Highways in Poland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Roads and expressways in Poland)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Polish motorway and expressway network. Legend:
  Completed
  Under construction
  Under tender
  Planned
Full planned network of motorways (red) and expressways (orange)
Development of the motorway and expressway network in Poland since 1932. Legend:
  Completed
  Under construction
  Planned
Development of the motorway and expressway network in Poland

Highways in Poland are public roads designed to carry large amounts of traffic.

Limited-access highways are part of the national roads network and are divided into motorways and expressways. They feature two-level interchanges with other roads, emergency lanes, feeder lanes, wildlife protection measures and dedicated roadside rest areas. Motorways differ from expressways in technical parameters, like designated speed, permitted road curvature or minimal distances between interchanges. Moreover, expressways might have single carriageway sections in case of low traffic densities (as of 2020, only 5% of the highways are single-lane expressways).

Except for the single-carriageway expressways, both types of highways generally fulfill the definition of a motorway as characterized by OECD, WRA or Vienna Convention. Speed limits in Poland are 140 km/h on motorways and 120 km/h on dual-carriageway expressways.

As of August 2020, there are 4,203 km (2,612 mi)[1] of motorways and expressways in operation (51% of the intended network), while contracts for construction of further 1,218 km (757 mi)[2] of motorways and expressways (15% of the intended network) are ongoing.

A1 - A4 Gliwice-Sośnica Interchange
A1 - A2 Łódź Północ Interchange
A4 in Zabrze
A8 in Wrocław

Technical parameters[edit]

  • Znak D9.svgMotorways are public roads with limited access which are designated for motor vehicles only, and feature two carriageways with at least two continuous lanes each, divided by a median. They have no one-level intersections with any roads or other forms of land and water transport. They are equipped with roadside rest areas, which are intended only for the users of the motorway.

Some motorway stretches are tolled, others are free of charge. Motorways are the only roads in Poland which use blue background on road signs - others use green road signs.

  • Znak D7.svgExpressways share most of the characteristics of motorways, differing mainly in that:
  1. Expressways are designated for lower speed than motorways. For example, the road curvature can be higher and the lanes are usually narrower (3.5 m vs 3.75 m). Emergency lanes can also be narrower, and in exceptional situations expressways might not have them at all.
  2. Expressways can have a single carriageway on sections with low traffic density.
  3. Motorways can have interchanges only with main roads and the spacing between interchanges should not be less than 15 km (exceptionally 5 km); or not less than 5 km (exceptionally 3 km) within borders or near a big city or a group of cities. Expressways can have interchanges more often. In exceptional situations, expressways might not have dedicated feeder lanes on an interchange.

Expressways are also technically allowed to admit a one-level junction with a minor public road in exceptional cases. However, reconstruction of the last such remaining junction in Poland was launched in 2019 and in June 2020 a two-level interchange was opened in its place.[3][4][5] The definitions and technical parameters of highways are defined in the Public Roads Act of 21 March 1985 (with later amendments)[6] and the ministry ordinance of 2 March 1999 (with later amendments).[7]

As of 2020, the motorways constitute about 40% of the length of existing highways, the dual carriageway expressways – about 55% and the single carriageway expressways – about 5%.

Speed limits[edit]

Maximum speed (km/h)
Vehicle
Znak D9.svg
Motorway
Znak D7.svg
2-lane expressway
Znak D7.svg
1-lane expressway
  • Private car, motorbike, van up to 3.5 t (does not apply if towing trailer)
140 120 100
  • Bus meeting additional technical requirements
100
  • Truck or van over 3.5 t, bus
  • Vehicle signed as carrying e.g. dangerous, fragile articles
  • Car, motorbike, van or bus towing trailer
80
  • Vehicle having equipment more than 1.5 m forward of the driver's seat
60
  • Motorbike (including towing trailer) carrying a child up to 7 years-old
40
Not allowed on motorways: pedestrians, bikes, mopeds, agricultural vehicles. Minimal speed on motorways is 40 km/h unless there are any extraordinary circumstances (e.g., snow, ice, or a car broken down). It is forbidden to stop except extraordinary situations, or travel backwards. Towing is not allowed on motorways, but is permitted on expressways. Roads are protected from animals crossing the road.

Substandard highways[edit]

Motorways and expressways constructed before 1999 do not have to fulfill technical parameters listed in the ordinance. There are four notable cases of substandard highways in Poland:

  • A4 on the section KrzyżowaWrocław (103 km (64 mi)) was constructed in years 1934 – 1937 (then the territory of Nazi Germany) and renovated in years 2002 – 2006. The road received new high quality surface but the geometry was kept unchanged and many overpasses above the motorway were kept. In effect, this part has no emergency lanes (which by current standards is only occasionally allowed on expressways and never on motorways) and speed limit is decreased to 110 km/h. A contract for preparing technical documentation for the section's full reconstruction (and widening to three lanes per direction) was signed in 2019.[8]
  • A6 near Szczecin was constructed by Nazi Germany and while most of it was reconstructed in years 1996 – 1999, its easternmost section (5 km (3.11 mi)) still kept using the original surface from the 1930s until a reconstruction in years 2017 – 2020. As of June 2020, the last short fragment of about 800 m (875 yd) of the pre-WWII surface remains.[9][10]
  • A18 (70 km (43 mi)) had its southern carriageway constructed by Nazi Germany. A high quality northern carriageway was constructed in 2004 – 2006, but southern carriageway still has the original surface made of concrete slabs. Due to very low quality of this carriageway, the route is marked as national road 18 and will only receive a status of A18 after reconstruction scheduled for years 2020 – 2023.[11]
  • S3 near Szczecin (19 km (12 mi)) was opened in 1979 and has kept its expressway status despite having two at-grade road intersections. They have been reconstructed to interchanges by June 2020, which marks the moment when no more expressways with at-grade intersections have been left in Poland.[3][5]

Tolls[edit]

All expressways are free of payment for vehicles up to 3.5 tons, as are secondary motorways A6, A8 and A18.

Primary motorways A1, A2 and A4 are planned as tolled (some parts are already such). There are two systems of collecting tolls:

Open system[edit]

In this system money is only paid at the toll booths put across the road. Different payment is due according to the type of the vehicle. It is relatively cheap to operate, but it forces drivers to stop at each toll booth, thus lowering the capacity of a motorway. For example, the Greater Poland part of A2 has all of its toll booths spaced approx. 50 km apart.

Closed system[edit]

In this system, there are toll stations on every interchange both entering and exiting the motorway, as well as toll booths on the motorway at the ends of the tolled section. In this case the driver receives a ticket upon entering the motorway and pays at either toll station while exiting the motorway or at the toll booth at the end of the tolled section, with the price dependent on the distance driven. This system is more expensive at building and maintenance, but allows much larger distances between toll booths across the motorway.

Tolled sections[edit]

The following list of tolled sections is valid as of January 2020, and only applies to vehicles up to 3.5 tons. The prices listed apply to passenger cars driving the section's whole length.

Motorway with toll areas
Tolled motorways are indicated by the word 'Płatna'. Such a sign warns that one will meet a toll station if continuing along the motorway.

viaTOLL payment system[edit]

This sign shows the cars weighing over 3.5 tons are obliged to pay on this road using the viaTOLL system

From 1.07.2011 all vehicles weighing more than 3.5 tons are obliged to have a special viaTOLL apparatus. On the chosen roads (some motorways, expressways and national roads) the special electronic readers are installed. They connect to the apparatus in the vehicle in a wireless way, and they also count the toll the vehicle has to pay. It is possible to buy it on some petrol stations or at the special points of selling. If the apparatus isn't at the place, fines are applied:

  • 1500 PLN if the car is heavier than 12 tons
  • 750 PLN if the car is heavier than 3.5 tons but lighter than 12 tons.

