Robert's Rules of Order
Cover of 2011 (11th) edition
|Publisher||Da Capo Press, A Member of the Perseus Books Group|
|Pages||669 (main text), 716 (numbered), 816 (total)|
978-0-306-82021-2 (hardcover) 978-0-306-82020-5 (paperback)978-0-306-82022-9 (leatherbound)
|LC Class||JF515 .R692 2011|
Originally published in 1876, it has been revised regularly through the years, including two major revisions, by Robert and his successors based on feedback from users.
Currently in its eleventh edition and published in 2011 under the name Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (abbreviated RONR), it has details on the types of groups that use it, the ways that decisions could be made, and the various situations in which decisions are made.
Several resources, including an official concise guide and information on the official website, have been released by Robert's successors to help the many different organizations and groups that use the book.
- 1 History and origins
- 2 Official editions and other versions
- 3 Explanation of purpose of book
- 4 Contents of current edition
- 5 Additional information related to current edition
- 6 Changes between editions
- 7 Explanations of rules in book
- 8 Application to specific organizations
- 9 References
- 10 External links
History and origins
The first edition of the book, whose full title was Pocket Manual of Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies, was published in February 1876 by then U.S. Army Major Henry Martyn Robert (1837–1923) with the short title Robert's Rules of Order placed on its cover.
The procedures prescribed by the book were loosely modeled after those used in the United States House of Representatives, with such adaptations as Robert saw fit for use in ordinary societies. Although he was in the military, the rules in his book were not based on military rules. The author's interest in parliamentary procedure began in 1863 when he was chosen to preside over a church meeting and, although he accepted the task, felt that he did not have the necessary knowledge of proper procedure.
In his later work as an active member of several organizations, Robert discovered that members from different areas of the country had very different views regarding what the proper parliamentary rules were, and these conflicting views hampered the organizations in their work. He eventually became convinced of the need for a new manual on the subject, one which would enable many organizations to adopt the same set of rules.
Official editions and other versions
The following three tables list the official versions of the body of work known as "Robert's Rules of Order" developed by Henry M. Robert and maintained by his successors. The formal titles of the books appear above the editions they refer to (also see List of books with Robert's Rules in the title). Note that each successive edition was intended to supersede the previous editions.
Pocket Manual of Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies (cover short title: Robert's Rules of Order)
|First Edition||February 1876||Major Henry M. Robert||S. C. Griggs & Company|
|Second Edition||July 1876||Major Henry M. Robert
(Lieut. Colonel in later printings)
|S. C. Griggs & Company|
|Third Edition||1893||Lieut. Colonel Henry M. Robert
(Colonel, then General in later printings)
|S. C. Griggs & Company
(Scott, Foresman and Company in later printings)
Robert's Rules of Order Revised
|Fourth Edition||1915||General Henry M. Robert||Scott, Foresman and Company|
|Fifth Edition||1943||General Henry M. Robert (Editors: Isabel H. Robert and Sarah Corbin Robert, Trustee)||Scott, Foresman and Company|
|Sixth Edition ("Seventy-Fifth Anniversary")||1951||General Henry M. Robert (Editors: Isabel H. Robert and Sarah Corbin Robert, Trustee)||Scott, Foresman and Company|
Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised
|Seventh Edition||1970||General Henry M. Robert and Sarah Corbin Robert with the assistance of Henry M. Robert III, James W. Cleary, and William J. Evans||Scott, Foresman and Company|
|Eighth Edition||1981||General Henry M. Robert and Sarah Corbin Robert with the assistance of Henry M. Robert III, James W. Cleary, and William J. Evans||Scott, Foresman and Company|
|Ninth Edition||1990||General Henry M. Robert and Sarah Corbin Robert with the assistance of Henry M. Robert III and William J. Evans||Scott, Foresman and Company|
|Tenth Edition ("Millennium")||2000||General Henry M. Robert, Sarah Corbin Robert, Henry M. Robert III, William J. Evans, Daniel H. Honemann, and Thomas J. Balch||Perseus Books|
|Eleventh Edition||2011||General Henry M. Robert, Sarah Corbin Robert, Henry M. Robert III, William J. Evans, Daniel H. Honemann, and Thomas J. Balch with the assistance of Daniel E. Seabold and Shmuel Gerber||Da Capo Press, A Member of the Perseus Books Group|
Henry M. Robert himself published the first four editions before his death in 1923, the last being the thoroughly revised and expanded Fourth Edition published as Robert's Rules of Order Revised in May 1915. By this time Robert had long been retired from the Army with the rank of brigadier general. The revisions were based on the feedback from hundreds of letters that Robert had received through the years. In addition, to explain the rules in Robert's Rules of Order Revised (abbreviated ROR), Robert published an introductory book for beginners titled Parliamentary Practice: An Introduction to Parliamentary Law in 1921 and a full book of explanations titled Parliamentary Law in 1923.
