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Ro64-6198 is an nociceptoid drug used in scientific research. It acts as a potent and selective agonist for the nociceptin receptor, also known as the ORL-1 (opiate receptor like-1) receptor, with over 100x selectivity over other opioid receptors. It produces anxiolytic effects in animal studies equivalent to those of benzodiazepine drugs, but has no anticonvulsant effects and does not produce any overt effects on behaviour. However it does impair short-term memory, and counteracts stress-induced anorexia. It also has antitussive effects, and reduces the rewarding and analgesic effects of morphine, although it did not prevent the development of dependence. It has been shown to reduce alcohol self-administration in animals and suppressed relapses in animal models of alcoholism, and ORL-1 agonists may have application in the treatment of alcoholism.
Ro64-6198 was able to be recognised as a discriminative stimulus by rats distinct from other opioid receptor ligands, but was not able to produce the conditioned place preference thought to be indicative of addictive potential. Consequently while the role of ORL-1 receptors in the body is complex and remains poorly understood, Ro64-6198 has demonstrated multiple pharmacological actions and has been very useful in the study of the ORL-1 receptor system, especially in relation to anxiety and anorexia; however, due to poor oral bioavailability, Ro 64-6198 will most likely not be pursued clinically. Studies in primates showed it to have analgesic effects but without producing respiratory depression or reinforcing effects.
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- Higgins GA, Kew JN, Richards JG, Takeshima H, Jenck F, Adam G, Wichmann J, Kemp JA, Grottick AJ. A combined pharmacological and genetic approach to investigate the role of orphanin FQ in learning and memory. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2002 Mar;15(5):911-22. PMID 11906533
- Ciccocioppo R, Biondini M, Antonelli L, Wichmann J, Jenck F, Massi M. Reversal of stress- and CRF-induced anorexia in rats by the synthetic nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist, Ro 64-6198. Psychopharmacology (Berlin). 2002 May;161(2):113-9. PMID 11981590
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- McLeod RL, Jia Y, Fernandez X, Parra LE, Wang X, Tulshian DB, Kiselgof EJ, Tan Z, Fawzi AB, Smith-Torhan A, Zhang H, Hey JA. Antitussive profile of the NOP agonist Ro-64-6198 in the guinea pig. Pharmacology. 2004 Jul;71(3):143-9. PMID 15161996
- Kotlinska J, Wichmann J, Rafalski P, Talarek S, Dylag T, Silberring J. Non-peptidergic OP4 receptor agonist inhibits morphine antinociception but does not influence morphine dependence. Neuroreport. 2003 Mar 24;14(4):601-4. PMID 12657894
- Shoblock JR, Wichmann J, Maidment NT. The effect of a systemically active ORL-1 agonist, Ro 64-6198, on the acquisition, expression, extinction, and reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Sep;49(4):439-46. PMID 15919100
- Reiss D, Wichmann J, Tekeshima H, Kieffer BL, Ouagazzal AM. Effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP) agonist, Ro64-6198, on reactivity to acute pain in mice: comparison to morphine. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2008 Jan 28;579(1-3):141-8. PMID 18031727
- Kuzmin A, Kreek MJ, Bakalkin G, Liljequist S. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist Ro 64-6198 reduces alcohol self-administration and prevents relapse-like alcohol drinking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Apr;32(4):902-10. PMID 16880770
- Recker MD, Higgins GA. The opioid receptor like-1 receptor agonist Ro 64-6198 (1S,3aS-8-2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5]decan-4-one) produces a discriminative stimulus in rats distinct from that of a mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptor agonist cue. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2004 Nov;311(2):652-8. PMID 15226383
- Le Pen G, Wichmann J, Moreau JL, Jenck F. The orphanin receptor agonist RO 64-6198 does not induce place conditioning in rats. Neuroreport. 2002 Mar 25;13(4):451-4. PMID 11930159
- Shoblock JR. The pharmacology of Ro 64-6198, a systemically active, nonpeptide NOP receptor (opiate receptor-like 1, ORL-1) agonist with diverse preclinical therapeutic activity. CNS Drug Reviews. 2007 Spring;13(1):107-36. PMID 17461893
- Ko MC, Woods JH, Fantegrossi WE, Galuska CM, Wichmann J, Prinssen EP (March 2009). "Behavioral Effects of a Synthetic Agonist Selective for Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Peptide Receptors in Monkeys". Neuropsychopharmacology 34 (9): 2088–96. doi:10.1038/npp.2009.33. PMC 2804925. PMID 19279568.