Road tax

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Road tax, known by various names around the world, is a tax which has to be paid on, or included with, a wheeled vehicle to use it on a public road.

National implementations[edit]

Australia[edit]

All states and territories require an annual vehicle registration fee to be paid in order to use a vehicle on public roads; the cost of which varies from state to state and is dependent on the type of vehicle. The fee is known colloquially as 'rego' (pronounced with a soft g, short for registration).[1] Queensland road tax is based on the number of cylinders or rotors the vehicle's engine has. There is also a small traffic improvement fee. New South Wales road tax is paid based on the vehicle's tare weight.

Belgium[edit]

Passenger cars pay a registration fee based on the engine displacement and power output (degressive towards 2014 (66% in 2012, 33% in 2013, 0% in 2014) and environmental criteria such as CO2 g/km output (increasingly towards 2014). The more CO2 g/km the car produces, the higher the fee will be.[2]

Every year, the plate number owner has to pay the annual road tax contribution. This tax is based on the engine displacement (0-799cc = fiscal HP 4, above 800cc each 200cc is one class higher).[3] Due to CO2-based regulations, diesel cars with above average displacement (>2,000cc) are favoured, and petrol cars with bigger displacements are put at a disadvantage). A supplementary annual fee has to be paid for cars that run on LPG/CNG (0-799cc: €84/year, 800-2,499cc; €148/year and >2,500cc: €208/year) to compensate financial loss for the state due to the absence of excise at the pump.

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil, the states may collect an annual Vehicle Licensing Fee (Taxa de Licenciamento Veicular) which has a fixed value for each vehicle category determined by each state. In addition, each state may impose a Vehicle Property Tax (Imposto sobre a Propriedade de Veículos Automotores), with a rate up to 4%.[citation needed]

Costa Rica[edit]

The Costa Rican car property tax, commonly referred to as Marchamo, is among the highest in Latin America, with rates that can go up to 3.5% of the fiscal value of the vehicle yearly. When compared to the Costa Rican minimum wage (₡331,516.22 a month, equivalent to US$597.33), the tax on an average US$15,000 (₡8,600,000) car can be ₡302,000 (US$525), or 80% to 120% of a month's pay. Even though Costa Ricans receive a yearly bonus equivalent to a month's salary, the property tax negates this for most car owners, which has led to calls for tax law reform.

Opponents to the car property tax argue that common cars already pay 100% tariff when imported, meaning that a car in Costa Rica is twice as expensive as in the country of origin. Additionally, gas refills include 65% fuel tax. Owning a car that would cost US$7,500 to purchase (in the United States) for seven years can result in the owner paying up to US$29,595 in total taxes (around US$4,227.85 a year). The Ministry of Finance also has the right to step up the fiscal value of a car, effectively a negative depreciation.[4][5]

France[edit]

In France, the vignette was abolished for private vehicles in 2001 and was replaced by a tax on toll-road operators[6] at a rate of €6.85 per 1,000 kilometres travelled. In addition, a tax is levied on vehicles registered to companies. Since 2006, the tax is levied according to CO2 emissions ranging from €2 per gramme to €19 per gramme.

Germany[edit]

In Germany, the Motor Vehicle tax (Kraftfahrzeugsteuer) is an annual tax on all vehicles. It ranges from €5 per 100cc to €25 per 100cc for petrol engines and €13 to €37 for diesel engines.[7] Vehicles first registered before June 30, 2009 are taxed according to engine displacement and national/European emission class, whereas vehicles which were registered after that date are taxed solely based on CO2 emission in grams per km (g CO2/km). An on-line tax calculator has been made available.[8]

Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, the licence fee is according to the category (passenger cars, goods vehicles, taxis, etc.) of the vehicle first. Then, for passenger cars (known as private cars), it is calculated by the engine size. The lowest tax band is under 1500 cc, then the tax band changes at 2500 cc, 3500 cc and 4500 cc. Due to this system of license fee, most of 1600 cc to 1800 cc car models do not sell well. Most people prefer 1500 cc for compact cars. Due to this reason, some manufacturers provide only the 1500 cc version of their compact cars to Hong Kong market such as Toyota Corolla and Nissan Tiida. Both of these two cars only have 1500 cc version available.