Through a family trust, and later through the Robert's Rules Association (which is made up of descendants of Henry M. Robert), several subsequent editions of Robert's Rules of Order have been published, including another major revision of the work. The Seventh Edition, published in February 1970 on the 94th anniversary of the publication of the First Edition, was the first under the title Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR). The subsequent editions were based on additional feedback from users, including feedback received by electronic means in recent years. These later editions included material from Robert's Parliamentary Practice and Parliamentary Law.
The current edition of the series became effective on September 23, 2011 under the title Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, Eleventh Edition. This edition states that it:
supersedes all previous editions and is intended automatically to become the parliamentary authority in organizations whose bylaws prescribe "Robert's Rules of Order," "Robert's Rules of Order Revised," "Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised," or "the current edition of" any of these titles, or the like, without specifying a particular edition.— 
The authorship team of the current Eleventh Edition consists of a grandson of General Robert, an attorney, a lobbyist and legislative analyst, a mathematics professor, and a copy editor, all of them being experienced parliamentarians.
"In Brief" version
Henry M. Robert III, grandson of the original author and Trustee for the Robert's Rules Association, had acknowledged that "there has been controversy among parliamentarians concerning the length of Robert's Rules in its various editions and the complexity of the rules it describes." As a result, a supplemental book was developed.
In 2005, a shorter reference guide, Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (abbreviated RONRIB), was published by the same authorship team and publisher as the Tenth Edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) and was made to be in accord with that edition of RONR. A second edition of this shorter guide was published in 2011 to conform with the current Eleventh Edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised.
The In Brief book is the only authorized concise guide for Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised and is intended as an introductory book for those unfamiliar with parliamentary procedure. The authors claim, "In only twenty minutes, the average reader can learn the bare essentials, and with about an hour's reading can cover all the basics." It is meant to be an introductory supplement to the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised and is not suitable for adoption as a parliamentary authority in itself.
Since the copyrights for several of the original editions (1915 or earlier) have expired, numerous other books and manuals have been published incorporating "Robert's Rules of Order" as part of their titles, some of them based on those earlier editions (see List of books with Robert's Rules in the title).
The existence of multiple editions and other variations all published as "Robert's Rules of Order" can sometimes cause confusion, as the various publications may differ in some details. If an organization has adopted "Robert's Rules of Order", the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised is automatically its reference authority unless another version was adopted explicitly. Note that the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised is the only current official version of the body of work that is "the most widely used reference for meeting procedure and business rules in the English-speaking world."
Explanation of purpose of book
Generally, Robert's Rules of Order is a guide for conducting meetings and making decisions as a group. The purpose of the book is "to enable assemblies of any size, with due regard for every member's opinion, to arrive at the general will on the maximum number of questions of varying complexity in a minimum amount of time and under all kinds of internal climate ranging from total harmony to hardened or impassioned division of opinion."
The book is designed for use in ordinary societies rather than legislative assemblies, and it is the most commonly adopted parliamentary authority among societies in the United States. The book claims to be a "codification of the present-day general parliamentary law (omitting provisions having no application outside legislative bodies)". This statement does not imply any approbation on the part of the courts, and the "general parliamentary law" is related neither to statutory legal requirements nor to common-law precedent derived from court judgments. In other words, the book is about meeting procedure and not about what is "legal" (i.e. it is not a lawbook).
