Robert Donat

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Robert Donat
GoodbyeMrChipsTrailer1.jpg
Donat from a trailer for Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939)
BornFriedrich Robert Donat
(1905-03-18)18 March 1905
Withington, England
Died9 June 1958(1958-06-09) (aged 53)
London, England
Resting placeEast Finchley Cemetery
OccupationActor
Years active1921–1958
Spouse(s)
Ella Annesley
(m. 1929; div. 1946)

Renée Asherson
(m. 1953; died 1958)
Children3
RelativesPeter Donat and Richard Donat (nephews)

Friedrich Robert Donat (18 March 1905 – 9 June 1958) was an English film and stage actor.[1] He is best remembered for his roles in Alfred Hitchcock's The 39 Steps (1935) and Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939), winning for the latter the Academy Award for Best Actor.

In his book, The Age of the Dream Palace, Jeffrey Richards wrote that Donat was "The British cinema's one undisputed romantic leading man in the 1930s".[2] "The image he projected was that of the romantic idealist, often with a dash of the gentleman adventurer."[3]

Donat suffered from chronic asthma, which affected his career and limited him to appearing in only 20 films.[4]

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Donat was born in Withington, Manchester, the fourth and youngest son of Ernst Emil Donat, a civil engineer of German origin from Prussian Poland, and his wife, Rose Alice Green.[5] He was of English, Polish, German and French descent and was educated at Manchester's Central High School for Boys.

He took elocution lessons with James Bernard. He left school at 15, working as Bernard's secretary to fund his continued lessons. Donat also took part in dramatic recitals at various venues across the North West of England.

Early stage appearances[edit]

Donat made his first stage appearance in 1921 at age 16 with Henry Baynton's company at the Prince of Wales Theatre, Birmingham, playing Lucius in Julius Caesar. His break came in 1924 when he joined the company of Shakespearean actor Sir Frank Benson, where he stayed for four years.[6] He also worked in provincial repertory theatre.

In 1928 he began a year at the Liverpool Playhouse, starring in plays by Galsworthy, Shaw and Brighouse, among others. [7] In 1929 he played at the Festival Theatre in Cambridge under the direction of Tyrone Guthrie. He appeared in a number of plays, some with Flora Robson, and also directed.[7]

Donat married Ella Annesley Voysey (1903–1994) in 1929; the couple had three children together, but divorced in 1946.

London[edit]

In 1930 Donat moved to London, where he eventually made his debut in Knave and Quean at the Ambassadors Theatre. [8] He received acclaim for a performance in a revival of St Joan.[9]

In 1931 he achieved notice as Gideon Sarn in an adaptation of Precious Bane. He played roles at the 1931 Malvern Festival.[10]

Around 1930 and 1931, he was known as "screen test" Donat in the industry because of his many unsuccessful auditions for film producers.[11] MGM's producer Irving Thalberg spotted him on the London stage in Precious Bane, and Donat was offered a part in the American studio's Smilin' Through (1932). He rejected this offer.[3][12]

Alexander Korda[edit]

Donat made his film debut in a quota quickie Men of Tomorrow (1932) for Alexander Korda's London Films. An abysmal screen test for Korda had ended with Donat's laughter.[13] Reputedly, Korda in response exclaimed: "That's the most natural laugh I have ever heard in my life. What acting! Put him under contract immediately."[11]

Korda cast Donat in the lead in That Night in London (1932), directed by Rowald V. Lee. He had a key role in Cash (1933), directed by Zoltan Korda, co starring Edmund Gwenn.

The Private Life of Henry VIII[edit]

Donat's first great screen success came in his fourth film. This was as Thomas Culpeper in The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933) for the same producer.[14] The film, starring Charles Laughton in the title role, was an enormous success around the world, including Hollywood. Donat started receiving Hollywood offers.