By engine displacement:

  • ≤ 1500 cc = HK$3,929
  • 1501 cc- 2500 cc = HK$5,794
  • 2501 cc- 3500 cc = HK$7,664
  • 3501 cc- 4500 cc = HK$9,534
  • >4500 cc = HK$11,329

Hungary[edit]

In Hungary, since 2009, this tax is based on the vehicle's engine performance and the vehicle's age. Before this so-called performance tax, this tax was based on the vehicle's weight and unofficially it was called a weight tax.[citation needed]

India[edit]

In India, road tax is imposed by the respective state governments (lifetime and also annual for commercial vehicles) also, further there could be toll for specific usage of roads( charge depends on distance, type, etc). At the time of purchase of the vehicle, the government levies GST (Goods & Services Tax) at the rate of 28% and additional cess is levied based on the cubic capacity of the engine of the vehicle(1% for small cars with CC< 1200 CC, 3% for CC between 1200 and 1500 CC, 15% for above 1500 CC). Electric cars are levied lower tax of 5%.

The motor vehicles tax (called road tax) is calculated on the basis of various factors including engine capacity, seating capacity, unladen weight and cost price. Each state has different rules and regulations for charging the road tax.

There is proposal to have uniform rules and also tariff across the country in line with the governments initiative of having "One Nation-One Tax".

In these days, in India there is a movement called "Digital India" in which every type of work related to every departments are getting digitalized and "Ministry of Road Transport & Highways" has created a portal called "Vahan" for online road tax payment to ease the pain of paying of taxes to the government in offline mode. It is a very smooth experience to pay such taxes from home and saving time.[9]

Ireland[edit]

Motor tax is payable as an annual duty (subject to exemptions) in Ireland. Prior to 2008, the annual tax was levied on the engine size ranging from €199 pa for an engine under 1,000cc to €1,809 for cars with an engine over 3,001 cc. Since July 2008, the tax rates for new private cars are based on the vehicle's carbon dioxide emissions. The tax bands for CO2 emissions range from €120 pa with emissions of 0-80 g/km to €2,350 pa with emissions over 225g. Commercial vehicles including 5 seater large 4WD vehicles no matter what size engine or CO2 emissions are €333 the highest rate is €2345 for passenger vehicles. All vintage vehicles are taxed at €56 per year; a vehicle is considered vintage 30 years after the date of first registration.

Japan[edit]

A tax is collected under the Local Tax Act of 1950 that is paid every May based on the vehicle's engine's displacement. The tax is then determined by whether the vehicle is for business or personal use. Brackets are determined based on exterior dimensions and engine displacement as defined under the dimension regulations. The tax to be paid is then based on the engine's displacement starting with engines below 1,000 cc, and increasing at 500 cc intervals to a top bracket of 6,000 cc and above.[10][11][12]

Personal vehicles pay more than vehicles identified as business use. If the car has been certified as a low-emissions vehicle, under the Japanese low-emission vehicle certification system, the tax obligation is reduced. Kei cars (Japanese vehicles with 660 cc engines and reduced exterior dimensions) have significant tax advantages because their tax is about a quarter of that of a 1,000 cc car.

The legislation is similar to a European approach to taxing engine horsepower, while the Japanese approach taxes engine displacement.

Automobile Tax (exterior dimensions)[edit]

  • Road Tax for regular 4-wheel vehicles (Metropolitan/Prefectural Tax) vehicle plates and taxes
    • 40/400 and 50/500 Japan license plates: ¥7,500
    • 33/300 license plates (4.5-litre engines and below): ¥19,000
    • 33/300 license plates (4.6-litre engines and above): ¥22,000
    • 11/100 license plates: ¥32,000

Light Motor Vehicle Tax

  • Road Tax for mini-cars and motorcycles (city/ward tax)
    • Kei car: ¥3,000
    • Motorcycles up to 125 cc: ¥500
    • Motorcycles 125 and above cc: ¥1,000

Automobile Weight Tax[edit]

On 31 May 1971 until 31 March 2010, the Japanese government passed a law creating the Automobile Weight Tax (in Japanese). It was modified on 31 March 2010, and the next day, on 1 April 2010. The tax is paid every year in conjunction with the engine displacement based road tax. The weight determination is made in metric tonnes.

