|Sir Robert Calder, Bt|
Portrait of Robert Calder by Lemuel Francis Abbott, painted 1797
13 July 1745|
31 August 1818 (aged 73)|
Holt, near Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire, England
|Years of service||1759 to 1818|
|Rank||Admiral of the White|
|Commands held||Plymouth Command|
Seven Years' War|
American Revolutionary War
French Revolutionary Wars
• Battle of Cape St Vincent
• Battle of Cape Finisterre
War of the Third Coalition
|Awards||Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath|
Admiral Sir Robert Calder, 1st Baronet, KCB (13 July [O.S. 2 July] 1745 – 31 August 1818) was a British naval officer who served in the Seven Years' War, the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Robert Calder was born in Kent, England, to Sir James Calder and Alice Hughes, daughter of Admiral Robert Hughes.[Note 1] His father was the 3rd Baronet Calder of Muirton, who had been appointed Gentleman Usher of the Privy chamber to the queen by Lord Bute in 1761. His elder brother, who succeeded to his father's baronetcy, was Major General Sir Henry Calder. Calder was educated in Maidstone, before joining the Royal Navy in December 1758 at the age of thirteen.
Calder initially served aboard his cousin's ship, the 70-gun Nassau, in the American theatre of the Seven Years' War. En route to England, in September 1759, Nassau was dismasted in storm and arrived at her destination with nine foot of water in her hold.
As a midshipman, Calder received £1,800 in prize money for his part in the capture of the Spanish treasure ship Hermione on 21 May 1762, and was subsequently promoted to lieutenant. At that rank, he served aboard HMS Essex, under Captain the Hon. George Faulkner, in the Caribbean. In 1780 he attained the rank of post-captain. He commanded the frigate HMS Diana under Admiral Richard Kempenfelt, and acquitted himself honourably in the various services to which he was called, but for a long time had no opportunity of distinguishing himself.
In 1796, he was appointed Captain of the Fleet to Admiral John Jervis, and saw action at the Battle of Cape St Vincent on 14 February 1797. After the battle, he was selected to carry the dispatches announcing the victory back to Britain, and was knighted by George III on 3 March 1797 for his services. He also received the thanks of Parliament, and was created 1st Baronet Calder of Southwick on 22 August 1798.
In 1799, he was promoted to rear-admiral; and in 1804, now a Vice-Admiral, was despatched with a small squadron in pursuit of a French force under Admiral Ganteaume, conveying supplies to the French in Egypt. In this he was unsuccessful, and returning home at the peace he struck his flag.
In the War of the Third Coalition (1805–1806), he was in command of the squadrons blockading the ports of Rochefort and Ferrol, in which (amongst others) ships were being prepared for the invasion of England by Napoleon I. Calder held his position with a force greatly inferior to that of the enemy, and refused to be enticed out to sea.
On its becoming known that Napoleon intended to break the blockade of Ferrol as a prelude to his invasion, the Admiralty ordered Rear-Admiral Charles Stirling to join Calder and intercept the Franco-Spanish fleet on their passage to Brest. The approach of the enemy was concealed by fog. Finally, on 22 July 1805, the fleets came into sight. The allies outnumbered the British, but Calder ordered his fleet into action. In the ensuing Battle of Cape Finisterre, fifteen British ships engaged twenty French and Spanish ships and captured two. The British losses were 39 officers and men killed and 159 wounded; the allies lost 158 dead and 320 wounded. After four hours, as night fell, Calder gave orders to discontinue the action. Over the following two days, the fleets remained close to one another, but did not re-engage. Calder focused on protecting his newly won prizes, while the French Admiral Villeneuve declined to force another engagement. Villeneuve left on 24 July, sailing to Ferrol, and eventually Cádiz, instead of resuming his course to Brest. Villeneuve had failed in all his objectives: he had landed no troops in Ireland, and the plan of linking with the fleet at Brest, driving off the British Channel squadrons, and supporting Napoleon's invasion of Britain came to nothing: the Armée d'Angleterre waited uselessly at Boulogne as before. In the judgment of Napoleon, his scheme of invasion was baffled by this day's action; but much indignation was felt in England at the failure of Calder to win a complete victory.
In consequence of the strong feeling against him, Calder demanded a court-martial. Nelson was ordered to send Calder home, and allowed him to return in his own 98-gun ship, the Prince of Wales, even though battle was imminent. Calder left in early October 1805, missing the Battle of Trafalgar. The court-martial was held on 23 December 1805, being judged by, among others Rear Admiral James Bisset. The trial resulted in an acquittal on the charges of cowardice and disaffection. However, Calder received a severe reprimand for not having done his utmost to renew the engagement, and never served at sea again.
In the natural course of events, he was promoted admiral on 31 July 1810 and created a Knight Commander, Order of the Bath on 2 January 1815. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth in 1810. He died at Holt, near Bishop's Waltham, in Hampshire, in 1818.
In 1779 he married Amelia Michell; they had no children.
- The 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica states that Calder was born in Elgin, Scotland but other sources, such as the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography and Nicholas Tracy's 2006 book, "Who's Who in Nelson's Navy", agree that his parents re-located to Kent, England and that he was born there.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Calder, Sir Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Laughton, J. K.; Lambert, Andrew. "Calder, Sir Robert, baronet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4370. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Tracy p.68
- "No. 15047". The London Gazette. 4 August 1798. p. 733.
- "Trial of Vice-Admiral Robert Calder", The Naval Chronicle 1806, p. 79.
- Marshall, John (1823). " Bissett, James". Royal Naval Biography. Wikisource.
- William James, Naval History of Great Britain, 1793–1827.
- George Edward Cokayne, editor, The Complete Baronetage (1900).
- Tracy, Nicholas (2006). Who's Who in Nelson's Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 1-86176-244-5.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Calder, Sir Robert". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Laughton, John Knox (1886). "Calder, Robert (1745-1818)". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 8. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
Sir William Young
| Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth
Sir William Domett
|Baronetage of Great Britain|