As a reference, it is designed to answer, as nearly as possible, any question of parliamentary procedure that may arise. The Eleventh Edition contains 669 pages of text, and all of its original content was included because it "has at some time come up as a question of procedure somewhere".
If an assembly or society has adopted a book of rules for conducting its meetings, it is still free to adopt its own rules which supersede any rules in the adopted book with which they conflict. The only limitations might come from the rules in a parent organization or from national, state, or local law. Otherwise, the rules in the book are binding on the society.
If an assembly has not formally adopted a particular manual as its parliamentary authority, the provisions of any manual can be cited as "persuasive" in such a situation.
Contents of current edition
The contents of the current Eleventh Edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR), published in 2011, include details on the types of groups that use the book, the ways that decisions could be made, and the various situations in which decisions are made.
The Introduction in the book provides a history of parliamentary procedure and includes the background and history of Robert's Rules of Order. Rules in the book are based on the rights of the majority, of the minority (especially a strong minority that is greater than one third), of individual members, of absentees, and of all these together. Some fundamental principles upon which the book is based include: one question at a time; one person, one vote; and a vote being limited to members present.
A group that uses the book is called a deliberative assembly. The types of deliberative assemblies are a mass meeting, a local assembly of an organized society (local club or local branch), a convention, a legislative body, and a board. An organization may have rules which could include a corporate charter, a constitution and/or bylaws, rules of order (special rules of order and parliamentary authority), standing rules, and customs. To conduct business, groups have meetings and/or sessions that may be separated by more than or be within a quarterly time interval. The types of meetings are a regular meeting, a special meeting, an adjourned meeting, an annual meeting, an executive session, a public session, and electronic meetings.
A member of a deliberative assembly has the right to attend meetings, make motions, speak in debate, and vote. The process of making a decision is done through a motion, which is a proposal to do something. The formal steps in handling a motion are the making of a motion, having a second, stating the motion, having debate on the motion, putting the motion to a vote, and announcing the results of the vote. Action could be taken informally without going through these steps by using unanimous consent. When making a choice, the basic principle of decision is majority vote. In situations when more than majority vote is required, the requirement could include a two-thirds vote, previous notice, or a vote of a majority of the entire membership.
- Subsidiary Motions - Postpone Indefinitely, Amend, Commit or Refer, Postpone to a Certain Time, Limit or Extend Limits of Debate, Previous Question, and Lay on the Table
- Privileged Motions - Call for the Orders of the Day, Raise a Question of Privilege, Recess, Adjourn, and Fix the Time to Which to Adjourn
- Incidental Motions - Point of Order, Appeal, Suspend the Rules, Objection to the Consideration of a Question, Division of a Question, Consideration by Paragraph or Seriatim, Motions Relating to Methods of Voting and the Polls, Motions Relating to Nominations, Request to Be Excused from a Duty, and Requests and Inquiries (Parliamentary Inquiry, Request for Information, Request for Permission (or Leave) to Withdraw or Modify a Motion, Request to Read Papers, and Request for Any Other Privilege)
- Motions That Bring A Question Again Before An Assembly - Take from the Table, Rescind/Amend Something Previously Adopted, Discharge a Committee, and Reconsider
Details for each motion include its purpose, when it could be made, if it is debatable, if it is amendable, the vote required for adoption, and if it could be reconsidered. The "order of precedence", or rank, of the motions is also described in detail.
The second half of the book covers various topics in detail. Brief summaries of these topics are as follows:
A quorum, or minimum number of members, is required to be present at a meeting in order to validly conduct business. The business that is to come up in a meeting could be listed in an order of business or an agenda.
Each member could get a chance to speak through assignment of the floor and debate. Debate may be limited in the number of speeches and time and should be respectful to others at all times. Voting takes place to decide the course of action and it could be done in a multitude of ways, such as voice vote, standing vote, and ballot vote.