Planned Electronical Toll Collection System[edit]

In 2014 the Ministry of Infrastructure and Development has uncovered the plans to imply the Electronical Toll Collection System. The new plans were made because of the big problems concerning the Manual Toll Collection System. At the time while there is a huge flow of traffic (especially in the holiday period), there are long queues to the toll booths, which, according to some reports, reached up to 10 km. Drivers in these cases are forced to wait 2 hours to pay the toll at the toll booths. That was the reason the works to construct the toll booths on A4 were suspended, even though there were some stages of construction in progress.

The situation wasn't much relieved even after the toll booths had separated a special lane for those vehicles that have been registered into the ViaAuto system. It came out even worse. A lot of experts tell it is one lane less for those paying traditionally.

At those times a few simple solutions were introduced, for example the cashiers themselves giving the tickets. Next solution came from the Council of Ministers, which claimed that the motorway will be free from the day they gave out the decision (06.08.2014) to the end of the summer holidays (it only concerned the period from 4.00 p.m. on Friday to midnight from Sunday to Monday).

Now the ministry is working on a new electronic system. According to different concepts, there are two options - either the full liquidation of the toll booths or their reconstruction. The reconstructed toll booths had then the toll applied via the viaTOLL system, so every vehicle must have had the viaTOLL apparatus, as the cars and trucks heavier than 3.5 tons have. Taking into account that not every driver drives regularly on the motorway, there must have been an online registration for light cars introduced. After that, when any car would arrive to such a toll booth, the registration plate will be scanned in order to recognise the car. The implication, however, will become true after signing of agreements with private concessionaires first.

List of Polish motorways and expressways with progress of construction[edit]

In May 2004, the Council of Ministers of Poland published a document including the planned highway network, the length of which was about 7,200 km (4,474 mi) and contained most of the highways in plans today.[12] More notable among the changes introduced in later amendments include re-routing S8 and adding S61 instead (2009, a change related to the Rospuda Valley conflict),[13] introducing S16 (2015, 2016), S52 (2016) and A50/S50 (2019),[14] as well as extending S5 to Ostróda (2015) and to Bolków (2019), S10 to Wołomin (2015) and S8 to Kłodzko (2019).[15][14] The planned network consists of 16 major highways (over 200 km of total intended length): A1, S3, S5, S7, S11, S17, S19 and S61 running north to south, and A2, A4, S6, S8, S10, S12, S16 and S74 running west to east. 4 shorter motorways and 9 expressways complete the planned network.

The following table summarizes the progress of construction of the motorway and expressway network:[a][b] [18][19][20][21]

