|Senator for life
Rita Levi-Montalcini, circa 1975. Image courtesy of the Bernard Becker Medical Library, Washington University School of Medicine
22 April 1909|
|Died||30 December 2012
|Institutions||Washington University in St. Louis|
|Alma mater||University of Turin|
|Known for||Nerve growth factor|
Rita Levi-Montalcini, OMRI, OMCA (Italian pronunciation: [ˈriːta ˈlɛːvi montalˈtʃiːni]; 22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology. She was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with colleague Stanley Cohen for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF). From 2001 until her death, she also served in the Italian Senate as a Senator for Life.
On 22 April 2009, she became the first Nobel laureate ever to reach the age of 100, and the event was feted with a party at Rome's City Hall. At the time of her death, she was the oldest living Nobel laureate.
Early life and education
Levi-Montalcini was born on 22 April 1909 in Turin, to a Sephardi Jewish family. She and her twin sister Paola were the youngest of four children. Her parents were Adele Montalcini, a painter, and Adamo Levi, an electrical engineer and mathematician.
In her teenage years, she considered becoming a writer and admired Swedish writer Selma Lagerlöf, but after seeing a close family friend die of stomach cancer she decided to attend the University of Turin Medical School. Her father discouraged his daughters from attending college, as he feared it would disrupt their potential lives as wives and mothers, but eventually he supported Levi-Montalcini's aspirations to become a doctor. While at the University of Turin, the neurohistologist Giuseppe Levi sparked her interest in the developing nervous system. After graduating with a summa cum laude M.D. in 1936 she remained at the university as Levi's assistant, but her academic career was cut short by Benito Mussolini's 1938 Manifesto of Race and the subsequent introduction of laws barring Jews from academic and professional careers.
Career and research
Levi-Montalcini lost her assistant position in the anatomy department after a 1938 law barring Jews from university positions was passed. During World War II she set up a laboratory in her bedroom and studied the growth of nerve fibers in chicken embryos, which laid the groundwork for much of her later research. She described this experience decades later in the science documentary film Death by Design/The Life and Times of Life and Times (1997). The film also features her fraternal twin sister Paola, who became a respected artist. When the Germans invaded Italy in 1943, her family fled south to Florence, where she set up a second laboratory in a corner of their shared living space. During this time, she also volunteered her medical expertise for the Allied health service. Her family returned to Turin in 1945.
In September 1946, Levi-Montalcini was granted a one-semester research fellowship in the laboratory of Professor Viktor Hamburger at Washington University in St. Louis. After she duplicated the results of her home laboratory experiments, Hamburger offered her a research associate position, which she held for 30 years. It was there that, in 1952, she did her most important work: isolating nerve growth factor (NGF) from observations of certain cancerous tissues that cause extremely rapid growth of nerve cells. By transferring pieces of tumors to chick embryos, Montalcini established a mass of cells that was full of nerve fibers. The discovery of nerves growing everywhere like a halo around the tumor cells was surprising. When describing it, Montalcini said it is: "like rivulets of water flowing steadily over a bed of stones."  The nerve growth produced by the tumor was unlike anything she had seen before – the nerves took over areas that would become other tissues and even entered veins in the embryo. But nerves did not grow into the arteries, which would flow from the embryo back to the tumor. This suggested to Montalcini that the tumor itself was releasing a substance that was stimulating the growth of nerves.
She was made a full professor in 1958. In 1962, she established a second laboratory in Rome and divided her time between there and St. Louis.
From 1961 to 1969, she directed the Research Center of Neurobiology of the CNR (Rome), and from 1969 to 1978, the Laboratory of Cellular Biology. After she retired in 1977, she was appointed as director of the Institute of Cell Biology of the Italian National Council of Research in Rome. She later retired from that position in 1979, however continued to be involved as a guest professor. 
Levi-Montalcini founded the European Brain Research Institute in 2002, and then served as its president. Her role in this institute was at the center of some criticism from some parts of the scientific community in 2010.
