°17′50″E / 30.10833°N 78.29722°E / 30.10833; 78.29722Coordinates: 30°06′30″N 78°17′50″E / 30.10833°N 78.29722°E / 30.10833; 78.29722
CountryIndia
StateUttarakhand
DistrictDehradun
Municipality1952
Named forHrishikesha
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • BodyRishikesh Municipal Corporation
 • MayorAnita Mamgain (BJP)
 • Municipal CommissionerChatar Singh Chauhan, IAS
Area
 • Total11.5 km2 (4.4 sq mi)
Elevation
372 m (1,220 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total102,138 (Urban Agglomeration)
 • Rank7th
 • Density8,851/km2 (22,920/sq mi)
 • Male
54,446
 • Female
47,672
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
 • OtherGarhwali
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
249201
Telephone code+91-135
Vehicle registrationUK-14
Literacy (2011)86.86%
• Male92.21%
• Female80.78%
• Rank2nd
Sex ratio (2011)875 / 1000

Rishikesh, also known as Hrishikesh is a city governed by Rishikesh Municipal Corporation (since October 2017),[1] and a tehsil in Dehradun district of the Indian state Uttarakhand. Located in the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India, it is known as the "Gateway to the Garhwal Himalayas" and "Yoga Capital of the World".[2][3][4] It lies approximately 25 km (16 mi) north of the city Haridwar and 43 km (27 mi) southeast of the state capital Dehradun. According to Census of India, 2011 Rishikesh had a population of 102,138 making it the seventh most populated city in the state of Uttarakhand. It is known as the pilgrimage town and regarded as one of the holiest places to Hindus.[3] Hindu sages and saints have visited Rishikesh since ancient times to meditate in search of higher knowledge.[5]

In September 2015, the Union tourism minister Mahesh Sharma announced that Rishikesh and Haridwar will be the first in India to be given the title of "twin national heritage cities".[6] Due to the religious significance of the place, non-vegetarian food and alcohol are strictly prohibited in Rishikesh.[7] The city hosts the annual International Yoga Festival on the first week of March since 1989.[8][9]

Etymology[edit]

IAST: "Hṛṣīkeśa" (Sanskrit: हृषीकेश) is a name of Vishnu composed of hṛṣīka meaning 'senses' and īśa meaning 'lord', thus 'Lord of the Senses'.[10][11] The name commemorates an apparition of Vishnu to Raibhya Rishi,[12] as a result of his tapasya (austerities), as Lord Hrishikesha.[13] In Skanda Purana, this area is known as Kubjāmraka (कुब्जाम्रक) as Lord Vishnu appeared under a mango tree.[11] Another legend says that fierce fire broke out here. Lord Shiva was angry with Lord Agni and cursed him. Then Lord Agni prayed here for the expiation of his sins. Hence it is also known as 'Agni Tīrtha' (अग्नि तीर्थ) — the holy place to do penance of Lord Agni or Fire God.[14]

History[edit]

Rishikesh has been a part of the legendary 'Kedarkhand'.[15] Legends state that Lord Rama did penance here for killing Ravana, the asura king of Lanka; and Lakshmana, his younger brother, crossed the river Ganges, at a point, where the present 'Lakshman Jhula' (लक्ष्मण झूला) bridge stands today, using a jute rope bridge.[13] The 'Kedarkhand' of Skanda Purana, also mentions the existence of Indrakund at this very point. The jute-rope bridge was replaced by iron-rope suspension bridge in 1889. After it was washed away in the 1924 floods, it was replaced by the present stronger bridge. Another similar suspension bridge Ram Jhula was built in 1986 at nearby Sivananda Nagar.

The Ganges, one of the most sacred rivers to Hindus,[16] flows through Rishikesh. Here the river leaves the Shivalik Hills in the Himalayas and flows into the plains of northern India. Several temples, ancient and new, are along the banks of the Ganges in Rishikesh. Shatrughna Mandir, Bharat Mandir, Lakshman Mandir are the ancient temples established by Adi Shankaracharya. Shatrughna Temple is near Ram Jhula and Lakshman Mandir is near Lakshman Jhula.

Geography[edit]

View of Rishikesh from the beach

Rishikesh is at 30°06′12″N 78°17′41″E / 30.103368°N 78.294754°E / 30.103368; 78.294754. It has an average elevation of 372 metres (1,220 ft).[17]

The Tehri Dam is just 86 km (53 mi) uphill on the way to Gangotri. Rishikesh is the starting point for travelling to the four Chota Char Dham pilgrimage places—Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri.

