Ritual slaughter is the practice of slaughtering livestock for meat in the context of a ritual. Ritual slaughter involves a prescribed method of slaughtering an animal for food production purposes. This differs from animal sacrifices that involve slaughtering animals, often in the context of rituals, for purposes other than mere food production.
Walter Burkert in Homo Necans discusses animal sacrifice as arising from the anthropological transition to hunting. With the domestication of livestock, the hunt was gradually replaced by the slaughter of livestock, and hunting rituals were consequently transformed to the context of slaughter.
In antiquity, ritual slaughter and animal sacrifice was one and the same. Thus, as argued by Detienne et al. (1989), for the Greeks, consumption of meat not slaughtered ritually was unthinkable, so that beyond being a tribute to the gods, Greek animal sacrifice marked a cultural boundary, separating "Hellenes" from "barbarians". Greek animal sacrifice was christianized into slaughter ceremonies involving Greek Orthodox Christian ritual, known as kourbania.
Ancient Egyptian slaughter rituals are frequently depicted in tombs and temples from the Old Kingdom onwards. The standard iconography of the ritual involves a bull lying fettered on the ground with the butcher standing over it cutting its foreleg. The scene is attended by a woman and two priests.
Jewish and Islamic ritual slaughter
Jewish and Islamic dietary laws require similar procedures for slaughtering animals. Ritual slaughter with a sharp knife is classified in the U.S. as humane under the Humane Slaughter Act and practiced with no restrictions; in Europe, some countries have outlawed the practice as inhumane (see below).
Shechita (Hebrew: שחיטה) is the Jewish ritual slaughter for poultry and cattle for food according to Halakha. Talmud – Tractate Hulin Shulkhan Arukh Yore De'ah. The method of slaughter of animals for food is the same as was used for Temple sacrifices, but since the destruction of the Jewish Temple[disambiguation needed] in Jerusalem, sacrifices are prohibited. The biblical verse explains that animals not sacrificed must be slaughtered by the same method, and today Shechita, kosher slaughtering does not include any religious ceremony, although the slaughtering method may not be deviated from, if the meat is to be consumed by Jews.
The act is performed by drawing a very sharp knife back and forth rapidly across the animal's throat making a single incision incising the trachea and esophagus. The carotid arteries are also cut, allowing the blood to drain out. The knife must also be perfectly smooth, and free of any nicks.
The animal must be killed by a shochet - religious slaughterer also known in Hebrew as shochet ubodek (slaughterer and inspector). An inspection is mandatory and the animal is rejected for Jewish consumption if certain imperfections are discovered. A shochet must be a God fearing Jew of consistent religious practice. The training period for a shochet varies, depending on the skill of the trainee. To qualify as a slaughterer of chickens only can be achieved with a shorter period of study.
Regarding cattle, the animal can be in a number of positions; when the animal is lying on its back, this is referred to as shechita munachat in a standing position it is known as shechita me'umedet.
Ḏabīḥah (ذَبِيْحَة) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life per Islamic law. This method of slaughtering animals consists of a swift, deep incision with a sharp knife on the throat, cutting the jugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides but leaving the spinal cord intact. The objective of this technique is to more effectively drain the body of the animal's blood, resulting in more hygienic meat.
European bans on ritual slaughter
Bans on ritual slaughter have been proposed or enacted in a number of European countries, from the 1840s onward. Most of them have been removed. Although ostensibly introduced for reasons of animal welfare, the consistent involvement of antisemites in the campaigns from the outset in the 1840s has, among other things lead Pascal Krauthammer in a doctoral dissertation to conclude that the aim of the Swiss anti-Semitic campaign, that included elements from blood libel accusations in neighbouring countries, was to reimpose restrictions on Jews at a time when they were just beginning to achieve enfranchisement.
In 2014 Denmark ruled that Islamic and Jewish slaughter practices are inhumane, requiring that all animals be stunned before being killed for food, sparking a debate on religious freedom and the relative harms of different methods.
Ethnic and regional traditions
Bullfighting and Running of the Bulls is still widely practiced in Spain, Portugal and many Spanish influenced ares of the Northern Mediterranean and Latin America. It is a modern adaptation of ancient ritual slaughter supposedly imported by Roman soldiers who worshiped Mithras.
