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|चेनब / ਚਨਾਬ / چناب|
|- right||Marusadar River|
|Source||Bara Lacha pass|
|Mouth||Confluence with Sutlej to form the Panjnad River|
|- location||Bahawalpur district, Punjab, Pakistan|
|Length||960 km (597 mi) approx.|
|- average||800.6 m3/s (28,273 cu ft/s) |
Location of the Chenab on a map of the Indus river and its tributaries
The Chenab River (Hindi: चेनाब cenab; Punjabi: ਚਨਾਬ, canāb; Urdu: چناب) is a major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region. It forms in the upper Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, India, and flows through the Kishtwar district of Jammu region in Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, Pakistan, before flowing into the Indus River near the city of Uch Sharif. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.
The river was known to Indians in the Vedic period as Chandrabhaga (Sanskrit: चंद्रभाग), also Asikni (Sanskrit: असिक्नी) or Iskamati (Sanskrit: इस्कामति) and as Acesines to the Ancient Greeks. In 325 BC, Alexander the Great allegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus (present day Uch Sharif or Mithankot or Chacharan in Pakistan) at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River).
Chanderbhaga name for the combination of two rivers in Lahul Valley is found more visible in old Hindu texts called Puranas. The ancient name of this river in Vedic period was Asikni which is praised in “Nadi Sukat” of Rig-Veda along with Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati Rivers. According to Shiv Puran, the mountain range starting from Chanderkhani in Kullu region to Drilbu Ri in Lahul is called Chanderbhag Parvat, so the river flowing underneath was named Chanderbhaga whereas one river was called Chandra and second one Bhaga. There are three rivers originating from Baralacha Massif situated in Lahul valley, which are Chandra, Bhaga and Yunam. Chandra and Bhaga meet at Tandi and form Chanderbhaga Sangam whereas Yunam moves to other direction in Zanskar. Baralacha Massif is the unique source of three different and popular rivers in the world. This river is well known as Chenab too. The eminent historian of Trans Himalaya; Tsering Dorje believes that Persian travelers named it Aab- E- Cheen which means River of China and later generations made it simple calling Chenab. Google links it with two words, Chan and Aab where Chan means Moon and Aab means River. The river further moves to Jammu Kashmir and later enters into Pakistan through Punjab. The Greek named this river as Sandro Fagus which means the river which devoured Alexandra. Chenab becomes very significant once we recall the eternal love stories of Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal and Suni Bhunku who made Chenab a River of Love. Prominent Urdu poets Iqbal and Faiz Ahmad Faiz constructed long-lasting literature on the banks of Chenab and Shiv Kumar Batalvi, who was most known for his romantic poetry, noted for its heightened passion, pathos, separation and lover's agony, also remained associated with Chenab because he was born near Sialkot. Time faded the ancient name Asikni and somehow Chanderbhaga and people remembered Chenab. Shiv Puran mentions meditation of Devi Sandhya at the confluence of Chanderbhaga. According to Bhagwat Puran great saint Vashisht got married at this confluence and Sakand Puran ensures a holy dip in Chanderbhaga River is equivalent to Ganges. Vaikunt Puran links this river with lord Shiva and Matsaya Puran claims the wind which flows touching this river gets the medicinal effect and is very useful for the sentient beings. Chanderbhaga Sangam is used by the locals to immerse mortal remains and it is mentioned by several historians that Droupadi was died here while she was moving to heavens with her husbands. She was found dead near Sangam by the local people who performed her last rituals after establishing a relation of mother and sons with her dead appearance. It is believed that from that time locals are immersing the mortal remains in this river. Later when the valley got Buddhist influence, this ritual was decorated in even better way naming it Tsa –Tsa. It was a technique to keep the mortal remains in nearby monastery of Ghanta Pa Siddha and later monks used to mix the powder of last remains with clay and make small Buddhist stupas to be kept under the rocks and immerse in Sangam. A huge celebration was followed with locally made beer and different dances during the Tsa- Tsa celebration those days. Slowly Tsa- Tsa celebration went invisible but revived in 2016 when a huge tribute was paid by this tribal Hindu- Buddhist population to VHP leader Ashok Singhal whose mortal remains got immersed in this holy Sangam. Using his mortal remains Buddhist monks revived almost a century year old Tsa- Tsa ritual. People have gathered from every corner of this frontier land and a big festival was started named Chanderbhaga Sangam Parv.
There is a small cave at Bhandarkote just above the Bhandarkote bridge over chenab river. Sheikh Zain-ud-Din Wali (R. A) is believed to have stayed in it for many years.The sheikh who hailed from kishtwar later moved to kashmir.Bhandarkot is about 12 km from kishtwar town.
The river has rich power generation potential in India.
- Salal Dam - 690 MW hydroelectric power project in Jammu and Kashmir
- Baglihar Dam - a hydroelectric power project in Jammu and Kashmir
- Dul Hasti Hydroelectric Plant - 390 MW run-of-the-river type power project
- Pakal Dul Dam - a proposed dam on Marusadar River, a right bank tributary of Chenab
- Ratle Hydroelectric Plant - an under construction power station of run-of-the-river type
- Marala Headworks - located near Sialkot
- Khanki Headworks - located in Gujranwala District
- Trimmu Barrage - located in Jhang District
- Kiru Hydro electric Power Project - proposed project located in Kishtwar District-624 MW
- Kwar HE Power Project - proposed project located in Kishtwar District - 540 MW
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Chenab.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chenab River.|
- "Construction of power projects over Chenab". Business Recorder. 26 August 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/rivdis/STATIONS.HTM, ORNL, Retrieved 8 Dec 2016
- "River Chenab" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
- "Indus Waters Treaty". The World Bank. Retrieved 8 Dec 2016.
- Yule, Henry; Arthur Coke Burnell; William Crooke. "Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words & phrases and of kindred terms". Pg.741. Retrieved 8 Dec 2016.
- https://www.britannica.com/place/Chenab-River, Chenab River on Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved 8 Dec 2016
- Encyclopædia Britannica article on the Chenab
- Alexandria (Uch)
- "Religious Places | Kishtwar". www.kishtwar.com. Retrieved 2018-03-10.
- "Harnessing gigantic hydro power potential of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab rivers in India". Retrieved 30 November 2017.