|Female Kryptolebias marmoratus|
G. S. Myers, 1925
The Rivulidae are a family of killifishes in the order Cyprinodontiformes. They are commonly known as rivulids, South American killifish or New World killifish. The latter names are slightly misleading, however, as they are neither restricted to South America – though most are in fact found there –, nor are they the only killifishes from the Americas. Occasionally, they are still referred to as rivulines, a term dating back to when they were considered a subfamily of the Aplocheilidae.
The subfamilial name "Rivulinae" was already established for noctuid moths by Augustus Radcliffe Grote in 1895. That name, though it is the senior homonym, may be suppressed because the name Rivulinae for the fish subfamily is widespread, whereas the moth taxon is little used.
In the meantime the family-group name Cynolebiidae Hoedeman 1961 can be used for the family.
Much change has occurred in the classification of the rivulines, much of it the work of Wilson J. E. M. Costa. The following list is derived from FishBase with the addition of recent work by Costa and Huber:
- Anablepsoides (see note 1)
- Atlantirivulus (see note 1)
- Cynodonichthys (see note 1)
- Laimosemion (see note 1)
- Melanorivulus (see note 1)
- Mucurilebias 
- Yssolebias [Now in Cyprinodontidae]  (probably extinct)
- 1: These genera are disputed; work by Huber in 2012 suggests that they may all be part of Rivulus and thus merely subgenera. 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rivulidae.|
- Costa, W.J.E.M. (2014): A new genus of miniature cynolebiasine from the Atlantic Forest and alternative biogeographical explanations for seasonal killifish distribution patterns in South America (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). Vertebrate Zoology, 64 (1): 23–33.
- Huber, J. H. (2012): Description of Yssolebias, nov. gen., a new monotypic fish genus for an old and phantom species of Colombia. Killi-Data Series 2012, 26-31.
- Huber J.H., 2012. Reappraisal of the Phylogeny of Rivulus and its Allied Focused on External Characters.
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