Officers in an organization could be elected through the process of nominations and elections. Each organization decides for itself which officers to have, but the minimum officers in a deliberative assembly are a presiding officer (usually "president") and a secretary. The secretary keeps the minutes, or the official records of the proceedings, for each meeting. The officers may have reports to give, such as a treasurer's report. In addition, an organization may have a board to handle business on behalf of the organization. Officers and boards only have such authority and powers that are given to them in the governing documents of the organization. There may also be committees that are formed to assist the organization. The boards and committees may have reports to give as well.
Sometimes people gather in mass meetings for a specific purpose or cause. The mass meetings could be for the purpose of organizing a permanent society.
Each organization has its basic rules contained in its bylaws. The bylaws could describe the name of the organization and its purpose, the requirements to be a member or an officer, how meetings are scheduled, if there are boards and/or committees, its parliamentary authority, and how to amend the bylaws.
Sometimes, representatives from constituent groups gather as delegates in conventions to conduct business on behalf of the organization. Conventions may consist of several meetings and may last for several days or more on an annual basis or other such infrequent interval.
If members do not act according to the organization's rules, they could be subject to disciplinary procedures. Such action could range from censure to the extreme of expulsion from the organization. Officers could be disciplined by removal from office.
Charts, tables, and lists
The tinted pages (pages marked by a gray band along the outer edge) in the rear of the book contain the following charts, tables, and lists: (1) Chart for Determining When Each Subsidiary or Privileged Motion Is In Order, (2) Table of Rules Relating to Motions, (3) Sample Forms Used in Making Motions, (4) and (5) Motions and Parliamentary Steps, (6) Motions Which Require a Two-Thirds Vote, (7) Motions Whose Reconsideration Is Prohibited Or Limited, and (8) Table of Rules for Counting Election Ballots.
In addition to containing a summary of basic points from Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR), the following contents are unique to the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (RONRIB): an example of an agenda, additional sample dialogues, frequently asked questions, an example of a call of a meeting, an example of a memorandum listing the order of business, and the following tables: (A) Handling Motions as Chair, (B) When Chair Stands and Sits, (C) Conducting a Meeting as Chair, (D) Table of Rules Relating to Motions, and (E) Words to Use as a Member.
The Robert's Rules Association has also made the Eleventh Edition available in CD-ROM format through American Legal Publishing. The CD contains the current editions of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised and Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief as well as a Timekeeper’s Guide, Teller’s Report, Sample Rules for Electronic Meetings, various Forms, and resources for Ballot Voting and Understanding Secondary Amendments. It should be noted that the CD is designed for installation on Windows PCs.
An e-book version of the current Eleventh Edition has not been released by the Robert's Rules Association. Thus, any copy of Robert's Rules of Order that is downloaded online is likely an older edition (1915 or earlier) that is available in the public domain.
Translations of any edition of Robert's Rules of Order into other languages have not been published by the Robert's Rules Association. Thus, any translated copy of Robert's Rules of Order done by a third party may not accurately reflect the correct meaning in the target language.
Changes between editions
The following table lists some of the changes that were made between the editions of Robert's Rules of Order. Note that the numbered pages may not correspond to the total number of pages in the edition due to additional material in the preface, introduction, and other miscellaneous pages that were not included in the numbering system.
|Edition (Year)||Numbered Pages||Partial list of changes from previous edition|
|1st (1876)||176||Original edition|
|4th (1915)||323||"Completely reworked and 75 percent enlarged by original author"
|7th (1970)||594||"Enlarged more than twofold and totally recast to be made self-explanatory"
|11th (2011)||716||"Significantly re-edited with expanded and updated treatment of many topics"
Generally, a fuller list and more details of the changes are found in the preface of each edition. A detailed list of changes for the current 11th edition is provided on the website maintained by the Robert's Rules Association. All the changes were a result of questions and comments received from users.
Explanations of rules in book
Starting in the period between the Tenth Edition and the Eleventh Edition, the authors released official interpretations of rules in the book on the website maintained by the Robert's Rules Association. The interpretations from that period were later incorporated into the Eleventh Edition.