At the 1933 Malvern Festival Donat received good reviews for his performance in A Sleeping Clergyman, which transferred to the West End. He was also in St Joan.[15]

The Count of Monte Cristo[edit]

Robert Donat and Elissa Landi in The Count of Monte Cristo (1934)

Korda loaned Donat to Edward Small for the only film Donat made in Hollywood, The Count of Monte Cristo (1934).[16] (In exchange Leslie Howard was sent to Korda to make The Scarlet Pimpernel.)[17]

The film was successful and Donat was offered the lead role in a number of films for Warners, including Anthony Adverse (1935) and another swashbuckler, Captain Blood (1935). However Donat did not like America and returned to Britain.[18][19]

He played on stage in Mary Read opposite Flora Robson.[20]

The 39 Steps[edit]

Poster for The 39 Steps (1935)

In England, Donat had the star role in Alfred Hitchcock's The 39 Steps (1935) opposite Madeleine Carroll.[18] His performance was well-received: "Mr. Donat, who has never been very well served in the cinema until now, suddenly blossoms out into a romantic comedian of no mean order", wrote the film critic C. A. Lejeune in The Observer at the time of the film's release. Lejeune observed that he possessed "an easy confident humour that has always been regarded as the perquisite of the American male star. For the first time on our screen we have the British equivalent of a Clark Gable or a Ronald Colman, playing in a purely national idiom. Mr. Donat, himself, I fancy, is hardly conscious of it, which is all to the good."[21]

Hitchcock wanted Donat for the role of the agent in Secret Agent (1936) and Detective in Sabotage (1936), but this time Korda refused to release him. John Loder played the role.[22] MGM wanted him for Romeo and Juliet but he turned them down. Sam Goldwyn made several offers which were turned down, as was an offer from David O. Selznick to appear in The Garden of Allah and Small to make The Son of Monte Cristo.[23]

The Ghost Goes West and Knight Without Armour[edit]

Donat's next film was for Korda, The Ghost Goes West (1935), a comedy directed by Rene Clair.

In 1936 Donat took on the management of the Queen's Theatre in Shaftesbury Avenue where he produced Red Night by J. L. Hodson.[5][7][24]

Korda wanted Donat to make Hamlet.[25] Instead the actor appeared in Korda's Knight Without Armour (1937). Korda became committed to the latter project because of Donat's indecision. Madeleine Carroll had read the James Hilton novel while shooting The 39 Steps, and had persuaded Donat that it could be a good second film for them to star in together. Donat acquired the rights and passed them on to Korda, although by now Carroll was unavailable.[26] His eventual co-star, Marlene Dietrich, was the source of much attention when she arrived in Britain, in which Donat was involved, and this was enough for him to suffer a nervous collapse a few days into the shooting schedule. Donat entered a nursing home.[26] The production delay caused by Donat's asthma led to talk of replacing him. Dietrich, contracted by Korda for $450,000, threatened to leave the project if this happened, and production was halted for two months, until Donat was able to return to work.[27]

He was going to return to the US in 1937 to make Clementine for Small at RKO but changed his mind, fearing legal reprisals from Warners.[28]

MGM British - The Citadel and Goodbye Mr Chips[edit]

Promotional photograph of Greer Garson and Robert Donat in Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939)

In 1938, Donat signed a contract with MGM British for £150,000 with a commitment to making six films.[29][30]

In The Citadel (1938), he played Andrew Manson, a newly qualified Scottish doctor, a role for which he received his first Best Actor Oscar nomination.

He played in Shaw's The Devil's Disciple (1938) on stage at the Piccadilly Theatre in London and the Old Vic.

Donat is best remembered for his role as the school master in Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939). Australian film critic Brian McFarlane writes: "Class-ridden and sentimental perhaps, it remains extraordinarily touching in his Oscar-winning performance, and it ushers in the Donat of the postwar years."[31] His rivals for the Best Actor Award were Clark Gable for Gone with the Wind, Laurence Olivier for Wuthering Heights, James Stewart for Mr. Smith Goes to Washington and Mickey Rooney for Babes in Arms.

World War Two[edit]

MGM wanted Donat to star in a movie about Beau Brummell and a new versio of Pride and Prejudice but the war delayed this.[32]

In the early days of World War Two, Donat focused on stage. He played three roles at the 1939 Buxton Festival, including a part in The Good Natured Man.

He had the title role in The Young Mr. Pitt (1942) for 20th Century Fox and played Captain Shotover in a new staging of Heartbreak House a the Cambridge Theatre in London from 1942–43. For MGM British he starred in The Adventures of Tartu (1943), with Valerie Hobson. Donat wanted to play the Chorus in Olivier's Henry V, but the role went to Leslie Banks.

