Risk-need-responsivity model

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The risk-need-responsivity model is a model used in criminology to develop recommendations for how prisoners should be assessed based on the risk they present and what they need, and what kinds of environments they should be placed in to reduce recidivism. It was first proposed in 1990[1] based on the research conducted on classifications of offender treatments by Lee Sechrest and Ted Palmer, among other researchers, in the 1960s and 70s.[2] It was primarily developed by Canadian researchers James Bonta, Donald A. Andrews, and Paul Gendreau.[3] It has been considered the best model that exists for determining offender treatment, and some of the best risk-assessment tools used on offenders are based on it.[4]


  1. ^ Polaschek, Devon L. L. (February 2012). "An appraisal of the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model of offender rehabilitation and its application in correctional treatment". Legal and Criminological Psychology. 17 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8333.2011.02038.x.
  2. ^ Taxman, F. S. (1 January 2006). "Risk, Need, and Responsivity (RNR): It All Depends". Crime & Delinquency. 52 (1): 28–51. doi:10.1177/0011128705281754. PMC 2423325.
  3. ^ Ward, Tony; Melser, Joseph; Yates, Pamela M. (March 2007). "Reconstructing the Risk–Need–Responsivity model: A theoretical elaboration and evaluation". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 12 (2): 208–228. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.07.001.
  4. ^ Andrews, D. A.; Bonta, J.; Wormith, J. S. (1 June 2011). "The Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) Model: Does Adding the Good Lives Model Contribute to Effective Crime Prevention?". Criminal Justice and Behavior. 38 (7): 735–755. doi:10.1177/0093854811406356.