Controversies were raised about the cooperation of Levi-Montalcini with the Italian pharmaceutical industry Fidia . While working for Fidia, she improved the understanding of gangliosides. Beginning in 1975, the scientist supported the drug Cronassial (a particular ganglioside) produced by Fidia from bovine brain tissue. Independent studies showed that the drug actually could be successful in treatment of intended diseases (periphrastic nervous system neuropathies). Years later, some patients under treatment with Cronassial reported a severe neurological syndrome (Guillain–Barré syndrome). As per the normal cautionary routine, Germany banned Cronassial in 1983, followed by other countries. Italy prohibited the drug only in 1993; at the same time, an investigation revealed that Fidia paid the Italian Ministry of Health for a quick approval of Cronassial and later paid for pushing use of the drug in treatment of diseases where it had not been tested. Levi-Montalcini's relationship with the company was revealed during the investigation, and she was criticized publicly.
In the 1990s, she was one of the first scientists pointing out the importance of the mast cell in human pathology. In the same period (1993), she identified the endogenous compound palmitoylethanolamide as an important modulator of this cell.
On 28–29 April 2006, Levi-Montalcini, aged 97, attended the opening assembly of the newly elected Senate, at which the President of the Senate was elected. She declared her preference for the centre-left candidate Franco Marini. Due to her support of the government of Romano Prodi, she was often criticized by some right-wing senators, who accused her of "saving" the government when the government's exiguous majority in the Senate was at risk. She was insulted by politician Francesco Storace.
Levi-Montalcini had an older brother Gino, who died after a heart attack in 1974. He was one of the most well known Italian architects and a professor at the University of Turin. She had two sisters: Anna, five years older than Rita, and Paola, her twin sister, a popular artist who died on 29 September 2000, age 91.
Levi-Montalcini never married and had no children. In a 2006 interview she said: "I never had any hesitation or regrets in this sense... My life has been enriched by excellent human relations, work and interests. I have never felt lonely." She died in her home in Rome on 30 December 2012 at the age of 103.
Upon her death, the Mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno, stated it was a great loss "for all of humanity." He praised her as someone who represented "civic conscience, culture and the spirit of research of our time." Italian astrophysicist Margherita Hack told Sky TG24 TV in a tribute to her fellow scientist, "She is really someone to be admired." Italy's premier, Mario Monti, paid tribute to Levi-Montalcini's "charismatic and tenacious" character and for her lifelong endeavor to "defend the battles in which she believed." Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi praised Levi-Montalcini's civil and moral efforts, saying she was an "inspiring" example for Italy and the world.
Awards and honors
In 1986, Levi-Montalcini and collaborator Stanley Cohen received the Nobel Prize in Medicine, as well as the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. This made her the fourth Nobel Prize winner to come from Italy's small (less than 50,000 people) but very old Jewish community, after Emilio Segrè, Salvador Luria (a university colleague and friend) and Franco Modigliani.
In 1991, she received the Laurea Honoris Causa in Medicine from the University of Trieste, Italy. On that occasion, she expressed her desire to formulate a Carta of Human Duties as necessary counterpart of the too much neglected Declaration of Human Rights. The vision of Rita Levi-Montalcini came true with the issuing of the Trieste Declaration of Human Duties and the foundation in 1993 of the International Council of Human Duties, International Council of Human Duties (ICHD), at the University of Trieste.
She was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1995.
In 2006, Levi-Montalcini received the degree Honoris Causa in Biomedical Engineering from the Polytechnic University of Turin, in her native city.
In 2008, she received the PhD Honoris Causa from the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
- Levi-Montalcini, Rita, In Praise of Imperfection: My Life and Work.(Elogio dell'imperfezione) Basic Books, New York, 1988.
- Yount, Lisa (1996). Twentieth Century Women Scientists. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-3173-8.
- Muhm, Myriam : Vage Hoffnung für Parkinson-Kranke – Überlegungen der Medizin-Nobelpreisträgerin Rita Levi-Montalcini, Süddeutsche Zeitung #293, p. 22. December 1986 "L'Archivio "medicina – medicine"". Larchivio.org. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- Origine ed Evoluzione del nucleo accessorio del Nervo abducente nell'embrione di pollo, Roma, Tip. Cuggiani, 1942.
- Il messaggio nervoso, con Pietro Angeletti e Giuseppe Moruzzi, Milano, Rizzoli, 1975.
- New developments in neurobiological research, in "Commentarii", vol. III, n. 15, Pontificia Academia Scientiarum, 1976.
- Elogio dell'imperfezione, Milano, Garzanti, 1987. ISBN 88-11-59390-5. (1999 nuova edizione accresciuta).
- NGF. Apertura di una nuova frontiera nella neurobiologia, Roma-Napoli, Theoria, 1989. ISBN 88-241-0162-3.