In addition, the authors addressed common misunderstandings of the rules coming from frequently asked questions. Some of the misunderstandings involve: when the president can vote, if ex-officio members can vote, the definition of majority, how abstentions affect the vote, a "friendly amendment", "calling the question", "tabling" a motion, getting items on the agenda, and the contents of minutes. It should be noted that these misunderstandings are of the rules in the current edition of Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised. The organization may be governed by other rules which supersede these "default" rules.
The official interpretations and addressed common misunderstandings were a result of questions posted in the Question & Answer Forum at the Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. This forum is actively moderated by members of the authorship team.
Application to specific organizations
In those cases in which the bylaws or other governing documents of an organization refer to "Robert's Rules of Order," certain rules in the book may be subordinate to other specified rules, including any conflicting provisions in applicable law, the corporate charter, the constitution and/or bylaws, and special rules of order.
Types of organizations
In the Question & Answer Forum on the website maintained by the Robert's Rules Association, members of the following types of organizations have posted questions regarding how the rules in the book apply to their specific organization: alumni associations, charitable organizations, church groups, city councils, community organizations, condominium associations, cooperatives, county commissions, cultural groups, dog clubs, educational groups, family reunions, fraternal organizations, gaming clubs, golf & country clubs, hobby groups, homeowner associations, horse clubs, nonprofit associations, political organizations, professional societies, quilt clubs, school boards, school groups, scientific organizations, service organizations, sports leagues, student governments, teacher associations, unions, village boards, volunteer fire departments, and yacht clubs.
Generally, Robert's Rules of Order is designed for "ordinary societies". However, law-making bodies at the local level (such as a city council or a county commission) function similarly to boards of societies. Thus, the book has found application to such bodies. It should be noted that such bodies are also subject to open meeting laws (Sunshine laws) which supersede any conflicting provisions in the book.
On the other hand, legislative bodies at the state or national level have their own well-defined set of rules (such as Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure). However, a survey found that four state legislative chambers in the United States still use Robert's Rules of Order.
Model United Nations
Robert's Rules of Order are used in Model United Nations conferences. While the chair of each committee in an MUN conference may sometimes deviate from the written rules for educational purposes, the format of the specific committees is mostly based on "Robert's Rules of Order". Special committees, like the Security Council, for example, have specific guidelines on procedure. There are many MUN conferences across the world, mainly run by independent college students like the National Model United Nations. The procedures in each conference vary.
Robert's Rules of Order is based on each member of a group having "equal weight as expressed by vote". With that in consideration, it has found application in the corporate world. It was less useful when individuals within the group have more power than others (see Parliamentary procedure in the corporate world).
A parliamentarian is an expert on parliamentary procedure. To be effective consultants for the organizations they work for, parliamentarians are expected to be knowledgeable on Robert's Rules of Order.
The National Association of Parliamentarians (NAP) is the largest non-profit association of parliamentarians in the world. This organization "bases its opinions and instruction upon Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised" (RONR). Membership in this organization requires passing an exam "which is based on chapters 1-11 of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (2nd edition)" (RONRIB).
The American Institute of Parliamentarians is another non-profit association of parliamentarians. This organization stresses proficiency and familiarity with a variety of parliamentary authorities, although it recognizes that "Robert's Rules of Order is the most frequently used parliamentary authority". They also recognize that it "is the premier manual on parliamentary authority" and "a “must-have” text for every parliamentarian".
Youth organizations, such as Business Professionals of America (BPA), Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda (FBLA-PBL), HOSA-Future Health Professionals, the National FFA Organization, and SkillsUSA, sponsor parliamentary procedure competitions as part of their programs for their student members. These competitions are based on Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised. The National Association of Parliamentarians have partnered with some of these organizations.
- Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-82021-2 (hardcover), ISBN 978-0-306-82020-5 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-306-82022-9 (leatherbound)
- Robert III, Henry M. (2011). "The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site (Home)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association.
- "Historical Vignette 038 - An Army Engineer Brought Order to Church Meetings". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Office of History. November 2001. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
- Trout, Stran. "Pictures of Robert's Rules of Order". Retrieved 2015-11-28.
First Edition 1876 (Note the diamond shape on the cover)
- Trout, Stran. "Robert's Rules of Order Printings". Retrieved 2015-11-19.