In 1943 he took over the lease of the Westminster Theatre, staging a number of plays there until 1945, including An Ideal Husband (1943–44), The Glass Slipper (1944) and The Cure for Love (1945) by Walter Greenwood. With the latter, which he directed, he began his professional association with Renée Asherson, later his second wife.[33] [34]

Donate was reunited with Korda for Perfect Strangers (1945) with Deborah Kerr, the last film he did for MGM British.

Post-War career[edit]

In 1946 Donat and Ahserson appeared at the Aldwych Theatre in a production of Much Ado About Nothing, directed by Donat. He also directed The Man Behind the Statue by Peter Ustinov. Both lost money.

Donat had a cameo as Charles Parnell in Captain Boycott (1947) with Stewart Granger. He appeared on stage in a revival of A Sleeping Clergyman in 1947.

He longed desperately to be cast against type as Bill Sikes in David Lean's Oliver Twist (1948), but Lean thought him wrong for the part and cast Robert Newton instead. Donat played the title role in The Winslow Boy (1948), a popular adaptation of the Terence Rattigan play.

The Cure for Love[edit]

Donat and Asherson reprised their stage roles in the film version of The Cure for Love (1949). His only film as director, its production was affected by his ill health.[33][35] The film's soundtrack had to be re-recorded after shooting was completed because Donat's asthma had severely affected his voice.[36] Modestly received by a reviewer in The Monthly Film Bulletin, and described as "pedestrian" by Philip French in 2009, it was a hit in the North. In this film, Donat used his natural Mancunian accent, which his early elocution lessons had attempted to completely suppress.[37][38]

Donat appeared on radio. In 1949 he did a performance of Justify by Galsworthy on Theatre Guild on the Air]] for America.[39]

In 1950 he moved to Cyprus to help with his asthma.

Donat and Asherson also appeared in The Magic Box (1951), where Donat played William Friese-Greene. However his astham was effecting his ability to perform.[40]

Donat married Asherson, his second wife, in 1953. They later separated, but might have reconciled.[35][41]

He was cast as Thomas Becket in T. S. Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral in Robert Helpmann's production at The Old Vic rheatre in 1952, but although his return to stage was well received, his illness forced him to withdraw during the run.[36] The same reason also caused him to drop out of the film Hobson's Choice (1954). Scheduled to play Willy Mossop, he was replaced by John Mills.[42] Author David Shipman speculates that Donat's asthma may have been psychosomatic: "His tragedy was that the promise of his early years was never fulfilled and that he was haunted by agonies of doubt and disappointment (which probably were the cause of his chronic asthma)."[43] David Thomson also suggested this explanation,[44] and Donat himself thought that his illness had a 90% basis in his psychology.[2] In a 1980 interview with Barry Norman, his first wife Ella Annesley Voysey (by then known as Ella Hall),[45] said that Donat's asthma was a psychosomatic response to the birth of their daughter. According to her: "Robert was full of fear."[46]

Final films[edit]

Lease of Life (1954), made by Ealing Studios, was his penultimate film in which Donat plays a Vicar who discovers that he has a terminal illness.[36][47]

Donat's final role was the mandarin Yang Cheng in The Inn of the Sixth Happiness (1958). His last spoken words in this film, an emotional soliloquy in which he confesses his conversion reducing Ingrid Bergman as the missionary to tears, were the prophetic, "We shall not see each other again, I think. Farewell." He had collapsed with a stroke during filming but managed to recover to complete the film.[48]

Several months after his death, Donat was nominated for his first Golden Globe and received a National Board of Review Special Citation for his performance.

Death and legacy[edit]

Donat died in London on 9 June 1958 at age 53. Regarding Donat's death, biographer Kenneth Barrow wrote the actor had "... a brain tumour the size of a duck egg and cerebral thrombosis was certified as the primary cause of death."[49] He left an estate worth £25,236.[50]

Donat has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for motion pictures at 6420 Hollywood Blvd. A blue plaque commemorates Donat at 8 Meadway in Hampstead Garden Suburb.[51] His place of birth at 42 Everett Road in Withington is also commemorated by a similar plaque.[52] Donat's son, John Donat, (1933–2004), was an architectural photographer,[53] and actors Peter Donat and Richard Donat are his nephews.