Znak D9.svgZnak D7.svg
1) Highways and major sections completed
Sign Route Location Total length Existing Years of construction
A2
western section
Poland/Germany (Berlin) - S3 - Poznań (S5/S11) - Łódź (A1/S14) - Warsaw (S2/S7/S8) NowaMapaA2.svg 454.9 km[c] 454.9 km 100%
2001 – 2012
and 48 km in 1977 – 1988
A4 Poland/Germany (Dresden) - Legnica (S3) - Wrocław (A8) - Opole - Gliwice (A1) - Katowice (S1) - Kraków (S7) - Rzeszów (S19) - Poland/Ukraine (Lviv) NowaMapaA4.svg 670 km 670 km
(of these, 103 km substandard: no emergency lanes)
100% 1976 – 2016
S5
western section
Poznań (A2/S11) - Leszno - Wrocław (A8) NowaMapaS5.svg 156.5 km[d] 156.5 km 100% 2014 – 2019
S8
A8
main section
Wrocław (A4) - Łódź (A1) - Piotrków Trybunalski - Warsaw (A2/S7/S17) - Ostrów Maz. (S61) - Białystok (S19) NowaMapaS8.svg 556.3 km[e] Znak D7.svg 533.6 km
Znak D9.svg 22.7 km  
100% 2008 – 2019
[f]
S22 ElblągPoland/Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) NowaMapaS22.svg 48.6 km 48.6 km
1 carriageway
50% 2006 – 2008
[g]
S51 Olsztyn (S16) – Olsztynek (S7) NowaMapaS51.svg 35.1 km 35.1 km 100% 2009 – 2019
S79 Warsawairport – S2 Warsaw 4.8 km 4.8 km 100% 2009 – 2013
S86 KatowiceSosnowiec Upper Silesia 5.9 km 5.9 km 100% 1978 – 1985
Znak D9.svgZnak D7.svg
2) Highways in development
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In realisation[h] Of which under active construction Scheduled date(s) of opening Tender In predesign[i]
A1 Gdańsk (S6) - Grudziądz (S5) - Toruń (S10) - Łódź (A2/S8) - Gliwice (A4) - Poland/Czech Republic (Ostrava) NowaMapaA1.svg 566.6 km 485.9 km 85.8% 64.8 km
reconstruction of a dual carriageway highway from the 1970s to motorway standard
+ 15.9 km
reconstruction of a substandard motorway from the 1980s
2021, 2022
A6 Poland/Germany (Berlin)Rzęśnica (S3) Szczecin
(southern bypass)
29 km 28.2 km
+ 0.8 km substandard: the original 1930s' surface
97.2%
(100%)
2021? 0.8 km
(reconstruction)
A18 Poland/Germany (Berlin)Krzyżowa (A4) NowaMapaA18.svg 76.5 km 7 km
+ 34 km northern carriageway[j]
+ 35.5 km 1st carriageway[k]
54.8% reconstruction of the carriageway with the original 1930s' surface:
33.6 km
southern carriageway
2022, 2023? 35.9 km
southern carriageway
S1 Pyrzowice (A1) - Mysłowice (A4) - Bielsko-Biała (S52) - Zwardoń - Poland/Slovakia (Žilina) NowaMapaS1.svg 144 km 62.3 km
+ 26.7 km
1st carriageway
52.5%
(61.8%)
4.8 km
+ 3.7 km 1st carriageway
+ 9.7 km 2nd carriageway
2021, 2023
(+ 44 km)
non‑expressway dual carriageway
(94.1%) + 7 km
(reconstruction)
+ 27.2 km
(new route)
2023, 2024? 12.3 km
(new route)
S3 Świnoujście - Szczecin (A6) - Gorzów Wielkopolski - Jordanowo (A2) - Zielona Góra - Lubin - Legnica (A4) - Poland/Czech Republic (Prague) NowaMapaS3.svg 454.9 km 352.2 km
+ 5.4 km
1st carriageway
78% 97.3 km
+ 5.4 km
2nd carriageway
36.8 km 2021
Szczecin – Legnica
2022, 2023
to Czech Republic
2021, 2024
to Świnoujście
S5
middle section
Grudziądz (A1) - Bydgoszcz (S10) - Gniezno - Poznań (A2/S11) NowaMapaS5.svg 181.8 km[d] 88.1 km
+ 12.8 km
1st carriageway
52% 80.9 km
+ 12.8 km 2nd carriageway
2020,
2021, 2022
S7 Gdańsk (A1)[l] - Elbląg (S22) - Olsztynek (S51) - Warsaw (A2/S8) - Radom (S12) - Kielce (S74) - Kraków (A4) - Rabka-Zdrój NowaMapaS7.svg ca. 674 km 424.3 km
+ 7.6 km
1st carriageway
63.5% 124.5 km
+ 7.6 km 2nd carriageway
2021, 2022,
2023, 2024?
5.3 km
(+ 112 km)
non‑expressway dual carriageway
(80.1%) + 39.6 km
(reconstruction)
+ 24.3 km
(new route)
+ 5 km
(reconstruction)
+ 24.3 km
(new route)
2021, 2022,
2023, 2025,
2026?
22.1 km
(reconstruction + new route)
N/A + ca. 25 km Preliminary works
(reconstruction or new route)
S14 S8 - Pabianice - Zgierz - A2 Łódź
(western bypass)
41.4 km 12.9 km 31.2% 28.5 km 2021, 2023
S17
middle section
Warsaw (A2) – Lublin (S12/S19) NowaMapaS17.svg 150.2 km[m] 148.3 km 98.7% 1.9 km
2020
S19
middle section
Lublin (S12/S17) - Stalowa Wola - Rzeszów (A4)
(part of Via Carpathia)
NowaMapaS19.svg 158 km[n] 12.9 km
+ 16.3 km
1st carriageway[o]
13.3% 128.8 km 2021, 2022 16.3 km
2nd carriageway
S52-PL.svg
part 2
Kraków-Balice (A4) – Kraków‑Mistrzejowice (S7) Kraków
(northern bypass)
18.3 km 5.8 km 31.4% 12.5 km 2023
S61 Ostrów Mazowiecka (S8) - Łomża - Ełk (S16) - Suwałki - Poland/Lithuania (Kaunas)
(Via Baltica)
NowaMapaS61.svg 211.8 km 32.8 km
+ 5.3 km
1st carriageway
16.4% 173.7 km
+ 5.3 km
2nd carriageway
121.8 km
+ 5.3 km
2nd carriageway
2021, 2022
[22]
Znak D9.svgZnak D7.svg
3) Highways partially in development
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In reali­sation Of which under active construction Tender Pre­design complete In predesign[i]
/ In design [p]
Planned comple­tion [23][19][24]
A2
S2
eastern section
Warsaw (S7/S8) - Poland/Belarus (Minsk) NowaMapaA2.svg 202 km Znak D9.svg 34.1 km
Znak D7.svg 14.6 km
24.1% Znak D9.svg 24.6 km
Znak D7.svg 20.2 km
Znak D7.svg 20.2 km 75.9 km 32.6 km S2: 2021
A2: 2025
S6 Szczecin (A6) - Goleniów (S3) - Koszalin (S11) - Słupsk - Gdańsk (A1)[l] NowaMapaS6.svg 432.6 km 181.9 km
+ 9.4 km
1st carriageway
43.1% 40.9 km 55.7 km
+ 9.4 km 2nd c/w
40.1 km 45.4 km 2025
[q]
+ 59.2 km
S11 Koszalin (S6) - Piła (S10) - Poznań (A2/S5) - Ostrów Wielkopolski - Kępno (S8) - Tarnowskie Góry - A1 NowaMapaS11.svg ca. 565 km 79.7 km
+ 8.6 km
1st carriageway
14.8% 75.7 km
+ 3.6 km
1st carriageway
3.2 km
+ 3.6 km
1st carriageway
21.7 km 2028
+ 44.6 km
+ ca. 331 km
+ 12.2 km 2nd c/w
Znak D9.svgZnak D7.svg
4) Planned highways
Sign Route Total length Existing In reali­sation Of which under active construction Tender Predesign complete In predesign[i] Preliminary works[r] Planned comple­tion [23][24][19]
S5 Eastern extension[s]:
Ostróda (S7) – Grudziądz (A1)
ca. 104.3 km 8.7 km 8.4% 5.6 km ca. 90 km Not before 2029
Western extension[t]:
Bolków (S3) – Świdnica – S8
ca. 55 km 0 km 0% ca. 55 km Not before 2029
S8 Southern extension[t]:
KłodzkoWrocław (A8)
ca. 82.4 km 5.1 km 6.2% ca. 77.3 km 2027
S10 Szczecin (A6) - Piła (S11) - Bydgoszcz (S5) - Toruń (A1) - Płock - Płońsk / Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki (S7) ca. 440.5 km 29.6 km
+ 24.6 km
1st carriageway
9.5% 17.8 km
+ 6.4 km
2nd carriageway
40 km
+ 11.6 km 2nd c/w
ca. 140 km Not before 2028
+ 108 km
+ ca. 80.5 km
+ 6.6 km 2nd c/w
S12 Piotrków Trybunalski (A1) - Sulejów (S74) - Radom (S7) - Puławy west of Lublin (S17) ca. 185 km 16.4 km
+ 6.3 km
1st carriageway
10.7% 103.8 km 2029
+ ca. 58.5 km
+ 6.3 km 2nd c/w
Piaski east of Lublin (S17) - Chełm - Poland/Ukraine (Kyiv) 75.6 km 1.1 km 1.5% 74.5 km 2025
S16-PL.svg Olsztyn (S51) - Ełk (S61) - Białystok (S19) ca. 223 km 20.4 km
+ 18.5 km
1st carriageway
13.3% 16.5 km 11.1 km
+ 18.5 km 2nd c/w
ca. 156.5 km Not before 2027
S17 Warsaw eastern bypass 17.3 km 0 km 0% 3.5 km 13.8 km 2027
Eastern section:
Lublin (S12/S19) - Zamość - Poland/Ukraine (Lviv)
155 km 29 km
+ 2 km 1st carriageway
19.4% 9.6 km 92 km 2026
+ 22.4 km
S19
Via Carpathia
Northern section:
Poland/Belarus (Minsk) - Białystok (S8) - Lublin (S12/S17)
ca. 327 km 14.5 km
1st carriageway
2.2% 158.1 km 87.7 km
+ 14.5 km 2nd c/w
2026
+ ca. 66.7 km
Southern section:
Rzeszów (A4) - Poland/Slovakia (Košice)
96.6 km 11.4 km 11.8% 10.2 km 75 km 2029
A50
A50
CPK (A2)Mińsk Maz. (A2) – CPK (A2)
(Warsaw 2nd ring)
ca. Znak D9.svg 100 km
Znak D7.svg 140 km
0 km 0% ca. 240 km Not before 2029
S52-PL.svgpart 1 Poland/Czech Republic (Brno/Ostrava) - Cieszyn - Bielsko-Biała (S1) - Wadowice - Głogoczów (S7) 98 km 37 km 37.8% 61 km 2031
S74 Sulejów (S12) - Kielce (S7) - Sandomierz - Nisko (S19) ca. 206.6 km 6.2 km 3% 124.4 km 2029
+ ca. 76 km