Rishikesh is famous for ayurvedic treatments. Many Ayurveda centres are run, where classes are given by ayurvedic doctors.

According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, its climate is humid subtropical (Cwa).

Despite the pollution of the Ganges, the water in Rishikesh is relatively unaffected as the major polluting points are down river in the neighbouring state of Uttar Pradesh.[18]

Climate data for Rishikesh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17
(63)
22
(72)
29
(84)
35
(95)
39
(102)
38
(100)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
30
(86)
25
(77)
20
(68)
29
(85)
Average low °C (°F) 5
(41)
8
(46)
14
(57)
18
(64)
23
(73)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
15
(59)
9
(48)
6
(43)
16
(61)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51
(2.0)
33
(1.3)
34
(1.3)
9
(0.4)
20
(0.8)
94
(3.7)
482
(19.0)
495
(19.5)
219
(8.6)
76
(3.0)
9
(0.4)
17
(0.7)
1,539
(60.7)
Average rainy days 3 2 3 1 2 7 15 16 8 2 0 1 60
Mean daily sunshine hours 6 7 8 9 9 7 6 6 7 8 8 7 7
Source: Weather2Travel[19]

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional data of 2011 census Rishikesh had a population of 102,138, out of which males were 54,466 and females were 47,672. The literacy rate was 86.86% compared to the national average of 74.04%.[20]

Yoga center[edit]

Rishikesh, sometimes nicknamed "Yoga Capital of the World", has numerous yoga centres that attract tourists.[3]

The name Rishikesh is loosely applied to an association of five distinct sections encompassing the town and hamlets and settlements on both sides of the river Ganges. These include Rishikesh itself, the commercial and communication hub; the sprawling suburb Muni Ki Reti or the "sands of the sages"; Sivananda Nagar, the home of Sivananda Ashram and the Divine Life Society founded by Swami Sivananda, north of Rishikesh; the temple sections of Ram Jhula and Lakshman Jhula, a little further north; and the assorted ashrams around Swargashram on the eastern bank. The Ganga Arti performed at dusk at the Triveni Ghat is popular with visitors.[21] Neelkanth Mahadev Temple, amidst forest 28 km (17 mi) from Rishikesh, is a popular local pilgrimage, along with Vashishtha Guha (Cave of Sage Vashishtha), 21 km (13 mi) up from the town by the Ganges.[22][23]

Over the years, it has established itself as the yoga capital of the world. From the US, Europe and China and Australia, serious yoga students come to learn asanas and kriyas.[5]

In February 1968, the Beatles visited the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's ashram in Rishikesh.[24] John Lennon recorded "The Happy Rishikesh Song" one of the songs composed by The Beatles but was never officially released.[25][26] The Beatles composed numerous songs during their time at the ashram, many of which appear on the band's self-titled double album, also known as the "White Album".[27] Several other artists, including Mike Love of the Beach Boys, Paul Horn, Donovan and Gyp Mills, visited the site to contemplate and meditate.[citation needed] Former royal palace of the Maharaja of Tehri Garhwal at near by Narendranagar, now houses the Ananda–In the Himalayas destination spa and yoga retreat, established 2000.[28]

The Prince of Wales and Duchess of Cornwall visited Rishikesh in 2013 and participated in the Ganga arti.They also conducted a special havan for world peace at the Parmarth Niketan.[29]

Environmental concerns[edit]

Rafting in Rishikesh is a popular sport in summer, but due to violations of rules most rafting camps in Rishikesh cause pollution to the river.[citation needed]

Rafting camps[edit]

View of Rishikesh
River Banks in Rishikesh

According to environmental activists, "These camps are not only in violation of Forest (Conservation) Act 1980, but also the Environment (Protection) Act 1986, as well as the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974, as it is leading to pollution of Ganga by discharging effluent, throwing of solid waste directly and adversely affecting the ecological integrity of the river system."

Environmental activists alleged that these camps, which are established as temporary sites, do not have adequate sewage and sanitation facilities, disturb the habitat of wild animals and "affect the peace, tranquility, and serenity of the forest area."

"At the campsites, the camp owners permit employees and the visitors to have food and alcohol. They leave empty bottles, cans, unconsumed food and waste including bones and filth in and around the campsite."

