Riso–Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator

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The Riso–Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI) is an Enneagram of Personality psychometric test. Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson began development in 1993.[citation needed] Their research focused on constructing it as a personality measurement instrument.

The latest version consists of 144 pairs of forced-choice statements.

The RHETI has been found to be of heuristic value[1] but minimal scientific research has been conducted.[2] A 2002 review of validation studies of various Enneagram systems found guarded support for its reliability and validity.[3]


  1. ^ Newgent, Rebeca, Rebeca (January 2004), "The Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator: Estimates of Reliability and Validity" (PDF), Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 36, pp. 226–237, retrieved December 23, 2010
  2. ^ Giordano, Mary Ann Elizabeth; Piedmont, Ralph (2010). "A psychometric evaluation of the Riso-Hudson Type Indicator (RHETI), Version 2.5: Comparison of ipsative and non-ipsative versions and correlations with spiritual outcomes". ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Baltimore, Maryland: Loyola College In Maryland. DAI-B 70/07: 4524. Retrieved December 27, 2010.
  3. ^ Newgent, Rebecca A.; Parr, Patricia E.; Newman, Isadore (2002). "The Enneagram: trends in validation". Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas.