Risk management in Indian banks

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Risk management in Indian banks is a relatively newer practice, but has already shown to increase efficiency in governing of these banks as such procedures tend to increase the corporate governance of a financial institution. In times of volatility and fluctuations in the market, financial institutions need to prove their mettle by withstanding the market variations and achieve sustainability in terms of growth and well as have a stable share value. Hence, an essential component of risk management framework would be to mitigate all the risks and rewards of the products and service offered by the bank. Thus the need for an efficient risk management framework is paramount in order to factor in internal and external risks.[1]

The financial sector in various economies like that of India are undergoing a monumental change factoring into account world events such as the ongoing Banking Crisis across the globe. The 2007–present recession in the United States has highlighted the need for banks to incorporate the concept of Risk Management into their regular procedures. The various aspects of increasing global competition to Indian Banks by Foreign banks, increasing Deregulation, introduction of innovative products, and financial instruments as well as innovation in delivery channels have highlighted the need for Indian Banks to be prepared in terms of risk management.[2]

Indian Banks have been making great advancements in terms of technology, quality, as well as stability such that they have started to expand and diversify at a rapid rate. However, such expansion brings these banks into the context of risk especially at the onset of increasing Globalization and Liberalization. In banks and other financial institutions, risk plays a major part in the earnings of a bank. The higher the risk, the higher the return, hence, it is essential to maintain a parity between risk and return. Hence, management of Financial risk incorporating a set systematic and professional methods especially those defined by the Basel II becomes an essential requirement of banks. The more risk averse a bank is, the safer is their Capital base.[2]

Risk Ratio[edit]

Risk ratio would be defined as the ratio of the probability of an issue occurring as against to an issue not occurring.[3]

Total Impact of Risk[edit]

Total impact of the risk (TIR) occurring would entail as the impact (I), the risk would cause multiplied by the Risk Ratio. It is essentially how much a bank would be impacted in the chance that the risk did occur. This essentially helps ascertain what is the total value of their investments that may be subject to risk and how it would impact them.

Risk and Reward[edit]

The ratio is in simplest terms calculated by dividing the amount of profit the trader expects to have made when the position is closed (i.e. the reward) by the amount he or she stands to lose if the price moves in the unexpected direction (i.e. the risk).

To calculate the total risk ensuing with the total expected return, a favored method is the use of variance or standard deviation. The larger the variance, the larger the standard deviation, the more uncertain the outcome. The standard deviation, E is a measure of average difference between the expected value and the actual value of a random variable (or unseen state of nature).

Here, n stands for a possible outcome, x stands for the expected outcome and P is the probability (or likelihood) of the difference between n and X occurring.[4]

Types of Risk[edit]

Types of Risks in Banking

The term Risk and the types associated to it would refer to mean financial risk or uncertainty of financial loss. The Reserve Bank of India guidelines issued in Oct. 1999 has identified and categorized the majority of risk into three major categories assumed to be encountered by banks. These belong to the clusters:[5]

The type of risks can be fundamentally subdivided in primarily of two types, i.e. Financial and Non-Financial Risk. Financial risks would involve all those aspects which deal mainly with financial aspects of the bank. These can be further subdivided into Credit Risk and Market Risk. Both Credit and Market Risk may be further subdivided.

Non-Financial risks would entail all the risk faced by the bank in its regular workings, i.e. Operational Risk, Strategic Risk, Funding Risk, Political Risk, and Legal Risk.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Srinivas Nallamothu & Fayaz Ahmed. "Risk Management Framework for Indian Banks". 
  2. ^ a b c Dr. Krishn A. Goyal, Prof. Sunita Agrawal (December 2010). "RISK MANAGEMENT IN INDIAN BANKS: SOME EMERGING ISSUES" (PDF). IJER. 
  3. ^ Sistrom CL, Garvan CW (January 2004). "Proportions, odds, and risk". Radiology. 230 (1): 12–9. doi:10.1148/radiol.2301031028. PMID 14695382. 
  4. ^ Fundamental Analysis Workbook. National Stock Exchange of India Limited. 
  5. ^ "Trend and Progress of Banking in India". Reserve Bank of India. 1996–97, 1998–99, 2001–02 and 2002–03.  Check date values in: |date= (help)