In a 2008 study on the beach camps between Kaudiyala and Rishikesh, experts from the Govind Ballabh Pant Himalayan Environment and Development Institute—R. K. Maikhuri, Nihal Farukhi and Tarun Budhal—found that wildlife conservation standards and norms, particularly for waste management, were routinely disregarded.

A bench headed by the National Green Tribunal chairperson Justice Swatanter Kumar on 1 April 2015 heard a plea filed by the non-governmental organisation Social Action for Forest and Environment (SAFE). The National Green Tribunal has sought explanations from the Government of India and the Government of Uttarakhand on the "unregulated" operation of rafting camps on the banks of Ganga between Shivpuri and Rishikesh in Uttarakhand. The state government has assured the tribunal that it would not grant permission to any new camp till the next hearing in May.[30][31][32][33][34][35]

As the seriousness of issue "The National Green Tribunal," a bench headed by Justice U. D. Salve has rejected permission to rafting camps operating in Rishikesh and slammed the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) and the Government of Uttarakhand for not filing their replies in the case and directed them to file their response.[36][37]

Effect on spiritual environment[edit]

Chit chat at bank of River Ganga at Rishikesh
Shiva statue near Parmarth Niketan which was washed away by the 2013 flood on River Ganga

It has been reported that large numbers of tourists visiting Rishikesh from India and the world have been consuming drugs and alcohol and appearing partially naked at beaches, leading to complaints that the spiritual environment of the area has been affected.[38][39][40][41]

According to many Hindu yogis and sadhus, the riverside stretch is of spiritual and religious importance, as it is where the Ganges takes its form after the confluence of the rivers Bhagirathi and Alaknanda at Devprayag in the Garhwal Himalayas. Saints and yogis have been meditating on the banks of Ganges since antiquity. However, these banks have been polluted with liquor bottles at camps as well as obscene activities and behavior at the beaches.[40][42][43][44][45]

Health[edit]

AIIMS Rishikesh is one of the six apex healthcare institutes being established by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India under the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) with the aim of correcting regional imbalances in quality tertiary level healthcare in the country and attaining self-sufficiency in graduate and postgraduate medical education and training.[46][47]

First Ayush Centre (The Department of Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy of India) was opened in Rishikesh on 4 June 2015 by Shripad Yasso Naik, Minister for Yoga and Traditional Medicine. He believes Ayurveda (Indian traditional medical science), Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy, and other alternative medicine systems will be researched in Rishikesh.[48]

Transport[edit]