Bali (pronounced Bal-ee) or Bali Sacrifice (sometimes known as Jhatka Bali) is the ritual killing of an animal in Hinduism. Jhatka is the proscribed method for Hindu ritual sacrifice, however other methods such as strangulation and the use of a wooden spile (sphya) driven into the heart is used. The reason for this is that priest saw the animal making a noise as a bad omen. Jhatka requires the instant killing of the animal in a single decapitating blow with an axe or sword. Those Hindus who do eat meat prescribe jhatka.
Jhatka goat sacrifice in Sikhism
"When speaking to the ancestors was finished Sipopone [one of Hunter's informants] took the sacrificial spear of the umzi [homestead], passed it between the forelegs of the animal, and between its back legs, which were tied, then stabbed it in the stomach over the aorta muscle. The beast bellowed horribly, and lay in agony for about five minutes before it died."
- Legal aspects of ritual slaughter
- Comparison of Islamic and Jewish dietary laws
- Animal sacrifice in Hinduism
- Eberhard Otto, An Ancient Egyptian Hunting Ritual, Journal of Near Eastern Studies (1950).
- Deut. 12:21; Deut. 14:21; Num. 11:22
- Halal/Haram/Zabiha, ISNA Halal Certification Agency.
- Pascal Krauthammer. "Das Schächtverbot in der Schweiz 1854 - 2000. Die Schächtfrage zwischen Teirschutz, Politik und Fremdenfeindlichkeit Zurich: Schulthess" (The Prohibition of Ritual Slaughter in Switzerland 1854-2000. The Ritual Slaughter Question from the Aspects of Animal Protection, Politics and Xenophobia) (Includes a Summary in English)
- O.P. Radhan (Sep 2002). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. 33–50. Anmol, India. p. 854. ISBN 81-7488-865-9.
- Nripendr Kumar Dutt (4 Nov 2008). Origin and Growth of Caste in India (C. B.C. 2000-300). p. 195. ISBN 1-4437-3590-6. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "A Nihang carries out 'Chatka' on a 'Chatanga' (a specially selected goat for sacrifice)", The Multifarious Faces of Sikhism throughout Sikh History, www.sarbloh.info
- "The most special occasion of the Chhauni is the festival of Diwali which is celebrated for ten days. This is the only Sikh shrine at Amritsar where Maha Prasad (meat) is served on special occasions in Langar", The Sikh review, Volume 35, Issue 409 – Volume 36, Issue 420, Sikh Cultural Centre., 1988
- "The tradition traces back to the time of Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji who started the tradition of hunting for Sikhs ... The tradition of ritually sacrificing goats and consuming Mahaparshad remains alive not only with the Nihang Singh Dals, but also at Sachkhand Sri Hazoor Sahib and Sachkhand Sri Patna Sahib (two of the Sikhs holiest shrines)." Panth Akali Budha Dal
- "Another noteworthy practice performed here is that a goat is sacrificed on Dussehra night every year. This ceremony was performed on Diwali day this year (Oct 28, 2008). The fresh blood of the sacrificed goat is used for tilak on the Guru’s weapons.", SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE SIKH COMMUNITY, Dr Madanjit Kaur, Institute of Sikh Studies Institute of Sikh Studies, Madan Kaur
- Sacrifice at Hazur Sahib – Myth & Truth, Nanak Singh Nishter, World Sikh News, 21 January 2009
- "Sacrifice of a goat within precints of Gurudwara on a number of occasions, apply its blood to arms/armaments kept inside the shrine, distribute its meat as Prasad ammong devotees at their home." The Sikh Bulletin, July–August 2009, Volume 11, Number 7 & 8, pp. 26, Khalsa Tricentenneal Foundation of N.A. Inc
- "Regulating Slaughter: Animal Protection and Antisemitism in Scandinavia, 1880-1941," Patterns of Prejudice 23 (1989)
- M. Detienne, J.-P. Vernant (eds.), The Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks, trans. Wissing, University of Chicago Press (1989).
- Roy A. Rappaport, Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People (1969, 2000), ISBN 978-1-57766-101-6.
- Laws of Judaism and Islam concerning food including laws of ritual slaughter