Robert Aitken (publisher)
|Born||22 January 1735 |
|Died||15 July 1802 (aged 67)|
|Occupation||Printer, bookseller, publisher|
He emigrated to Philadelphia in 1769, where he published the Pennsylvania Magazine, or American Monthly Museum in 1775–76.
Starting in Philadelphia as a bookseller in 1769 and 1771, Aitken started publication of The Pennsylvania Magazine in 1775, continuing through 1776. He also printed the first copies of the New Testament to appear in the colonies, beginning in 1777, on through to 1781. He died in Philadelphia in 1802.
Aitken Bible of 1782
The Aitken Bible of 1782 was reviewed, approved and authorized by the Congress of the Confederation. The Bible was reviewed first for accuracy by the Congressional Chaplains White and Duffield and they reported on its accuracy. Then the Journals of Congress for September 1782 records on page 469, "Resolved. That the United States in Congress assembled highly approve the pious and laudable undertaking of Mr. Aitkin, as subservient to the interest of religion as well as an influence of the progress of arts in this country and being satisfied from the above report (by the congressional chaplains), they recommend this edition of the bible to the inhabitants of the United States and hereby authorize him to publish this recommendation." (Spelling has been modernized).
In 1781 Aitken undertook to print the first complete English Bible produced in America and sought the official sanction of Congress for his edition. Congress passed a resolution officially authorizing the edition in September 1782. Known as the “Aitken Bible,” this was the first and only edition of the Bible ever authorized by Congress. As Aitken reported to George Washington, the venture was a financial failure.
Background and the need for an American printed Bible
The war with Britain had cut off the supply of Bibles, and, on September 11, 1777, the Continental Congress reviewed a committee report, informing them that a locally produced Bible may not be a viable option, due to the risk and cost of procuring the materials necessary. The committee noted, "...the use of the Bible is so universal, and its importance so great, that the committee refer the above to the consideration of Congress, and if Congress shall not think it expedient to order the importation of types and paper, your committee recommend that Congress will order the Committee of Commerce to import 20,000 Bibles from Holland, Scotland, or elsewhere, into the different ports of the states in the Union." Congress favored the idea of importing 20,000 Bibles, in order to address the short supply. Library of Congress 
On Thursday, September 12, 1782, Congress reviewed a report dated September 1, 1782, from their Congressional committee, and signed by the committee Chairman, James Duane. The committee had been, "…referred a memorial of Robert Aitkin, dated January 21st, 1781, respecting an edition of the holy scriptures." This committee had, from time to time, checked on the progress of Aitken's work, and their report stated, "Our knowledge of your piety and public spirit leads us without apology to recommend to your particular attention the edition of the holy scriptures publishing by Mr. Aitkin." Library of Congress  Next Congress reviewed a report dated September 10, 1782, from the committee, and signed by the Chaplains of the United States in Congress assembled, William White and George Duffield. This report stated they had reviewed the printing and it was found to be, "…with as few grammatical and typographical errors as could be expected in an undertaking of such magnitude." Library of Congress  The outcome is listed as, "Resolved. That the United States in Congress assembled highly approve the pious and laudable undertaking of Mr. Aitkin, as subservient to the interest of religion as well as an influence of the progress of arts in this country and being satisfied from the above report (by the congressional chaplains), they recommend this edition of the bible to the inhabitants of the United States and hereby authorize him to publish this recommendation."
In 1783, after Aitken's Bible had begun to be distributed, Dr. John Rodgers of the First Presbyterian Church of New York suggested to General George Washington that every discharged soldier be given a copy of Aitken's Bible. Since the war was coming to a close and Congress had already ordered the discharge of two-thirds of the army, the suggestion came too late. However, Washington said, "It would have pleased me well, if Congress had been pleased to make such an important present to the brave fellows who have done so much for the security of their country's rights and establishment."  
- "Founders Online: To George Washington from Robert Aitken, 9 June 1790". founders.archives.gov. Retrieved 2019-10-28.
- Journals of Congress, pages 468-469. September 1782. Found at the Library of Congress at https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/vc006473.jpg
- Papers of the Continental Congress, No. 28, folio 203
- Journals of Congress, Thursday, September 12, 1782, page 468
- Journals of Congress, Thursday, September 12, 1782, page 469
- From George Washington to John Rodgers, 11 June 1783
- Thomas, Isaiah (1874). The history of printing in America, with a biography of printers. Vol. I. New York, B. Franklin.
- Parkinson, Robert G. (2021). "Print, the Press, and the American Revolution". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.013.9. ISBN 978-0-19-932917-5. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
- Journals of Congress, September 1782, pages 468-469. (Library of Congress)
- Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1967.
- The Holy Bible as Printed by Robert Aitken and Approved & Recommended by the Congress of the United States of America in 1782. New York: Arno Press, 1968.
- Unknown, . United States. National Archives. From George Washington to John Rodgers, 11 June 1783. The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia, Web. <https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-11434>.