In total

Highway type Planned length Existing In realisation[h] Of which under active construction Tender Predesign complete In predesign Pre­li­minary works No progress
Motorways
as of 1 July 2020
ca. 2,086.9 km (1,296.7 mi) 1,684.2 km (1,046.5 mi)
+ 69.5 km 1st carriageway
82.37% 123.9 km (77.0 mi)
+ 33.6 km 2nd carriageway
100.1 km (62.2 mi)
+ 33.6 km 2nd carriageway
76.7 km (47.66 mi)
+ 35.9 km 2nd carriageway
32.6 km (20.3 mi) 100 km (62 mi)
Expressways
as of 1 July 2020
ca. 6,057.7 km (3,764.1 mi) 2,296.6 km (1,427.0 mi)
+ 214.6 km 1st carriageway
39.68% 871.3 km (541.401 mi)
+ 16.9 km 1st c/w
+ 49.8 km 2nd c/w
601.9 km (374.0 mi)
+ 16.9 km 1st c/w
+ 49.8 km 2nd c/w
227 km (141.1 mi)
+ 14.8 km 2nd carriageway
51.2 km (31.8 mi)
+ 18.5 km
2nd carriageway
1,931.5 km (1,200.2 mi)
+ 77.1 km
2nd carriageway
450 km (280 mi) 71.3 km 2nd carriageway[u]
Total ca. 8,144.5 km (5,060.8 mi) 3,980.8 km (2,473.6 mi)
+ 284.1 km
1st carriageway
50.62% 995.2 km (618.4 mi)
+ 100.3 km
1 carriageway
701.2 km (435.7 mi)
+ 100.3 km
1 carriageway
303.7 km (188.7 mi)
+ 50.7 km
2nd carriageway
51.2 km (31.8 mi)
+ 18.5 km
2nd carriageway
1,964.1 km (1,220.4 mi)
+ 77.1 km
2nd carriageway
550 km (342 mi) 71.3 km
2nd carriageway
  1. ^ Major changes in the network (e.g. opening of long fragments of a road, signing the last contract of a given section) are accounted continuously, while a general update including all the details is done every several months (last: July 1st, 2020). 'In total' length statistic is kept consistent as of the last general update, and might hence not be the exact sum of the current state of the table.
  2. ^ Some highways can overlap. The table shows data without overlapping sections such that each fragment is counted exactly once, in accordance with how they are attributed in the ministry ordinance,[16] i.e. each common section is attributed to the road with the lower number (in case of two expressways overlapping) or to a motorway (in case of a motorway and an expressway overlapping), except for S12/S17 near Lublin which is signed as S17[17].
  3. ^ Aggregate length for A2: 622.1 km (Completed: 76.2%, in realisation: 6.3%)
  4. ^ a b Aggregate length for S5 including Ostróda and Bolków extensions (added to the plans in 2015/2019): 493.1 km (Completed: 52%, in realisation: 17.4%)
  5. ^ Aggregate length for S8 including Kłodzko extension (added to plans in 2019): 616 km (Completed: 87.5%)
  6. ^ Short fragments (several bypasses of towns) constructed earlier.
  7. ^ In place of a largely destroyed Nazi German motorway from the 1930s.
  8. ^ a b Sections under active construction and sections under a joint Design & Build contract.
  9. ^ a b c
      In the late predesign phase, i.e. after having obtained environmental decision (0–2 years to finish).
      In the process of obtaining environmental decision.
      In the early predesign stage (Polish: STEŚ).
  10. ^ Open in a 2×2 profile: the west-bound traffic is carried by the new motorway carriageway, while the east-bound traffic is carried by the low quality pre-WWII carriageway. Section not signed as a motorway.
  11. ^ Bidirectional traffic is carried by the new high quality carriageway (one lane per direction), while the old carriageway is closed for reconstruction. Section not signed as a motorway.
  12. ^ a b According to the ordinance, a fragment of S6 (1st Tricity bypass) is ultimately to become a section of S7 after 2nd Tricity bypass (S6) is constructed. Until the actual relabelling takes place, this fragment is being accounted to S6 and not to S7 in the table.
  13. ^ Aggregate length for S17: 322.5 km (Completed: 33.8%, in realisation: 13.2%)
  14. ^ Aggregate length for S19: 581.6 km (Completed: 7.1%, in realisation: 22.1%)
  15. ^ An interchanging 2+1 profile.
  16. ^
      Design, if it is conducted as part of the predesign process rather than as part of a design-build contract.
  17. ^ Except for Szczecin western bypass, which is planned in a public-private partnership with a precise schedule unknown.
  18. ^ Analysis determining the optimal corridor for the planned highway (Polish: Studium Korytarzowe)
  19. ^ Added to the plans in 2015
  20. ^ a b Added to the plans in 2019
  21. ^ Single carriageway expressways which are currently not planned for widening to dual carriageways: 48.6 km of S22, 20.7 km of S1, 2 km of S17

Annual average daily traffic on Polish highways[edit]

The latest general measurement of annual average daily traffic in Poland was conducted in 2015.

Traffic volumes in Poland note rapid increase since the fall of communism in 1989: the average volumes recorded in 2015 amount to 297% of the average volumes recorded in 1990.[25][26] With the increasing traffic, the length of overburdened regular national roads has also increased (the measurement analysis defines a regular single carriageway country road as overburdened if recorded average annual traffic exceeds 15'000 vehicles per day[26]). In 2015, 956 km of such national road sections, excluding sections within the borders of large cities, were observed (against 497 km in 2000). Due to large number of highway sections opened between 2010 and 2015, however, in the 2015 measurement this figure fell down compared to the preceding measurement for the first time in history.[26]

The following highways recorded highest and lowest traffic volumes in 2015:[27]

No Section Vehicles / day Notes
Most busy highways in Poland
1 S8 in Warsaw 142k S8 serves both the transit and local traffic, and long traffic jams form on it during rush hours. Section with 3 lanes per direction. The average traffic has risen to 201k in 2018.[28]
2 S86 112k S86 serves mainly local traffic between Sosnowiec and Katowice and is not part of Poland's transit network. 3 lanes per direction.
3 A4 in Katowice 101k A4 serves both the transit traffic (2 lanes per direction) and local traffic (2 lanes per direction).
Least busy highways in Poland
1 S1 near Poland/Slovakia (12 km)[29] 1.0k – 2.4k Single carriageway section, not intended for widening due to low traffic.
Note: Until 2017, when the Svrčinovec - Skalité section of D3 on the Slovak side was completed, all heavy traffic was banned from using the border crossing, which additionally decreases the densities recorded in the measurement.
2 A4 from Poland/Ukraine to Jarosław-Zachód (47 km) 1.9k – 4.0k
3 S22 (whole, i.e. from Poland/Russia to Elbląg, 48.6 km) 2.6k – 5.8k Single carriageway expressway, not intended for widening due to low traffic.
4 bypasses (or parts thereof) of Słupsk (S6), Stargard (S10), Wyrzysk (S10), Kock (S19) and Międzyrzec Podlaski (S19) 5.8k – 6.5k Single carriageway bypasses constructed with allocated space for widening in the future, Stargard bypass constructed as dual carriageway.

The following single carriageway national roads recorded highest traffic volumes in 2015:[27]

No Section Vehicles / day Notes
Most busy single carriageway national roads in Poland
1 DK92 at the western entrance to Warsaw 36k
N/A DK5 south of Poznań 30k In 2019, S5 was opened on this section.
N/A DK4 east of Rzeszów 28k In 2016, A4 was opened on this section.
N/A DK91 between Łódź and Zgierz 28k In 2016, A1 (Łódź eastern bypass) was opened. S14 (Łódź western bypass) is under construction.
2 DK44 in Oświęcim 26k Oświęcim bypass is in realization (design-build).
3 DK5 north of Bydgoszcz 25k S5 (Bydgoszcz bypass) is under construction.
4 DK19 north of Lublin 25k S19 is planned (under tender).

Next general measurement was to be conducted throughout 2020, but had to be partially delayed due to COVID-19 pandemic.[30][31]

History[edit]

The network planned prior to WWII

Before World War II[edit]

The first plans of creation of a national highway network in Poland were conceived in the interwar period:

Plans

The main promoter of this concept was Professor Melchior Wladyslaw Nestorowicz of the Warsaw University of Technology, who organized three Road Congresses, during which a group of specialists discussed the creation of the network. On March 5, 1939, in the trade magazine Drogowiec, Professor Nestorowicz proposed a very ambitious plan for the construction of almost 5,000 kilometres of category I and II roads, based on similar programmes in Germany and Italy.[32] Nestorowicz sketched a map of the future system with the following routes:

First class roads would, according to the plans, consist of the following motorways (totalling some 2,500 km (1,553.4 mi):

Second class roads would consist of the following motorways, totalling another 2,295 km (1,430 mi):

In 1934, Nazi Germany started the construction of their motorway system, parts of which today form A18 and A4 to Wrocław (Breslau), as well as A6 Szczecin bypass and S22 (parts of the planned motorway to Königsberg). About half of them were constructed as single-carriageway with the intention of adding a second carriageway in later years. However, after 1938, warfare expenses meant little money would be invested into any infrastructure and only one 9 km single-carriageway piece west of Gliwice (now A4) was constructed.