Vehicle class Tax amount
motorcycle ¥1,500
kei car ¥2,500
passenger car ¥5,000 per tonne
truck ¥2,500 per tonne

As of 1 April 2010, the tax requirements are as follows. The determination of whether the vehicle is for business or personal use has been added, similar to the engine displacement regulations:

Vehicle class Personal use Business use
motorcycle ¥2,200 ¥1,600
kei car (125~250cc) ¥5,500 ¥4,300
new kei car ¥11,300 ¥8,100
renewal kei car ¥3,800 ¥2,700
passenger car ¥10,000 per tonne ¥5,400 per tonne
truck (commercial vehicle) ¥3,800 per tonne ¥5,400 per tonne
bus ¥5,000 per tonne ¥2,700 per tonne

31 March 2010[edit]

Vehicle class Personal use Business use
motorcycle ¥2,500 ¥1,700
kei two wheel(126~250cc) ¥6,300 ¥4,500
new kei car ¥13,200 ¥8,400
renewal kei car ¥4,400 ¥2,800
passenger car ¥12,600 per tonne ¥5,600 per tonne
truck (commercial vehicle) ¥4,400 per tonne ¥2,800 per tonne
bus ¥6,300 per tonne ¥2,800 per tonne

Road Tax increments[edit]

The following is the tax rates for passenger vehicles used for both personal and business use, incremented by 500 cc engine displacement.[13]

Total displacement Personal use Business use
under 1-litre ¥29,500 ¥7,500
1-litre–1.5-litres ¥34,500 ¥8,500
1.5-litres–2.0-litres ¥39,500 ¥9,500
2.0-litres–2.5-litres ¥45,000 ¥13,800
2.5-litres–3.0-litres ¥51,000 ¥15,700
3.0-litres–3.5-litres ¥58,000 ¥17,900
3.5-litres–4.0-litres ¥66,500 ¥20,500
4.0-litres-4.5-litres ¥76,500 ¥23,600
4.5-litres–6.0-litres ¥88,000 ¥27,200
over 6-litres ¥111,000 ¥40,700

The following table is the tax bracket for lorries or vehicles built with a load carrying section without seats and a single bench seat in the front of the vehicle in an enclosed passenger compartment.

Load capacity Personal use Business use
under 1 metric ton ¥8,000 ¥6,500
1 ton - under 2 tons ¥11,500 ¥9,500
2 tons - under 3 tons ¥16,000 ¥12,000
3 tons - under 4 tons ¥20,500 ¥15,000
4 tons - under 5 tons ¥25,500 ¥18,500
5 tons - under 6 tons ¥30,000 ¥22,000
6 tons - under 7 tons ¥35,000 ¥25,500
7 tons - under 8 tons ¥40,500 ¥29,500
over 8 tons ¥40,500 + ¥6,300 for each additional ton ¥29,500 + ¥4,700 for each additional ton

The following table is the tax bracket for buses, or vehicles designed to carry many passengers.

Load capacity Personal use Business use
30 or less ¥33,000 ¥12,000
under 40 ¥41,000 ¥14,500
under 50 ¥49,000 ¥17,500
under 60 ¥57,000 ¥20,000
under 70 ¥65,500 ¥22,500
under 80 ¥74,000 ¥25,500
80 and over ¥83,000 ¥29,000

Latvia[edit]

The vehicle operating tax on cars first registered after January 1, 2005 that have registration certificates with information on total weight, engine volume and engine maximum power, shall be paid by summing up tax rates according to total weight, engine volume and engine maximum power of the car as follows:

  • By total weight
    • ≤1500 kg €14,23
    • 1501 kg - 1800 kg €29,88
    • 1801 kg - 2100 kg €51,22
    • 2101 kg - 2600 kg €65,45
    • 2601 kg - 3000 kg €78,26
    • 3001 kg - 3500 kg €91,06
    • > 3500 kg €102,45
  • By engine volume
    • ≤ 1500cc €8,54
    • 1501cc- 2000cc €21,34
    • 2001cc- 2500cc €34,15
    • 2501cc- 3000cc €51,22
    • 3001cc- 3500cc €85,37
    • 3501cc- 4000cc €149,40
    • 4001cc- 5000cc €213,43
    • >5000cc €277,46
  • By engine maximum power
    • ≤ 55 kW €8,54
    • 56 kW - 92 kW €21,34
    • 93 kW - 129 kW €34,15
    • 130 kW - 166 kW €51,22
    • 167 kW - 203 kW €85,37
    • 204 kW - 240 kW €149,40
    • 241 kW - 300 kW €213,43
    • > 300 kW €277,46

Luxembourg[edit]

An annual tax is applied to each vehicle. In 2013, as an example, the annual tax for a BMW 330D 2004 model was €224.

Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia, the latest road tax information and calculations is different in East Malaysia and West Malaysia, which the former in general has lower rate than the latter because of the poor geographical condition and road surface. Besides, within both the two areas, the tax amount also varies according to car variants as well as engine capacity. Private cars are classified as ‘saloon’ vehicles such as hatchbacks, convertibles and sedans, whose road tax rate is different from non-saloon vehicles such as MPV, SUV or pickup trucks.

Mexico[edit]

Until 2011, the federal government charged an annual vehicle tax, Tenencia Vehicular, depending on the value and other vehicle characteristics. Although the tax was federal, the states collected the tax. This tax was created in 1961 and in 2006 represented about 1.6% of the total tax income (around 13 billion pesos).[14]

In 2012, vehicle tax became a state matter with some states charging the tax, others charging a partial tax (mostly on cars above a certain value) and others such as Morelos and Querétaro, charging no tax.

Netherlands[edit]

In the Netherlands, a tax is applied to the vehicle based on its weight and fuel type, and the region.[15] Electric vehicles and classic cars over forty years old are exempt from road tax.

Norway[edit]

In Norway, a registration fee is applied to all new motor vehicles when sold new. The fee is calculated by several variables such as vehicle classification, emissions (CO2 and NOx) and vehicle weight and generally rewards vehicles with smaller engines, low emissions and low weight. This fee can be in the hundreds of thousands of Norwegian kroner.[citation needed] In addition, there is an annual road tax applied to motor vehicles, failure of payment will generally lead to license plates being withdrawn. The road tax varies by vehicle classification, as of 2013 for ordinary passenger cars (less than 7,500 kg) it is 2,940 kr (with a slightly higher amount, 3,425 kr, for diesel cars without diesel particulate filters).

Romania[edit]

Annual Vehicle Property Tax[edit]

In Romania, every owner that owns a registered vehicle owes a yearly property tax, 'Impozit', on that vehicle that is mainly based on the engine's Cubic capacity for passenger cars and buses, and mass and number of Axles for Trucks and Semi-trailer trucks.

Although the template for the collection of vehicle property tax depending on the vehicle's type is drafted by the national government, the property tax is owed to the local government in which the vehicle is currently registered and the local council can vote to reduce or to increase the tax owed by a margin (for example, in the year 2018, the local council of the Municipality of Timișoara voted to increase the owed vehicle property tax by 50%, effectively making it the highest in the country).

The framework for calculating the basic vehicle property tax is the following:[16]

National Template for Vehicle Property Tax collection
I. Vehicles Registered Nationally (almost all vehicles fit into this category) Amount owed in RON per each 200 cc
1. Motorcycles, three-wheeled vehicles, quadracycles, and regular vehicles with a cubic capacity < 1600 cc 8
2. Motorcycles, three-wheeled vehicles, quadracycles with a cubic

capacity >= 1600 cc

9
3. Regular vehicles with a cubic capacity between 1601 cc and 2000 cc 18
4. Regular vehicles with a cubic capacity between 2001 cc and 2600 cc 72
5. Regular vehicles with a cubic capacity between 2601 cc and 3000 cc 144
6. Regular vehicles with a cubic capacity >= 3001 cc 290
7. Buses and minibuses 24
8. Other mechanically powered vehicles having a Maximum Authorized Mass not exceeding 12 tons. (Utility Vehicles, mainly small vehicles designed to also transport goods like pickup trucks, small platform trucks and others which don't fit the definition of a regular vehicle) 30
9. Tractors 18
II. Vehicles Registered with the Local Commune (mainly farming vehicles, these vehicles cannot travel outside the commune limits) Amount owed in RON per each 200 cc
1. Vehicles with a cubic capacity <= 4800 cc 2 - 4
2. Vehicles with a cubic capacity >= 4801 cc 4 - 6
3. Vehicles for which the cubic capacity is not known or specified 50 - 150 RON/year

For example: The owner of a normal gasoline-powered vehicle with an engine of 2000 cc, registered in the mun. of Cluj-Napoca (where there is a 0% markup) will have to pay an yearly vehicle property tax of 180 RON. (Rate: 18 RON/200cc, 2000 / 200 = 10, 18 * 10 = 180 RON). Meanwhile someone who lives in the Mun. of Timișoara and owns a vehicle that has the same capacity will pay 274 RON (Timișoara has a 50% markup).