- Sclerosi multipla in Italia. Aspetti e problemi, con Mario Alberto Battaglia, Genova, AISM, 1989. ISBN 88-7148-001-5.
- Presentazione di Max Perutz, È necessaria la scienza?, Milano, Garzanti, 1989. ISBN 88-11-59415-4.
- Prefazione a Carlo Levi, Poesie inedite. 1934–1946, Roma, Mancosu, 1990.
- Prefazione a Gianni Bonadonna, Donne in medicina, Milano, Rizzoli, 1991. ISBN 88-17-84077-7.
- Presentazione di Gilberto Salmoni, Memoria: un telaio infinito Dialogo su un mondo tutto da scoprire, Genova, Costa & Nolan, 1993.
- Prefazione a Giacomo Scotti (a cura di), Non si trova cioccolata. Lettere di bambini jugoslavi nell'orrore della guerra, Napoli, Pironti, 1993. ISBN 88-7937-095-2.
- Reti. Scienza, cultura, economia, con Guido Cimino e Lauro Galzigna, Ancona, Transeuropa, 1993. ISBN 88-7828-101-8.
- Vito Volterra. Il suo percorso, in Scienza, tecnologia e istituzioni in Europa. Vito Volterra e l'origine del CNR, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 1993. ISBN 88-420-4147-5.
- Il tuo futuro, Milano, Garzanti, 1993. ISBN 88-11-73837-7.
- Per i settanta anni della Enciclopedia italiana, 1925–1995, in 1925–1995: la Treccani compie 70 anni. Mostra storico-documentaria, Roma, Treccani, Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1995.
- Prefazione an American Medical Association, L'uso degli animali nella ricerca scientifica. Libro bianco, Bologna, Esculapio, 1995.
- Senz'olio contro vento, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 1996. ISBN 88-8089-198-7.
- L'asso nella manica a brandelli, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 1998. ISBN 88-8089-429-3.
- La galassia mente, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 1999. ISBN 88-8089-636-9.
- Presentazione di Nicola Canal, Angelo Ghezzi e Mauro Zaffaroni, Sclerosi multipla. Attualità e prospettive, Milano, Masson, 1999. ISBN 88-214-2467-7.
- Intervista in Serena Zoli, Storie di ordinaria resurrezione (e non). Fuori dalla depressione e altri mali oscuri, Milano, Rizzoli, 1999. ISBN 88-17-86072-7.
- L'Università delle tre culture. Conferenza della professoressa Rita Levi-Montalcini, Sondrio, Banca Popolare di Sondrio, 1999.
- Cantico di una vita, Milano, Cortina, 2000. ISBN 88-7078-666-8.
- Un universo inquieto. Vita e opere di Paola Levi Montalcini, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 2001. ISBN 88-8490-111-1.
- Tempo di mutamenti, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 2002. ISBN 88-8490-140-5.
- Tempo di azione, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2004. ISBN 88-8490-429-3.
- Abbi il coraggio di conoscere, Milano, Rizzoli, 2004. ISBN 88-17-00199-6.
- Lungo le vie della conoscenza. Un viaggio per sentieri inesplorati con Rita Levi-Montalcini, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Brescia, Serra Tarantola, 2005. ISBN 88-88507-56-6.
- Eva era africana, Roma, Gallucci, 2005. ISBN 88-88716-35-1.
- I nuovi magellani nell'er@ digitale, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Rizzoli, 2006. ISBN 88-17-00823-0.
- Tempo di revisione, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2006. ISBN 88-8490-983-X.
- La vita intellettuale, in La vita intellettuale. Professioni, arti, impresa in Italia e nel pianeta. Atti del forum internazionale, 13 e 14 febbraio 2007, Bologna, Salone del podesta di Palazzo Re Enzo, Piazza del Nettuno, Bologna, Proctor, 2007. ISBN 978-88-95499-00-0.
- Rita Levi-Montalcini racconta la scuola ai ragazzi|Rita Levi-Montalcini con Giuseppina Tripodi racconta la scuola ai ragazzi, Milano, Fabbri, 2007. ISBN 978-88-451-4308-3.
- Le tue antenate. Donne pioniere nella società e nella scienza dall'antichità ai giorni nostri, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Roma, Gallucci, 2008. ISBN 978-88-6145-033-2.
- La clessidra della vita di Rita Levi-Montalcini, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2008. ISBN 978-88-6073-444-0.