Filmography[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1932 Men of Tomorrow Julian Angell
1932 That Night in London Dick Warren
1933 Cash Paul Martin
1933 The Private Life of Henry VIII Thomas Culpeper
1934 The Count of Monte Cristo Edmond Dantès, the eponymous Count
1935 The 39 Steps Richard Hannay
1936 The Ghost Goes West Murdoch Glourie/Donald Glourie
1937 Knight Without Armour A. J. Fothergill
1938 The Citadel Dr. Andrew Manson Nominated — Academy Award for Best Actor
1939 Goodbye, Mr. Chips Mr. Chips Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated — New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor (3rd place)
1942 The Young Mr. Pitt William Pitt / The Earl of Chatham
1943 The Adventures of Tartu Captain Terence Stevenson / Jan Tartu released in the United States as Sabotage Agent
1943 The New Lot Actor uncredited
1945 Perfect Strangers Robert Wilson released in the United States as Vacation From Marriage
1947 Captain Boycott Charles Stewart Parnell
1948 The Winslow Boy Sir Robert Morton
1950 The Cure for Love Sergeant Jack Hardacre
1951 The Magic Box William Friese-Greene, "the forgotten inventor of movies"
1954 Lease of Life Rev. William Thorne Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
1958 The Inn of the Sixth Happiness The Mandarin of Yang Cheng National Board of Review Special Citation
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama
(both recognitions were posthumous)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Obituary Variety, 11 June 1958.
  2. ^ a b Jeffrey Richards The Age of the Dream Palace: Cinema and Society in 1930s Britain, London: I.B Tauris, 2010 [1984], p.225
  3. ^ a b Richards, p.226
  4. ^ "illness May Silence Donat's Golden Voice". The Sunday Herald. Sydney. 2 August 1953. p. 14. Retrieved 7 July 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  5. ^ a b Ivor Brown and K.D Reynolds "Donat, (Frederick) Robert", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004
  6. ^ [1] Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Donat Family Letters — University of Manchester Library
  7. ^ a b c "London's New Actormanager: Film and Stage Career Interview With Robert Donat". The Observer, Mar 1936: 10.
  8. ^ "Robert Donat". Southern Argus. LXXXIV, (4685). South Australia. 13 July 1938. p. 5. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  9. ^ ROBERT DONAT The Manchester Guardian (1901-1959); Manchester (UK) [Manchester (UK)]10 June 1958: 2.
  10. ^ "Robert Donat". The World's News (1983). New South Wales, Australia. 9 December 1939. p. 13. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  11. ^ a b "Mr. Donat Captures Hollywood", The Milwaukee Journal, 9 July 1939, p.26
  12. ^ Robert Donat Builds Portrayals On Memory of 'Little Things': Characterizations Reflect Wealth of Detail Provided by Photographic Memory of "Trifles;" New Films Augment Worthy Holdovers Builds Portrayals on Little Things By Nelson B. Bell.. The Washington Post 9 July 1939: A3.
  13. ^ Charles Drazin Korda: Britain's Movie Mogul, London: I.B. Tauris, 2011, p.90
  14. ^ "Notes on Films". The Sunday Herald. Sydney. 23 July 1950. p. 6 Supplement: Features. Retrieved 7 July 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
  15. ^ "DONAT IN "39 STEPS" OPENS AT THE LYRIC". The Tribune. XI, (242). International, Australia. 14 January 1936. p. 6. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  16. ^ Peter Hopkinson Screen of Change, London: UKA Press, 2008, p.84
  17. ^ Robert Donat Swapped To America by England The Washington Post (1923-1954); Washington, D.C. [Washington, D.C]16 Sep 1934: O2.
  18. ^ a b "The Count of Monte Cristo (1934)", TCM Film Article
  19. ^ "Warners Sign Robert Donat". The Tribune. X, (246). International, Australia. 13 January 1935. p. 26. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  20. ^ "Versatile Actor". Glen Innes Examiner. 16, (2084). New South Wales, Australia. 12 March 1940. p. 6. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  21. ^ Mark Glancy The 39 Steps, London & New York: I.B. Tauris, 2003, p.91