In Poland, a 28 km stretch between Warlubie and Osiek (now DW214) was constructed in 1937 – 1939 in the motorway standard of the time (today not considered a highway) with a concrete surface, which was designed by Italian engineer Piero Puricelli. The motorway was planned to reach Gdynia, but the outbreak of the Second World War halted the plans.

Highway sections in service before 1976
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
A4-PL.svg Krzywa-Bielany Wrocławskie 91 km (56.5 mi) 1934 27 September 1936
Krzyżowa-Krzywa 12.3 km (7.6 mi) 17 October 1937
Bielany Wrocławskie-Brzeg(Owczary) 34.1 km (21.2 mi) 1938 Southern carriageway only
Ujazd(Nogowczyce)-Łany 9.1 km (5.7 mi) 1940 1942
Łany-Kleszczów 8.8 km (5.5 mi) 1936 1938
A6-PL.svg Flag of germany 800 480.png-Szczecin-Zachód 2.6 km (1.6 mi) 1934 27 September 1936
Szczecin-Zachód-Rzęśnica 26.6 km (16.5 mi) 1938
A18-PL.svg Iłowa-Golnice 32 km (19.9 mi) 1935 17 October 1937 Southern carriageway only
Flag of germany 800 480.png-Iłowa 37.2 km (23.1 mi) 1936 1938
Golnice-Krzyżowa 5.9 km (3.7 mi) 1936 1938
S22-PL.svg Elbląg-Grzechotki 51.4 km (31.9 mi) 1934 1938 Western carriageway only
Total 316.9 km (196.9 mi)
of which 178.5 km (110.9 mi) single carriageway
Note: Signage of the roads at the time of opening was different.

1945 – 1972[edit]

The Potsdam conference defined the borders for communist Poland, which were very different from the pre-1939 ones. It received the so-called Regained Territories from the former Third Reich with the aforementioned motorway sections (some of them with first carriageway only). Most of the motorway bridges were destroyed by the warfare, but only a few were repaired or rebuilt in the first post-war years. The bridge over Ina river was reconstructed in 1972, and those on S22 only between 1996 and 2003.

Apart from the bridges, almost all the motorways were left in the same condition as they were in 1945 until the mid-1990s. The only road left from Nazi times that was completed by the People's Republic of Poland was a one-carriageway small section between Łęczyca and Lisowo (15 km of what is now DW142), which was built on the previous works of Nazis.

Plans

At the post-war year there were very ambitious plans to make a motorway network for the whole Poland. For example, engineer Eugeniusz Buszma has published his propositions to the network in the magazine "Drogowiec" (1946, issue 1):

  1. East – West (SłubiceWarsawBiałystok) – 680 km
  2. North – South (Gdynia – Warsaw – Balkans) – 650 km
  3. Silesia – Baltic I (GdańskŁódźKatowice) – 460 km
  4. Pomeranian (Gdańsk – Szczecin) – 280 km
  5. Silesian (Wrocław – Katowice – Kraków) – 190 km
  6. Mazurian (Kaliningrad – ElblągMalbork) – 20 km
  7. Silesia – Baltic II (Bydgoszcz – Wrocław) – 260 km
  8. Łódź – Wrocław – (Prague) – 310 km
  9. Katowice – (Vienna) – 60 km
  10. Poznań – Szczecin – 200 km
  11. RadomLublin – (Lviv) – 220 km

In total, the mileage, according to the proposal, would total more than 3,300 km (2,050 mi).

After the addition of the sections built by the Third Reich the total network length had to be ca. 3700 km. In 1963 the Motorization Council at the Council of Ministers had prezented the similar plan plus the motorways: Warsaw-Kraków-Zakopane, Kraków-Przemyśl, Warsaw-Bydgoszcz-Koszalin, Poznań-Koszalin i Warsaw-Terespol (ca. 1250 km). None of those plans were realized, however.

Despite announcing such pompous plans, no motorway was opened in the meantime.

In the 1970s[edit]

Express road S6 in Gdynia, part of Tricity bypass which was opened (at first as single carriageway) in 1977, making it the oldest expressway in Poland.

Only in the 1970s did any works start. In 1972 it was planned to build:

Plans
  • the Gliwice-Kraków motorway (now A4)
  • the second carriageway of the Wrocław-Gliwice motorway (also A4)
  • the Warsaw-Katowice motorway (so-called "Gierkówka", now the S8/A1 road), in the near future

The plans were expanded in 1976 by the following sections:

In 1973 – 1976, "Gierkówka" dual carriageway from Warsaw to Katowice (281 km (175 mi)) was built. Originally planned as a motorway, it was in the end constructed by adding another carriageway to the existing road, hence going through many villages and crossing with local roads. However, the part from Piotrków Trybunalski to Częstochowa (78 km (48 mi)) was constructed on a new route in a semi-motorway standard: the road was constructed on a motorway alignment but majority of the intersections between the highway and the other roads were constructed as one-level with no viaducts or overpasses.

Highway sections opened in the 1970s
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening
DK1 Piotrków Trybunalski – Częstochowa
semi-motorway standard (one-level intersections)
[78 km (48 mi)] 1973 1976
S6-PL.svg Tri-city bypass (eastern carriageway)
substandard (two one-level intersections, then reconstructed when adding a second carriageway in 1980s)
37.7 km (23.4 mi) 1973 1977
Rzęśnica – Goleniów
substandard (one-level intersections)
19.3 km (12.0 mi) 1976 1979
Total 57 km (35.4 mi)
of which 37.7 km (23.4 mi) single carriageway

In the 1980s[edit]

A4 near Zalas, opened in 1983

Near the end of 1970s the first construction of motorways started and continued to the next decade. The roads opened in the 1980s were the first motorways and expressways which generally meet the contemporary standards, at least with respect to their more important attributes.

In 1985 the government already planned to build the expressways apart from the motorways. The major routes planned as motorways were A1, A2 and A4. The realization of these plans however came at a very slow pace: throughout the 1980s, only an average of 20 km (12 mi) of highways in the whole country were being opened per year.

Highway sections opened in the 1980s
average: 20.5 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
A1-PL.svg Tuszyn-Piotrków Trybunalski 16.1 km (10.0 mi) 1978 18 December 1989 Section under reconstruction 2019 – 2021
A2-PL.svg Września-Sługocin (Golina) 35.7 km (22.2 mi) 1977 9 October 1985
Sługocin - Konin West 13.5 km (8.4 mi) 1986 10 November 1988
A4-PL.svg Chrzanów - Kraków (Balice I) 29.6 km (18.4 mi) 1976 3 January 1983
Jaworzno - Chrzanów 6.1 km (3.8 mi) 1978 22 November 1986
Kraków bypass (section Balice I - Tyniec) 7.8 km (4.8 mi) 1979 8 December 1988
S1-PL.svg Dąbrowa Górnicza - Tychy 34.7 km (21.6 mi) 1978 1983
S6-PL.svg Tri-city bypass (to Straszyn) 32.4 km (20.1 mi) 1978 1984 Second carriageway
S7-PL.svg Kielce bypass 22.9 km (14.2 mi) 1974 1984 First carriageway
S86-PL.svg Katowice - Sosnowiec 6.8 km (4.2 mi) 1978 1985 First completely done expressway
Total 205.6 km (127.8 mi) of which 55.3 km (34.4 mi) single carriageway

In the 1990s[edit]

In the III Republic of Poland the plans started to change again. Planned S3 was promoted to a motorway standard as A3 (the decision was later reversed) and a plan was introduced (also later reversed) of constructing the highway Łódź – Wrocław – Bolków in a motorway standard as A8. Szczecin bypass (A6) and Olszyna – Krzywa (then named A12, now A4/A18) were promoted to motorways, even though at that time majority of their lengths was in bad shape, laid with the original concrete surface from the 1930s with no significant works having been performed on any of them throughout the communist period.

