Roar (vocalization)

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Red deer stag roaring

A roar is a deep, bellowing outburst of sound forced through an open mouth or other body cavity. Acoustically, a roar generally consists of a both a low fundamental frequency (pitch) and low formant frequency (resonance).[1] Mammals of various species have evolved to produce roars and roar-like sounds for long-distance communication and territorial or mate defense. These include the big cats, red deer, various bovids, some pinnipeds, bears, howler monkeys, hammer-headed bats,[2] elephants[3][4] and gorillas.[5]

Roaring mammals have evolved various means to achieve their vocalizations. Some developed a proportionally large larynx which contributes to a deeper fundamental frequency. The male hammer-headed bat has a larynx that takes up most of its thoracic cavity and is half the size of its backbone. A larger larynx also has enlarged vocal cords which also contributes to a deeper pitch; as the folds increase in mass, their oscillation decreases. This is seen in the four big cats (lion, tiger, leopard and jaguar) which are known as the "roaring cats". Other animals with these characteristics include the takin, the male Mongolian gazelle, the male musk ox, the male saiga antelope, the hammer headed bat,[2] and the male (silverback) gorilla.[6] In addition, the elasticity of the larynx and the length of the vocal tract affect the formant of a sound. In big cats and male red deer and fallow deer, specialized musculature pulls the larynx deeper in the vocal tract when roaring, lowering the vocal tract resonance.[2]

Other species have evolved internal inflatable air spaces connected to the vocal tract which play a role in vocal tract resonance. The Mongolian gazelle and musk ox possess an air space (paired and two-chambered in the former) attached to the larynx,[2] while bears have ones connected to the pharynx.[7] Male howler monkeys have a rigid hyoid bulla (extension of the hyoid bone) which contains an unpaired rostroventral laryngeal air sac. Outside the hyoid are a pair of ventral laryngeal air spaces.[8] The hammer-headed bat has a pouch in the palatine that connects to an enlarged nasal-pharynx region in addition to paired cheek pouches which extend to the rostrum.[2] Elephants contain a pharyngeal pouch associated with their larynx and hyoid apparatus, and their roars can also be modified by the nostrils in their trunks alongside their other vocalizations.[9] Male elephant seals and saiga antelope have an enlarged and inflate proboscis which also affect resonance. Saiga nevertheless roar with their mouths closed and produce a "nasal roar".[2]

While roaring, animals like red deer and elephant seals may stretch out the neck and elevate the head. In addition, lions progressively close their mouths while roaring. In some species, both sexes can produces these vocalizations while in others only the males can. In the close of the latter, roars evolved due to sexual selection. In addition, in male red deer, the larynx may descend further down the throat during the rut. In lions, where both sexes roar, the vocalization plays a role in social spacing and territorial defense. Though usually airborne, some roars are audible underwater as in the case of the male harbor seal.[2]

The lion's roar is familiar to many through Leo the Lion, the iconic logo seen during the opening sequence of MGM films. The portion of Leo's roar that is actually heard is only the middle segment of a roar, omitting the first and last segments. The roar of a lion is audible for a long distance: up to five miles in human hearing and probably further for lions.[10][11][12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Weissengruber, G. E.; Forstenpointner, G.; Peters, G.; Kübber-Heiss, A.; Fitch, W. T. (2002). "Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus)". Journal of Anatomy. 201 (3): 195–209. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00088.x. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Frey, Roland; Gebler, Alban (2010). "Chapter 10.3 – Mechanisms and evolution of roaring-like vocalization in mammals". In Brudzynski, Stefan M. Handbook of Mammalian Vocalization — An Integrative Neuroscience Approach. pp. 439–450. ISBN 9780123745934. 
  3. ^ "Elephant Call Types Database". Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  4. ^ "The Amboseli Elephants: A Long-Term Perspective on a Long-Lived Mammal". Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  5. ^ "Gorilla". Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  6. ^ "Sexual Selection and the Origins of Human Mating Systems". Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  7. ^ Weissengruber, G. E.; Forstenpointner, G.; Kübber-Heiss, A.; Riedelberger, K.; Schwammer, H.; Ganzberger, K. (2001). "Occurrence and structure of epipharyngeal pouches in bears (Ursidae)". Journal of Anatomy. 198 (3): 309–14. PMC 1468220free to read. PMID 11322723. 
  8. ^ Kelemen, G.; Sade, J. (1960). "The vocal organ of the Howling monkey (Alouatta palliata)". Journal of Morphology. 107 (2): 123–140. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051070202. 
  9. ^ "Elephant". Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
  10. ^ Mel Sunquist; Fiona Sunquist (15 August 2002). Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7. 
  11. ^ J.A. Rudnai (6 December 2012). The Social Life of the Lion: A study of the behaviour of wild lions (Panthera leo massaica [Newmann]) in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 55–9. ISBN 978-94-011-7140-3. 
  12. ^ Richard Estes (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. University of California Press. p. 374. ISBN 978-0-520-08085-0. 

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