Rishikesh railway station is the major railway station in the city. The railway station was created in 1939, during the British era.[49] A new railway line, connecting Rishikesh with Karnaprayag is under construction.[50] The city is well connected with all major north Indian cities like Delhi, Gurgaon and Noida via bus.[51] Rishikesh has air connectivity with Dehradun Airport at just 15 km from the city center.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Kautilya (26 October 2017). "Nagar palikas of Rishikesh, Kotdwar get corporation status". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  2. ^ Jha, Meenketan (27 August 2018). "5 Adventure Sports You Must Try in India". Outlook Traveller. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Ghose, Aruna, ed. (2011). "Rishikesh". DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: India. DK. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-75667-026-9. ISSN 1542-1554 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ "Rishikesh's identity as yoga capital to be maintained". The Tribune. 1 March 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  5. ^ a b Singh, Ranjeni A (3 April 2014). "Rishikesh: Haven for yoga and wellness enthusiasts". The Economic Times. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  6. ^ Sharma, Seema (19 August 2015). "Centre to declare Haridwar, Rishikesh national heritage cities". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  7. ^ Ramadurai, Charukesi (4 January 2018). "My Kind of Place: Rishikesh, India". The National. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  8. ^ Gusain, Raju (8 March 2018). "Rishikesh: Controversy-hit Parmarth Yoga fest ends". The Statesman. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  9. ^ "Yoga enthusiasts from across the globe flock to Rishikesh to be a part of this festival". The Times of India. 16 March 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  10. ^ "हृषीकेश / hṛṣīkeśa". Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
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  12. ^ Glossary of terms in Hinduism#R
  13. ^ a b "Places of Tourist Interest in Rishikesh". Dehradun District. Archived from the original on 11 July 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  14. ^ Sangtani, Satish. "Rishikesh History". The Rishikesh.com. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  15. ^ "District Dehradun - A General Introduction". Dehradun District Institute of Education and Training. Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  16. ^ Alter, Stephen (2001). Sacred Waters: A Pilgrimage Up the Ganges River to the Source of Hindu Culture. Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-15-100585-7. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  17. ^ "Rishikesh Coordinates". Tools.wmflabs.org. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  18. ^ Patel, Pranav (11 December 2014). "Invigorating Rishikesh". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  19. ^ "Rishikesh Climate and Weather Averages, India". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  20. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Census of India. 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  21. ^ Watts, Meera (7 July 2018). "Rishikesh: The Full Experience Beyond Yoga". siddhiyoga.com. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  22. ^ Duttagupta, Samonway (4 March 2019). "Maha Shivratri special: visit these temples to get acquainted with the lesser-known legends of Lord Shiva". Times Travel. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  23. ^ Pillai, Sudha (17 June 2018). "Finding bliss at Vashishta Guha". The Asian Age. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  24. ^ Johanson, Mark (16 January 2019). "A river ride to Rishikesh: India's new adventure capital". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  25. ^ The Happy Rishikesh Song [long version] - John Lennon. YouTube. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  26. ^ "Beatles - (Happy Rishikesh Song tab)". Guitaretab.com. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  27. ^ Richard A Bustraan. The Jesus People Movement: A Story of Spiritual Revolution Among the Hippies. Wipf and Stock. p. 28. ISBN 9781620324646.
  28. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (30 July 2000). "Himalayan Spa for Sybarites". The New York Times. Rishikesh (India); India; Himalayas. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  29. ^ Gusain, Raju (7 November 2013). "Prince Charles, Camilla participate in Ganga aarti in Rishikesh". India Today. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  30. ^ "Rafting in Rishikesh: Green Tribunal asks Centre to respond". Business Standard. Press Trust of India. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
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  32. ^ "ऋषिकेश में राफ्टिंग : राष्ट्रीय हरित प्राधिकरण ने केंद्र से माँगा जवाब मांगा" [Rafting in Rishikesh: Green Tribunal seeks answers from Center]. Samaylive.com (in Hindi). 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  33. ^ Goswami, Urmi (3 April 2015). "NGT pulls up Centre, Uttarakhand over unregulated rafting camps on Ganga banks". The Economic Times. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  34. ^ "Green tribunal notice over rafting camps in Uttarakhand". Business Standard. Indo-Asian News Service. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  35. ^ Sharma, Seema (3 April 2015). "Despite U'khand assurance to NGT, licences being issued for camping, rafting". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  36. ^ "National Green Tribunal denies permission to Rishikesh rafting camps". The Times of India. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  37. ^ "Is This The End Of River Rafting In Rishikesh? NGT's Latest Verdict Surely Makes It Seem So". India Times. 2 August 2015. Archived from the original on 5 August 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  38. ^ "PICS: ये है ऋषिकेश के गोवा बीच का नज़ारा, विदेशियों की बेशर्मी से आहत हो रही आस्था" [PICS: This is the view of Rishikesh's Goa beach, the belief that the foreigners are shocked by the shamelessness of the foreigners]. Samaylive. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  39. ^ "Where Rishikesh Meets Goa". The New Indian Express. 22 March 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  40. ^ a b Jaiswal, Sheo S. (27 May 2015). "Rafting in Ganga promotes obscene activities, VHP says, wants it banned". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  41. ^ "Adventure tours @ Rishikesh end up in rave parties". Andhra Headlines.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  42. ^ Dutta, Nirmalya (27 May 2015). "WTF — now the VHP wants to ban river rafting in Rishikesh!". India.com. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  43. ^ "VHP demands ban on Rishikesh rafting". News18. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  44. ^ "River Rafting Promotes Obscenity: VHP Seeks ban in Rishikesh". The Quint. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  45. ^ "VHP demands ban on river rafting in Ganga". The Tribune. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  46. ^ "Welcome to AIIMS Rishikesh". All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  47. ^ "AIIMS Rishikesh to get 100-bed hospital within three months". News18. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  48. ^ "एम्स ऋषिकेश में देश का पहला आयुष सेंटर खुला" [India First Ayush Center Open in Rishikesh]. Jagran.com (in Hindi). 4 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  49. ^ Singh, Kautilya (9 January 2015). "Speed up rail extension in state: Cong MP". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  50. ^ Jaiswal, Sheo S. (18 October 2016). "Work on Rishikesh-Karnaprayag railway line to begin in December". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  51. ^ "Rishikesh – Yoga Capital of the World". LetUsGoTo. 19 February 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2018.

External links[edit]