Highway sections opened in the 1990s
average: 15 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
A4-PL.svg Mysłowice - Jaworzno 15.9 km (9.9 mi) 1986 29 November 1990 Northern carriageway only
4 September 1991 Southern carriageway only
Kraków bypass (section Tyniec - Skawina) 3.5 km (2.2 mi) 1988 1993
Kraków bypass (section Skawina - ul.Kąpielowa) 5.4 km (3.4 mi) 1993 27 October 1995 A4 had a crossroad with ul. Kąpielowa till 2002, when the bridge was built over it.
JędrzychowiceFlag of germany 800 480.png - Zgorzelec 1.8 km (1.1 mi) 1992 15 July 1994
Katowice Francuska - Mysłowice 11.1 km (6.9 mi) 1989 30 October 1996
Katowice Mikołowska - Katowice Francuska 1.9 km (1.2 mi) ? 10 November 1999
Krzyżowa - Krzywa 10.2 km (6.3 mi) 1995 Renovated
A6-PL.svg Flag of germany 800 480.png-Podjuchy 12.7 km (7.9 mi) 1996 1999 Renovated
A18-PL.svg OlszynaFlag of germany 800 480.png-Królów 9.6 km (6.0 mi) ? 1993 Northern carriageway added (+ 350 m (383 yd) renovated southern carriageway at the border)
Golnice - Krzyżowa 5.9 km (3.7 mi) 1995 Renovated both carriageways
S1-PL.svg CieszynFlag of the Czech Republic-Cieszyn-East 5.2 km (3.2 mi) 1991 1995
S3-PL.svg Sulechów - Zielona Góra (Niedoradz) 26.8 km (16.7 mi) 1985 1995 Western carriageway only
S5-PL.svg Świecie bypass 13 km (8.1 mi) 1994 1998 Single carriageway; dual carriageway near the interchanges
S7-PL.svg Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki bypass 14.6 km (9.1 mi) 1990 1999
Miłomłyn bypass 5.1 km (3.2 mi) 1995 1997 Eastern carriageway only
S8-PL.svg Radzymin bypass 8.1 km (5.0 mi) 1996 1998
Total 151.8 km (94.3 mi) of which 28.8 km (17.9 mi) reconstructed, 48.4 km (30.1 mi) single carriageway

In the 2000s[edit]

Express road S7 near Białobrzegi, opened in 2003

As of the end of 1999, vast majority of national and international traffic routes were served by regular national roads, most of them leading through the cities, towns and villages, and most of them single carriageway. Only the following number of highways was present:

  • about 275 km (171 mi) of modern dual carriageway motorways and expressways (3.5% of the network as planned nowadays),
  • about 90 km (56 mi) of single carriageway expressways,
  • about 125 km (78 mi) of not-yet-resurfaced Nazi German motorways from the 1930s,
  • about 150 km (93 mi) of not-yet-resurfaced Nazi German motorways on sections where only first carriageway was constructed.

Before Poland received the EU membership[edit]

A4 (Kraków southern bypass), opened in 2003
Express road S8 near Oleśnica, opened in 2006

A few years before Poland entered the EU the tempo of motorway construction increased significantly. The main focus was on the east–west motorways A4 and A2. In 2002, a long-awaited renovation of the A4 from Krzywa to Wrocław (93 km) has started, which included laying new high quality surface in place of the Nazi German concrete slabs, reconstruction of all the pre-WWII bridges on the motorway and renovation of the viaducts above the motorway.

This is also a period when Poland started introducing motorway tolls, first in 2000 for the A4 section between Mysłowice and Kraków.

Highway sections opened in 2000 – 2003
average: 57 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
A2-PL.svg Poznań Komorniki - Poznań Krzesiny 11.2 km (7.0 mi) 1998 13 September 2003
Poznań Krzesiny - Września 37.3 km (23.2 mi) 2002 27 November 2003
A4-PL.svg Bielany Wrocławskie - Brzeg (Owczary) 34.1 km (21.2 mi) 1997 16 December 2000 Southern carriageway reconstructed, northern carriageway constructed
Brzeg (Owczary) - Dąbrówka Górna 56.6 km (35.2 mi)
Dąbrówka Górna - Nogowczyce 34.3 km (21.3 mi) 26 July 2001
Nogowczyce - Kleszczów 17.9 km (11.1 mi) 2001 4 December 2003 Southern carriageway reconstructed, northern carriageway constructed
Chorzów - Katowice Mikołowska 4.4 km (2.7 mi) 1998 2001
Kraków bypass (section ul.Kąpielowa - Wieliczka) 7 km (4.3 mi) 2000 3 September 2003
S5-PL.svg Śmigiel bypass 4.1 km (2.5 mi) ? 2002 First carriageway
S6-PL.svg Straszyn-Rusocin 5.4 km (3.4 mi) 2000 2001 Second carriageway
S7-PL.svg Białobrzegi bypass 7.7 km (4.8 mi) 2001 2003
S8-PL.svg Ostrów Mazowiecka bypass 7.6 km (4.7 mi) 2000
Total 227.6 km (141.4 mi) of which 9.5 km (5.9 mi) single carriageway

Poland in European Union[edit]

1 May 2004 was a crucial day for the history of motorway construction, and that is when the highway boom started. One of major advantages of signing the European Union access document was that Poland could get access to large funds for co-financing the construction of new roads and upgrades of the existing road infrastructure.

These years, the existing pieces of the motorways started to converge into the basis of the future network: in 2005, A4 connected Wrocław with Katowice and Kraków, while in 2009 – with Germany; in 2006, A2 connected Poznań with Łódź. A large number of expressway bypasses of towns were also constructed at this time (on some of them only one carriageway was built with the allocated space prepared for adding a second one later).