- Ritmi d'arte, Serra Tarantola, 2008 ISBN 88-95839-05-6
- Cronologia di una scoperta, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2009. ISBN 978-88-6073-557-7.
- L'altra parte del mondo, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Rizzoli, 2009. ISBN 978-88-17-01529-5.
|Library resources about
|By Rita Levi-Montalcini|
- Anon (2012). "Rita Levi-Montalcini EMBO profile". people.embo.org. Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization.
- Anon (2015). "Fellowship of the Royal Society 1660-2015". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-07-15.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- Bradshaw RA (2013). "Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-2012) Nobel prizewinning neurobiologist and eminent advocate for science". Nature. London. 493 (7432): 306. doi:10.1038/493306a. PMID 23325208.
- Abbott, A. (2009). "Neuroscience: One hundred years of Rita". Nature. 458 (7238): 564–567. doi:10.1038/458564a. PMID 19340056.
- "The Doyenne of Neuroscience celebrates her 100th birthday". IBRO. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Owen, Richard (30 April 2009). "Secret of Longevity: No Food, No Husband, No Regrets". Excelle. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Oldest living Nobel winner Rita Levi Montalcini dies". The Telegraph. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
- Carey, Benedict (30 December 2012). "Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel Winner, Dies at 103". The New York Times.
- "Scheda di attività – Rita LEVI-MONTALCINI". Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- http://www.economist.com/news/obituary/21569019-rita-levi-montalcini-biologist-died-december-30th-aged-103-rita-levi-montalcini Rita Levi-Montalcini
- Costantino Ceoldo (2012-12-31). "Homage to Rita Levi Montalcini". Retrieved 20 July 2013.
Born and raised in a Sephardic Jewish family in which culture and love of learning were categorical imperatives, she abandoned religion and embraced atheism.
- Krause-Jackson, Flavia; Martinuzzi, Elisa (30 December 2012). "Levi-Montalcini, Italian Nobel Laureate, Dies at 103". Bloomberg.
- Siegel, Judy (4 March 2008). "Oldest living Nobel laureate arrives today on solidarity visit. 98- year-old Italian neurologist Rita Levi-Montalcini triumphed over Mussolini's anti-Jewish edicts". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Nobel-winning scientist Levi-Montalcini dies in Rome at 103, biologist studied growth factor". Fox News Channel. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Yount, Lisa, Twentieth-Century Women Scientists, Facts on File, Inc., 1996, p. 29, ISBN 0-8160-3173-8
- "Death by Design: Where Parallel Worlds Meet". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Yount, Lisa (2009). Rita Levi-Montalcini: Discoverer of Nerve Growth Factor. Chelsea House.
- Wasserman, Elga R. (2000). The door in the dream : conversations with eminent women in science. Joseph Henry Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-309-06568-2.
- "Rita Levi-Montalcini". Washington University. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "The European Brain Research Institute in Rome". Network of European Neuroscience Institutes. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Self-inflicted damage.The autocratic actions of an institute's founder could destroy a centre of excellence for brain research". Nature. 463 (7279): 270. 21 January 2010. doi:10.1038/463270a.
- Horowitz SH (1984). "Ganglioside (Cronassial) therapy in diabetic neuropathy". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 174: 593–600. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-1200-0_50. PMID 6377852.
- Staughton RC, Good J (1990). "Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a mixture of gangliosides ('Cronassial') in post-herpetic neuralgia". Current Medical Research and Opinion. 12 (3): 169–76. doi:10.1185/03007999009111498. PMID 2272191.
- "Qualità Intellettuale". UNIPG. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "Fallimenti storici". Dica33. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "Rita Levi Montalcini e la vicenda Cronossial". Politica Molecolare. November 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "Nobel comprato? Non ne so nulla". Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Leon A, Buriani A, Dal Toso R, et al. (April 1994). "Mast cells synthesize, store, and release nerve growth factor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (9): 3739–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.9.3739. PMC . PMID 8170980.
- Aloe L, Leon A, Levi-Montalcini R (1993). "A proposed autacoid mechanism controlling mastocyte behaviour". Agents and Actions. 39 Spec No: C145–7. PMID 7505999.