Another example of a vehicle with a cubic capacity of 3000, registered in Alba county, which has a 16.05% markup: Rate: 144 RON/200cc, 3000 / 200 = 15. Normal Tax owed: 15* 144 = 2160. Tax owed in Alba county (16.05% markup): 2160 * 116.05/100 ~= 2507 RON.

This system of taxation results in incredibly high taxes for vehicles with engines bigger than 3000 cc (Upwards of 6000 RON per year), and low taxes for engines smaller than 2000 cc. As a result, many people have tried to dodge the system either by registering their vehicles in another EU country with smaller taxes, or by converting their vehicles to fit the legal definition of a Utility Vehicle, which is included in category 8 and have a rate of only 30 RON / 200cc in stead of 290 RON / 200cc. For example, the owner of a vehicle that has a cubic capacity of 4000 cc will have to pay 5800 RON per year, compared to 480 RON per year owed by someone who owns a pickup truck (also a Utility Vehicle) with the same cubic capacity of 4000. The main legal requirement for a vehicle to be considered a Utility Vehicle is that it must have a cargo area that is separated from the passengers and cannot be accessed from within the vehicle. Many passenger cars (especially SUVs) can easily be modified to fit this requirement by installing a barrier between the trunk area and the back seats.

Hybrid vehicles owners will pay a reduced tax (50% to 100% reduction). Electric vehicle and Classic car owners will pay no tax at all. All vehicle owners get a 10% reduction if they pay the tax before May 1 (which is the deadline for paying the vehicle tax). Handicaped people and war veterans do not owe any vehicle property tax no matter the vehicle type.

Rovinieta[edit]

On top of paying an annual Vehicle Property Tax, all vehicles that travel outside of city limits must pay the "Rovinieta", including internationally registered vehicles that travel temporarily on Romanian roads which ranges from 28 Euros a year for passenger cars to 1210 Euros for Trucks that have a Maximum Authorized Mass greater than 12 t and more than 4 axles. Classic cars are exempt from the Rovinieta.

Spain[edit]

In Spain two taxes apply to motor vehicles:

  1. The registration tax (impuesto de matriculation) applies at purchase time to the purchase price. It is a national tax and the rate varies from 0% to 14.75% depending on CO2 emissions. In some cases regions may fix their own rates.
  2. The mechanical vehicle circulation tax (Impuesto sobre Vehículos de Tracción Mecánica or IVTM) is an annual tax. The tax is a municipal tax whose rate varies widely across the country. The tax is calculated according to the tax horsepower of the vehicle. In Madrid and Barcelona the rates for 2011 ranged from €22 for up to 8 HP to €224 for vehicles with over 20 HP.[17][18]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom it is a requirement to pay 'Vehicle Excise Duty', which is paid to the government for a vehicle licence.[19] Previously, vehicle licences in the form of paper discs were required to be displayed on vehicles, and this licence would remain valid until its expiry date even if the vehicle is transferred to another keeper. The paper discs were abolished in October 2014, meaning that the licence is merely an entry in the centralized database; moreover, following this change the licence is cancelled if the vehicle is transferred.[20] Vehicles that are not used or kept on public roads must be the subject of a Statutory Off-Road Notification (SORN) if they are unlicensed.[21]

In 1937, the direct relationship that existed between the tax and government expenditure on public roads was cut, the proceeds being treated as general taxation.[22]

In the 2015 budget, the government announced that the revenue would once again be used directly to maintain the roads, for the first time since 1937.[23] In the 2018 budget, the government announced a National Roads Fund which would ring-fence VED in England for the improvement of roads.[24]

United States[edit]

Each state requires an annual registration fee which varies from state to state.[25]

Additionally, in some states, counties and/or municipalities are allowed to also impose a vehicle tax. For example, in Illinois, Cook County taxes vehicles that are registered in unincorporated areas, and a number of municipalities have their own annual vehicle registration fee.[which?][citation needed] In Massachusetts, the excise tax is billed separately from registration fees, by the town or city in which the vehicle is registered, and was set at a fixed rate of 2.5% statewide by a 1980 law called Proposition 2½. Within some states, the fees may vary from county to county, as some counties have surcharges per vehicle; an example of this is Virginia's personal property tax.[citation needed] New York State, on the other hand, charges a tax based on the vehicle's weight, rather than on its value, which is charged at the time of registration renewal.[26]

In California[citation needed] and New Hampshire,[citation needed] the registration tax is calculated by the current value of the vehicle. As a result, older and more inexpensive vehicles will have a low registration fee, whereas newer and more expensive vehicles will have fees in the hundreds of dollars.