Highway sections opened in 2004 – 2009
average: 150 km / year
Signage Section Length Start of construction Opening Notes
A1-PL.svg Gdańsk (Rusocin) - Swarożyn 24.2 km (15.0 mi) 2005 2007
Swarożyn - Grudziądz 64.7 km (40.2 mi) 2008
Sośnica - Rybnik (Bełk) 15.6 km (9.7 mi) 22 January 2007 20 October 2009
A2-PL.svg Nowy Tomyśl - Poznań Komorniki 50.4 km (31.3 mi) 2002 October 2004
Konin - Łódź (Stryków) 103.7 km (64.4 mi) 2004 July 2006
A4-PL.svg Krzywa - Bielany Wrocławskie 93 km (57.8 mi) 2002 2004–2006
(in sections)
Renovated both carriageways
Sośnica - Chorzów Batory 15.7 km (9.8 mi) 2002 January 2005
Kleszczów - Sośnica 19.1 km (11.9 mi) 2003 October 2005
Zgorzelec Flag of germany 800 480.png - Krzyżowa 49.7 km (30.9 mi) 2006 August 2009
Wieliczka - Targowisko 19.5 km (12.1 mi) 2007 2009
A6-PL.svg Szczecin Klucz - Szczecin Kijewo 7.7 km (4.8 mi) 2005 2007 Renovated both carriageways
A18-PL.svg Olszyna Flag of germany 800 480.png - Golnice 71.5 km (44.4 mi) 2004 2006 Constructed the northern carriageway alongside the pre-WWII southern carriageway
S1-PL.svg Flag of Slovakia.png - Zwardoń - Milówka 10.0 km (6.2 mi) 2002 - 2007 2004 - 2009
(in sections)
Single carriageway; then signed S69
Żywiec - Przybędza 7.7 km (4.8 mi) 2005 2007
Pyrzowice airport - Podwarpie 12.0 km (7.5 mi) 2005 2006 Single carriageway
S3-PL.svg Gorzów Wielkopolski bypass 11.9 km (7.4 mi) 2003 2007 Single carriageway
Międzyrzecz bypass 6.3 km (3.9 mi) 2004 2006
Nowa Sól bypass 18 km (11.2 mi) 2006 2008
S5-PL.svg Szubin bypass 4.5 km (2.8 mi) 2004 2006 Single carriageway
S7-PL.svg Jędrzejów bypass 5.8 km (3.6 mi) 2003 2005 Partially (2.7 km) single carriageway
Nowy Dwór Gdański bypass 2.5 km (1.6 mi) 2005 2007
Elbląg bypass 4.2 km (2.6 mi) 2005 2007
Grójec bypass 8.3 km (5.2 mi) 18 October 2006 19 September 2008
Białobrzegi - Jedlińsk 15.7 km (9.8 mi) 6 July 2006 30 June 2008
Myślenice - Lubień 16.2 km (10.1 mi) 2004 2009
Kielce bypass (northern part) 7.1 km (4.4 mi) 2007 2009
Płońsk bypass 4.7 km (2.9 mi) 28 September 2007 3 June 2009
S8-PL.svg Oleśnica bypass 7.2 km (4.5 mi) 2004 2006
Wyszków bypass 12.8 km (8.0 mi) 27 February 2006 14 November 2008
Wyszków - Radzymin 17.3 km (10.7 mi) 8 December 2006 31 July 2009
S10-PL.svg Toruń bypass (fragment) 12.4 km (7.7 mi) 2004 2005 Single carriageway; later incorporated into A1
Kobylanka bypass 13.8 km (8.6 mi) 2005 2007 Partially (7 km) single carriageway
Stargard bypass 13.5 km (8.4 mi) 2008 2009
Bydgoszcz bypass (fragment) 10.4 km (6.5 mi) 2008 2009
Wyrzysk bypass 7.8 km (4.8 mi) 2008 2009 Single carriageway
S11-PL.svg Poznań - Kórnik 14.1 km (8.8 mi) 2006 2009
Ostrów Wlkp. bypass (northern part) 6.1 km (3.8 mi) 2008 2009 Single carriageway
S12-PL.svg Piaski bypass 4 km (2.5 mi) 2002 2004
Puławy bypass 12.7 km (7.9 mi) 2005 2007 Partially (8.7 km) single carriageway
S17-PL.svg Garwolin bypass 12.8 km (8.0 mi) 2005 2007
S19-PL.svg Międzyrzec Podlaski bypass 6.3 km (3.9 mi) 2005 2008 Single carriageway
S22-PL.svg Elbląg - Flag of Russia.png 51.6 km (32.1 mi) April 2006 December 2008 Single carriageway. Constructed in place of a partially destroyed motorway from the 1930s.
S52-PL.svg Cieszyn Flag of the Czech Republic.svg - Bielsko-Biała (Komorowice) 28 km (17.4 mi) 2002 - 2005 2005 - 2007
(in sections)
Then signed S1
Total 900.5 km (559.5 mi) of which 244.5 km (151.9 mi) single carriageway, 100.7 km (62.6 mi) reconstructed

2010 – 2014[edit]

Length of highways opened in 2010 – 2014
Year Length Notes
2010 135 km (84 mi)
2011 313 km (194 mi)
2012 639 km (397 mi) Of which 195 km (121 mi) were opened before Euro 2012 championship
2013 298 km (185 mi)
2014 279 km (173 mi)
Total 1,664 km (1,034 mi) Of which 54 km (34 mi) first / second carriageway

The sections opened in 2010 – 2014 belonged to the following highways:

  • A8-PL.svgS8-PL.svg: + 356 km (221 mi) (S8 on the section WrocławŁódź was completed in 2014)
  • A1-PL.svg: + 281 km (175 mi) (A1 on the section GdańskŁódź was completed in 2014)
  • A2-PL.svgS2-PL.svg: + 234 km (145 mi) (A2 on the section GermanyWarsaw was completed in 2012)
  • A4-PL.svg: + 183 km (114 mi)
  • S3-PL.svg: + 170 km (106 mi) (S3 on the section SzczecinA2Zielona Góra was completed in 2013, except that older single-carriageway parts remained so until 2017)
  • S7-PL.svg: + 159 km (99 mi)
  • S1-PL.svgS5-PL.svgS6-PL.svgS11-PL.svgS12-PL.svgS17-PL.svgS19-PL.svgS51-PL.svgS61-PL.svgS74-PL.svgS79-PL.svg: + 281 km (175 mi) in total

2015 – 2019[edit]

After the peak of investments before Euro 2012, very few new sections have been contracted in 2012 and 2013, which resulted in a small number of sections opened in 2015 and 2016, large share of which were the last delayed fragments originally contracted for a Euro 2012 opening. In particular:

  • In 2016, the last delayed fragment of A4-PL.svg from Kraków to Ukraine was opened, making A4 the first major Polish highway completed on its whole intended length, as well as the first complete border-to-border highway connection.
  • Also in 2016, the delayed bypass of Łódź was finished, making A1-PL.svg completed on its whole route except for those sections where national road 1 had already been a dual carriageway (see In the 1970s), allowing for a significantly lower priority of constructing the remaining stretch compared to other highways.

Since 2014, the number of signed contracts has risen again, resulting in the number of road openings having risen again since 2017.

Length of highways opened in 2015 – 2019
Year Length Notes
2015 34 km (21 mi)
2016 123 km (76 mi)
2017 295 km (183 mi)
2018 318 km (198 mi)
2019 410 km (255 mi)
Total 1,180 km (733 mi) Of which 83 km (52 mi) first / second carriageway

The sections opened in 2015 – 2019 belonged to the following highways:

  • S7-PL.svg: + 205 km (127 mi)
  • S5-PL.svg: + 194 km (121 mi) (S5 on the section PoznańWrocław was completed in 2019)
  • S3-PL.svg: + 166 km (103 mi)
  • S8-PL.svg: + 144 km (89 mi) (S8 was completed on its originally intended route from Wrocław to Białystok in 2019; an extension to Kłodzko was later added to the plans)
  • S6-PL.svg: + 128 km (80 mi) (S6 on the section SzczecinKoszalin was completed in 2019)
  • A1-PL.svgA4-PL.svgS1-PL.svgS11-PL.svgS12-PL.svgS17-PL.svgS19-PL.svgS51-PL.svgS61-PL.svg: + 343 km (213 mi) in total (A1 and A4: see above)

2020 – present[edit]

Length of highways opened, or to be opened, in 2020 – 2024
by the contract completion date
Year Length Notes
2020 137 km (85 mi) Actual openings, ongoing constructions
2021 504 km (313 mi) Ongoing constructions
2022 259 km (161 mi) Ongoing constructions, ongoing design-build contracts[33][34]
2023 278 km (173 mi) Ongoing constructions, ongoing design-build contracts,[33][34] ongoing tenders for A18 reconstruction[34]
2024 367 km (228 mi) Ongoing design-build contracts, ongoing tenders with completion of the contracted works planned for 2024 (figure might change)[34]
Total 1,545 km (960 mi) Of which 7 km (4 mi) first carriageway, 125 km (78 mi) second carriageway