- "Mastella: sì al procedimento su Storace". Repubblica. 17 October 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "Dispetto alla Montalcini al seggio". La Repubblica. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "Rita Levi-Montalcini, pioneering Italian biologist, dies at 103". The Guardian. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "Addio al premio Nobel Rita Levi Montalcini". ANSA. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- D'Emilio, Frances (30 December 2012). "Nobel-winning biologist Rita Levi-Montalcini dies at 103". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter L" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
- Wasserman, Elga (2000). The Door in the Dream: Conversations With Eminent Women in Science. Joseph Henry Press. p. 61. ISBN 0309086191. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Yount, Lisa (2007). A to Z of Women in Science and Math. Infobase Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 1438107951. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Rita Levi-Montalcini". The Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Rita Levi-Montalcini – The Embryo Project Encyclopedia". ASU. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award: 1986 Winners". Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "International Council of Human Duties". Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Meet the Goodwill Ambassadors". FAO. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Ghieth, Sheyam (13 April 2006). "Prodi May Need Elderly Senators to Keep Government". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "E' scomparsa Rita Levi Montalcini, premio Nobel per la medicina, tra i soci fondatori di Città della Scienza". Città della Scienza. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- Sandrone, Stefano (2013). "Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909–2012)". Journal of Neurology. 260 (3): 940–941. doi:10.1007/s00415-013-6864-8.
- Navis, Adam (2007), "Rita Levi-Montalcini.", Embryo Project Encyclopedia.
- Aloe, L. (2004). "Rita Levi-Montalcini: The discovery of nerve growth factor and modern neurobiology". Trends in Cell Biology. 14 (7): 395–399. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2004.05.011. PMID 15246433.
- Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (2003). "Stamp vignette on medical science. Rita Levi-Montalcini--Nobel Prize for work in neurology". Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic. 78 (12): 1448. doi:10.4065/78.12.1448. PMID 14661672.
- Aloe, L. (2003). "Rita Levi-Montalcini and the discovery of nerve growth factor: Past and present studies". Archives italiennes de biologie. 141 (2–3): 65–83. PMID 12825318.
- Cowan, W. M. (2001). "Viktor Hamburger Andrita Levi-Montalcini: The Path to the Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 24: 551–600. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.551. PMID 11283321.
- Provine, R. R. (2001). "In the trenches with Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini (1965-1974): One student's perspective". International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. 19 (2): 143–149. doi:10.1016/S0736-5748(00)00081-2. PMID 11255028.
- Levi-Montalcini, R. (2000). "From a home-made laboratory to the Nobel Prize: An interview with Rita Levi-Montalcini". The International journal of developmental biology. 44 (6): 563–566. PMID 11061418.
- Raju, T. N. (2000). "The Nobel chronicles. 1986: Stanley Cohen (b 1922); Rita Levi-Montalcini (b 1909)". Lancet. 355 (9202): 506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)82069-3. PMID 10841166.
- Aloe, L. (1999). "Rita Levi-Montalcini: A brief biographic view of past and present studies on nerve growth factor". Microscopy Research and Technique. 45 (4–5): 207–209. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0029(19990515/01)45:4/5<207::AID-JEMT3>3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 10383112.
- Bendiner, E. (1992). "Rita Levi-Montalcini and the unveiling of growth factors". Hospital practice (Office ed.). 27 (4A): 135–145. PMID 1560084.
- Pécsi, T. (1987). "Nobel Prize for medicine, 1986 (Rita Levi-Montalcini)". Orvosi hetilap. 128 (20): 1047–1048. PMID 3295669.
- Weltman, J. K. (1987). "The 1986 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine awarded for discovery of growth factors: Rita Levi-Montalcini, M.D., and Stanley Cohen, Ph.D". New England and regional allergy proceedings. 8 (1): 47–48. doi:10.2500/108854187779045385. PMID 3302667.
- Holloway, Marguerite (January 1993). "Finding the Good in the Bad". Scientific American Magazine. 268: 32–36.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rita Levi-Montalcini.|
- Autobiography at the Nobel e-Museum
- Interview with Rita Levi-Montalcini (dated 26 November 2008)
- Biography of Rita Levi-Montalcini at Embryo Project Encyclopedia
- Article in German
- The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize
- AFP Biography (dated 22 April 2009) celebrating Rita Levi-Montalcini's 100th Birthday
- Is this the secret of eternal life? (Independent article on R L-M)
- Italians rally to condemn Nobel 'bribe' allegation: Professor rejects claim by civil servant that a pharmaceuticals firm 'bought' her 1986 prize for medicine
- An Annual Reviews Conversations Interview with Rita Levi-Montalcini (video)
- 1979 article in Scientific American describing the discovery of nerve growth factor