There is also a federal Heavy Vehicle Use Tax (HVUT) for vehicles with gross weights of 55,000 pounds or more, including trucks, truck tractors and buses. Generally, vans, pickup trucks, panel trucks and the like are not subject to this tax. The tax does not apply to vehicles that are used for 5,000 miles or less (7,500 miles or less for agricultural vehicles) on public highways during a tax period.[27]

Additionally, "New York State imposes a highway use tax (HUT) on motor carriers operating certain motor vehicles on New York State public highways (excluding toll-paid portions of the New York State Thruway). The tax rate is based on the weight of the motor vehicle and the method that you choose to report the tax."[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vehicle Registration costs". BritinOz. All vehicles need to be registered annually, in the same way as British vehicles have to pay for Road Fund Licence. Here it is called registration or REGO.
  2. ^ [1] Archived 2012-06-25 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2012-08-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Hacienda corrige valor fiscal en 20% de los vehículos, acepta error en costo de mercado | Crhoy.com". CRHoy.com | Periodico Digital | Costa Rica Noticias 24/7 (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-01-07.
  5. ^ "Impuesto a la propiedad de vehículos automotores, aeronaves y embarcaciones". Hacienda.go.cr. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  6. ^ "Road Tax, Road Tolls and Fees in France | CFE portal". Cfe-eutax.org. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
  7. ^ "tax rates for diesel engines (in german)". Pkw-steuer.de. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
  8. ^ "Kfz-Steuer-Rechner - Bundesfinanzministerium - Service". Bundesministerium der Finanzen. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  9. ^ Techie Prem (2019-04-13), How to pay Road Tax Online Latest Video in Hindi by Techie Prem | online road tax payment |Road tax, retrieved 2019-05-15
  10. ^ "2014 Road Tax collections to start May 2 - Stripes Okinawa". Okinawa.stripes.com. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Road tax season returns - Stripes Okinawa". Okinawa.stripes.com. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  12. ^ Djbert (20 April 2014). "Moving To & Living in Okinawa, Japan: 2014 Road Tax Collection Schedule". Okinawajp.blogspot.com. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  13. ^ "Annual Automobile Tax in Japan". Accessj.com. Retrieved 2018-01-07.
  14. ^ "żQué es la tenencia vehicular? - El Universal Online - México". El-universal.com.mx. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
  15. ^ belastingdienst.nl
  16. ^ "Ministerul Finantelor Publice". www.mfinante.ro. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  17. ^ "Barcelona vehicle tax" (PDF). 3.bcn.es (in Catalan). Retrieved 2011-11-23.
  18. ^ "Madrid vehicle tax" (in Spanish). Madrid.es. 1999-01-26. Retrieved 2011-11-23.
  19. ^ "The cost of vehicle tax". DirectGov. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
  20. ^ "Vehicle tax changes". Gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
  21. ^ "How to make a SORN (Statutory Off Road Notification)". Direct Gov. Retrieved 2010-04-29. If you are the registered owner of a vehicle which is not being taxed and is kept off the road you must make a SORN (Statutory Off Road Notification).
  22. ^ Harrabin, Roger (15 August 2013). "The BBC explains "Road Tax"". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  23. ^ C.R. (8 July 2015). "The five key questions answered". The Economist. London.
  24. ^ "Budget 2018". Gov.uk. 29 October 2018. Retrieved 2020-07-02.
  25. ^ "registration, road tax and safety in the US". Just Landed. Archived from the original on 2010-02-25. Retrieved 2010-03-30. Registration fees are usually paid annually
  26. ^ "New York DMV: Register a vehicle". dmv.ny.gov. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  27. ^ "Heavy Vehicle Use Tax (HVUT)". fhwa.dot.gov.
  28. ^ "Highway use tax". tax.ny.gov. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)