The sections opened, or planned to get opened, in 2020 – 2024 belong to the following highways:

  • S19-PL.svg: + 287 km (178 mi) (S19 "Via Carpathia" on the section LublinRzeszów is scheduled to get completed in 2022)
  • S61-PL.svg: + 187 km (116 mi) (S61 "Via Baltica" is scheduled to get completed in 2022/2023[22])
  • S7-PL.svg: + 177 km (110 mi) (S7 on the section WarsawKraków is planned to get completed in 2024)
  • A2-PL.svgS2-PL.svg: + 135 km (84 mi)
  • S3-PL.svg: + 121 km (75 mi) (S3 is scheduled to get completed in 2024)
  • S5-PL.svg: + 94 km (58 mi) (S5 on the section Grudziądz (A1) – Poznań is scheduled to get completed in 2022)
  • A1-PL.svg, A18-PL.svg, S1-PL.svg, S6-PL.svg, S11-PL.svg: + ca. 70 - 80 km each (A1 is scheduled to get completed in 2022; S1 is planned to get completed in 2023; reconstruction of the second carriageway of A18 is planned to get completed in 2023)
  • A6-PL.svgS10-PL.svgS14-PL.svgS16-PL.svgS17-PL.svgS52-PL.svg: + 130 km (81 mi) in total (S17 on the section WarsawLublin is scheduled to get completed in 2020)

Total length of motorways and expressways in Poland (end of the year)[edit]

Year Highways, total length
1936 (then Nazi Germany) 92 km
1937 (then Nazi Germany) 104 km and 38 km first carriageway
1938–1945 (then Nazi Germany) 133 km and 135 km first carriageway (further below not considered as a motorway until addition of the second carriageway)
1939–1945 (Poland) 28 km (today not considered as a highway)
1945–1976 133 km
1977 169 km
1978 169 km
1979 190 km
1980 190 km
1981 190 km
1982 190 km
1983 255 km
1984 278 km
1985 321 km
1986 327 km
1987 327 km
1988 348 km
1989 366 km
1990 381 km
1991 399 km
1992 399 km
1993 403 km
1994 405 km
1995 440 km
1996 453 km
1997 456 km
1998 490 km
1999 502 km
2000 592 km
2001 630 km
2002 639 km
2003 727 km
2004 781 km
2005 848 km
2006 1013 km
2007 1083 km
2008 1282 km
2009 1454 km
2010 1560 km
2011 1865 km
2012 2495 km
2013 2805 km
2014 3100 km
2015 3131 km
2016 3252 km
2017 3510 km
2018 3811 km
2019 4214 km
2020 4376 km (forecast[33][34])
2021 4893 km (forecast[33][34])
2022 5104 km (forecast[33][34])
2023 5354 km (plans[35][34])
2024 5862 km (plans[35][34])
2025 6305 km (plans[35][34][36])
2026 6532 km (plans[35][37][38])
20?? 8000 km (year unknown; according to plans)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Autostrady :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Strona Główna". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  2. ^ Including joint design–build contracts. Of these 791 km (492 mi) in active construction.
  3. ^ a b "S3 Miękowo - Rzęśnica :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  4. ^ "Aktualności – S3 Miękowo – Rzęśnica".
  5. ^ a b https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/37957/Przed-dlugim-weekendem-uruchamiamy-dwie-jezdnie-na-S3-i-A6-od-Szczecina-do-Goleniow
  6. ^ "Ustawa z dnia 21 marca 1985 r. o drogach publicznych". prawo.sejm.gov.pl.
  7. ^ "Obwieszczenie Ministra Infrastruktury i Budownictwa z dnia 23 grudnia 2015 r. w sprawie ogłoszenia jednolitego tekstu rozporządzenia Ministra Transportu i Gospodarki Morskiej w sprawie warunków technicznych, jakim powinny odpowiadać drogi publiczne i ich usytuowanie". prawo.sejm.gov.pl.
  8. ^ "Umowa na analizę dla rozbudowy A4 Wrocław – Krzyżowa podpisana! :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  9. ^ "A6 Węzeł Szczecin Kijewo – A6 Węzeł Szczecin Kijewo".
  10. ^ "A6 Szczecin Dąbie - Rzęśnica :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  11. ^ >https://www.money.pl/gospodarka/wiadomosci/artykul/a18-droga-hanby-patatajka,247,0,2413047.html
  12. ^ "Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 15 maja 2004 r. w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych". prawo.sejm.gov.pl.
  13. ^ "Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 20 października 2009 r. zmieniające rozporządzenie w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych". prawo.sejm.gov.pl.
  14. ^ a b "Dziennik Ustaw 2019 r. poz. 1819". www.dziennikustaw.gov.pl.
  15. ^ "Zmiany w rozporządzeniu w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych - Ministerstwo Infrastruktury i Budownictwa". mib.gov.pl. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  16. ^ http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/DocDetails.xsp?id=WDU20180000741: Appendix 2, footnote 1 (in Polish)
  17. ^ https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/userfiles/articles/g/generalny-pomiar-ruchu-w-2015_15598//SYNTEZA/WYNIKI_GPR2015_DK.pdf
  18. ^ "Zestawienie realizacji autostrad i dróg ekspresowych w Polsce". Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  19. ^ a b c "Progress of road construction preparation works :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad". www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/. Retrieved 2020-11-17.
  20. ^ "Mapa budowy dróg ekspresowych i autostrad". Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  21. ^ "Map of construction of Polish highways - SISKOM & SSC". ssc.siskom.waw.pl. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  22. ^ a b https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/37619/Obwodnica-Szczuczyna-Mala-czesc-wielkiego-projektu-Via-Baltica
  23. ^ a b "Amendment to Road Construction Plan of 16 June 2020 - Ministry of Infrastructure". gov.pl.
  24. ^ a b ""Rozwój sieci dróg szybkiego ruchu"". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  25. ^ https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/userfiles/articles/g/GENERALNY_POMIAR_RUCHU_2000/0.1.3.3_Raport_GPR_2000.pdf
  26. ^ a b c https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/userfiles/articles/g/generalny-pomiar-ruchu-w-2015_15598//SYNTEZA/Synteza_GPR2015.pdf
  27. ^ a b https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/userfiles/articles/g/generalny-pomiar-ruchu-w-2015_15598//SYNTEZA/WYNIKI_GPR2015_DK.pdf
  28. ^ "Warszawa. Coraz większy ruch przez Wisłę. Most Grota pęka w szwach". www.rynekinfrastruktury.pl.
  29. ^ Labelled S69 in the source
  30. ^ "GPR 2020 :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl.
  31. ^ https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/36989/Przesuniety-pomiar-GPR2020M
  32. ^ Prof. M. W. Nestorowicz, Problem budowy dróg samochodowych (autostrad) w Polsce
  33. ^ a b c d e "List of ongoing road contracts signed by GDDKiA".
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/frontend/web/userfiles/articles/p/program-budowy-drog-krajowych-sp_35147/Standia_20.12.2019.pdf
  35. ^ a b c d https://www.gov.pl/attachment/f02f198f-abb1-4e93-b8e9-3d7c4a555577
  36. ^ "S6 Obwodnica Metropolii Trójmiejskiej". www.ppp.gov.pl.
  37. ^ "S10 Bydgoszcz - Toruń". www.ppp.gov.pl.
  38. ^ "S6 Zachodnia obwodnica Szczecina". www.ppp.gov.pl.

External links[edit]