- Ockerbloom, John Mark. "The Online Books Page, Online Books by Henry M. Robert". University of Pennsylvania Libraries. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
- Kloss, Gerald (December 5, 1955). "The Man Who Wrote the Rule Book". Google News Archive Search. The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
- Robert, Henry M. (1921). Parliamentary Practice: An Introduction to Parliamentary Law. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company. p. x.
- Robert, Henry M. (1923). Parliamentary Law. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company. p. v.
- "Madam, Are You Out of Order?". Google News Archive Search. The Free Lance-Star (via the AP). September 6, 1957. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
- Dennis, Landt (July 5, 1970). "Is 'Robert's Rules' Passe?". Google News Archive Search. Toledo Blade (reprinted by permission from the Christian Science Monitor). Retrieved 2015-11-25.
- "Speech (by Henry M. Robert III)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "National Association of Parliamentarians >> Convention Minutes (38th Biennial Convention Minutes September 2011)". Retrieved 2015-11-28. Announcement by Henry M. Robert, III, at the 2011 convention of the National Association of Parliamentarians®.
- Robert 2011, p. vii
- Donadio, Rachel (May 20, 2007). "Point of Order". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
- "About the Authors of RONR". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "A Short History of Robert's Rules". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Robert's Rules In Brief". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Robert 2011, p. xxiv
- "Get The Right Book". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Robert 2011, p. vii
- "National Association of Parliamentarians >> FAQ". Retrieved 2014-03-08.
- Robert 2011, p. lii
- Slaughter, Jim. "Parliamentary Procedure in the 21st Century (Updated from "Parliamentary Procedure in 2005" in the 2005 The Toastmaster Magazine)". Retrieved 2015-11-28.
RONR is used by approximately 85% of all organizations in the United States.
- Sylvester, Nancy. "The New Version of Robert's and Why You Should Care". Retrieved 2015-11-28.
Since approximately 95% of the organizations in the U.S. prescribe Robert’s as their parliamentary authority, the 11th edition is most likely the parliamentary authority for all organizations you are involved in.
- Robert 2011, p. xxix
- "How to Adopt Robert's Rules of Order". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Robert 2011, p. 17: "Although it is unwise for an assembly or a society to attempt to function without formally adopted rules of order, a recognized parliamentary manual may be cited under such conditions as persuasive."
- Robert 2011, p. li
- Robert 2011, p. 263
- Robert III, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. p. vii. ISBN 978-0-306-82019-9.
- "The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site (Home)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Changes in the Eleventh Edition". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Official Interpretations by the Authors of RONR". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- "RONR Question & Answer Forum: Introduction". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. Retrieved 2015-11-28.
- Robert 2011, p. 8
- "Mason's Manual for Legislative Bodies". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 2015-09-17.
- Robert 2011, p. 2
- Bierbaum, Gene, PhD (2010). The Parliamentarian of Tomorrow. Xlibris Corporation. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4535-4792-2.
- "National Association of Parliamentarians >> Parliamentary Basics". Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- "National Association of Parliamentarians >> How to Apply". Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- "Become a Parliamentarian - American Institute of Parliamentarians". Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- "Recommended Reading - American Institute of Parliamentarians". Retrieved 2015-11-12.
- "National Association of Parliamentarians >> Youth Partnerships". Retrieved 2015-11-30.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The Official Robert's Rules Of Order Web Site (robertsrules.com) Site maintained by the Robert's Rules Association
Preview (limited pages) of current editions
- Preview Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) (11th ed.) (2011) through Google Books
- Preview Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (RONRIB) (2nd ed.) (2011) through Google Books
Sites providing full text of older editions (from public domain)
Note that the following sites are not maintained by the Robert's Rules Association and have no relation to the Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site:
- robertsrules.org Full text of 1915 (4th) ed. (ROR) - This site is not related to the official site despite a similar domain name.
- constitution.org Full text of 1915 (4th) ed. (ROR)
- rulesonline.com Full text of 1915 (4th) ed. (ROR)
- bartleby.com Full text of 1915 (4th) ed. (ROR)
- Project Gutenberg Full text of 1876 (1st) ed. (original edition)