  22. ^ Alfred Hitchcock and François Truffaut Hitchcock, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985, p.109
  23. ^ ROBERT DONAT AND HIS FILM PLANS: HE WANTS TO STAY IN ENGLAND MANY HOLLYWOOD OFFERS AMBITION TO PLAY ROMEO OUR FILM CORRESPONDENT. The Observer 15 Sep 1935: 13.
  24. ^ "Robert Donat Remains in England". The West Australian. 54, (16, 143). Western Australia. 25 March 1938. p. 3. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  25. ^ SHAKESPEARE AND THE FILMS: THE NEW HAMLET ROBERT DONAT'S AIM PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OUR FILM CORRESPONDENT. The Observer 29 Mar 1936: 15.
  26. ^ a b Drazin, p.170-71
  27. ^ Charlotte Chandler Marlene: Marlene Dietrich, A Personal Biography, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011, p.120
  28. ^ NEWS OF THE SCREEN: Robert Donat Cancels Hollywood Visit--Kurt Weill to Compose Music for 'Loves of Jeanne Ney.' Of Local Origin Special to The New York Times. 20 Jan 1937: 19.
  29. ^ H. Mark Glancy When Hollywood Loved Britain: The Hollywood 'British' Film 1939–1945, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999, p.82
  30. ^ Joan Littlefield "Film Producers Have Learned How Brains Can Make Winners: Britain On The Screen", The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 8 June 1938, p.4
  31. ^ Brian McFarlane "Donat, Robert (1905–1958)", BFI screenonline reprinted from McFarlane (ed.) Encyclopedia of British Cinema, London: Methuen/BFI, 2003, p.183
  32. ^ "Robert Donat's Work And Plans". The Herald (19, 338). Victoria, Australia. 11 May 1939. p. 42. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  33. ^ a b Obituary: Renée Asherson, Daily Telegraph, 4 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014
  34. ^ Robert Donat Presents Story Of Cinderella at St. James's By Harold Hobson. The Christian Science Monitor 24 Feb 1945: 9.
  35. ^ a b Simon Farquhar "Renée Asherson: Actress renowned for her grace and beauty", The Independent, 6 November 2014
  36. ^ a b c "Mr. Donat has a new Lease of Life" Sydney Morning Herald, 28 October 1954. Retrieved 27 July 2010
  37. ^ Michael Brooke "Cure For Love, The (1949)", BFI screenonline
  38. ^ Philip French "Philip French's screen legends, No 54: Robert Donat 1905–1958", The Observer, 19 April 2009
  39. ^ THEATER GUILD ON AIR TO STAR ROBERT DONAT Chicago Daily Tribune 30 Oct 1949: n10.
  40. ^ "He's back again". The Sun (13730). New South Wales, Australia. 11 February 1954. p. 42 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  41. ^ "Robert Donat Marries",The Manchester Guardian (1901-1959); Manchester (UK) [Manchester (UK)]05 May 1953: 2.
  42. ^ Obituary: Sir John Mills, Daily Telegraph, 25 April 2005
  43. ^ David Shipman The Great Movie Stars: The Golden Years, London: Macdonald, 1989, p.176
  44. ^ David Thomson The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, London: Little, Brown, 2002, p.241
  45. ^ "The British Greats: 2, Robert Donat", BBC Genome, 6 August 1980 from Radio Times Issue 2960, 31 July 1980, p.50
  46. ^ reprinted in The Listener, vol.104, p.241
  47. ^ "Robert Donat's film return". Weekly Times (4431). Victoria, Australia. 26 May 1954. p. 76. Retrieved 14 October 2018 – via National Library of Australia.
  48. ^ Donat Premonition of Death Recalled: Actor 'Sold' on Role, Needed Money, Says Mark Robson Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times (1923-1995); Los Angeles, Calif. [Los Angeles, Calif]17 June 1958: 17.
  49. ^ Barrow, Kenneth (1985). Mr Chips: The Life of Robert Donat, London: Methuen, p. 191. ISBN 0-413-58070-9.
  50. ^ £25,236 ESTATE OF ROBERT DONAT The Manchester Guardian 28 Nov 1958: 4.
  51. ^ "DONAT, ROBERT (1905–1958)". English Heritage. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  52. ^ "Hello Mr Chips – plaque marks home of Oscar winner Robert Donat". MEN Media. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  53. ^ https://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/home/john-donat-1933-2004/139560.article

External links[edit]