Robert Emmet

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Robert Emmet
RobertEmmetWatercolor.png
A watercolour miniature of Emmet made during his trial.
Born(1778-03-04)4 March 1778
Dublin, Ireland
Died20 September 1803(1803-09-20) (aged 25)
Dublin, Ireland
AllegianceUnited Irishmen
Years of service1793–1803
RankCommander
Commands heldIrish Rebellion of 1803
Battles/wars1798 Rebellion
Irish Rebellion of 1803
RelationsThomas Addis Emmet

Robert Emmet (4 March 1778 – 20 September 1803) was an Irish Republican, orator and rebel leader. Following the suppression of the United Irish uprising in 1798, he sought to organise a renewed attempt to overthrow the British Crown and Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland, and to establish a national representative government. As had the United Irishmen in 1798, Emmet entertained hopes of French assistance and of coordination with radical militants in Great Britain. In Ireland, however, many of the surviving veterans of '98 hesitated to lend their support, and his rising in Dublin in 1803 proved abortive.

Emmet’s Proclamation of the Provisional Government to the People of Ireland, his Speech from the Dock, and his "sacrificial" end on the gallows were qualities that inspired later generations of Irish republicans.[1] Patrick Pearse, who in 1916 was again to proclaim a provisional government in Dublin, declared Emmet's attempt "not a failure, but a triumph for that deathless thing we call Irish Nationality".[2]

Early life[edit]

Emmet was born at 109 St. Stephen's Green,[3][4] in Dublin on 4 March 1778. He was the youngest son of Dr Robert Emmet (1729–1802), physician to the Lord Lieutenant, and his wife, Elizabeth Mason (1739–1803). The Emmets were financially comfortable, members of the Protestant Ascendancy with a house at St Stephen's Green and a country residence near Milltown.

Dr. Emmet supported the cause of American independence and was a well-known figure on the fringes of the Irish patriot movement. Theobald Wolfe Tone, a friend of Emmet's elder brother, Thomas Addis Emmet, and an advocate of more radical reform, including Catholic Emancipation, was a visitor to the house.[5] So too, as a friend of his father, was Dr William Drennan,[6] the original proposer of the "benevolent conspiracy--a plot for the people"[7] that was to call itself, at Tone's suggestion, the Society of United Irishmen.

Emmet entered Trinity College Dublin in October 1793 as a precocious fifteen-year-old and excelled as a student of history and chemistry. In December 1797 he joined the College Historical Society. His brother Thomas and Wolfe Tone, preceding him in the society, had maintained its lively tradition (stretching back to Edmund Burke) of defying the College's injunction against discussing questions of "modern politics".[8]

Fellow Society member Thomas Moore recalled that men "of advanced standing and reputation for oratory, came to attend our debates, expressly for the purpose of answering [Robert] Emmet". He eloquence was unmatched.[9]

Robert Emmet is described as slight in person; his features were regular, his forehead high, his eyes bright and full of expression, his nose sharp, thin, and straight, the lower part of his face slightly pock-marked, his complexion sallow.[5]

Revolutionary career[edit]

Emissary for the new United Irish Executive[edit]

In April 1798 Emmet was expelled from Trinity. He had been exposed as the secretary of a secret college committee in support of the Society of United Irishmen of which his brother and Tone were leading executive members. Emmet did not participate in the disordered United Irish uprising when it broke out in counties to the south and north of a heavily-garrisoned Dublin in May 1798. But after the suppression of the rebellion in the summer, and in communication with state prisoners held at Fort George in Scotland (including his brother), Emmet joined William Putnam McCabe in re-establishing a United Irish organisation. They sought to reconstruct the Society on a strict military basis, with its members chosen personally by its officers' meeting as the executive directory. Following the example not only of Tone but also of James Coigly, their aim was to again solicit a French invasion on the prospective strength both of a rising in Ireland and of a radical conspiracy in Britain. To this end McCabe set out for France in December 1798, stopping first in London to renew contact with the network of English Jacobins, the United Britons.[10]

On the new United Irish executive in Dublin, Emmet assisted veterans Thomas Wright (from April 1799, an informer)[11] and Malachy Delaney (a former officer in the Austrian army),[12] with a manual on insurgent tactics. In the summer of 1800, as secretary to Delaney, he set out on a secret mission to support McCabe's efforts in Paris. Through his foreign minister Talleyrand, Emmet and Delaney presented Napoleon with a memorial which argued that the parliamentary Union with Great Britain, imposed in the wake of the rebellion, had "in no way eased the discontent of Ireland", and with lessons drawn from the failure of '98, the United Irish were again prepared to act on the first news of a French landing.[13]

Their request for an invasion force almost double that commanded by Hoche in the aborted 1796 Bantry expedition possibly told against them.[13] The First Consul had other priorities: securing a temporary respite from war (the treaties of Lunéville in 1801 and of Amiens, March 1802) and re-enslaving of Haiti.[14]

Loss of confidence in English radicals and in France[edit]

In January 1802 the arrival in Dublin of William Dowdall, following his release from Fort George, injected new life into the United Irishmen, and by March, contact was re-established with the United Britons network in England. In July, McCabe, returning to Paris from a visit to Dublin, brought news to Manchester that the United Irishmen were ready to rise again as soon as the continental war was renewed. In this expectation, preparations in England were intensified, including in London where Edward Despard sought to enlist in the republican conspiracy soldiers of the guards' regiment stationed at Windsor and the Tower of London. In October, Emmet was dispatched from Paris to assist Dowdall with the Dublin preparations.[15]

In November 1802 the government moved on the conspirators in London. It did not discover the full extent of the plot, but the arrest of Despard and his execution in February 1803 may have weakened English support. Emmet's emissaries from Dublin found a cooler reception in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and in London than they had expected.[15]

In May 1803 the war with France was renewed. McCabe appeared to enjoy Napoleon's favour,[16] and had had assurances of his intention to help Ireland secure her independence. From his own interviews with Napoleon, and with Talleyrand, in the autumn of 1802 Emmet emerged unconvinced. He was persuaded that the First Consul was considering a Channel crossing for August 1803, but that in the contest with England there would be scant consideration for Ireland's interests.[9] In his final courtroom address Emmet was to insist that no man "calumniate" his memory by believing that he had "hoped for freedom from the government of France".[17]

Decision to proceed with a rising in Dublin[edit]

After his return to Ireland in October 1802, assisted by Anne Devlin (ostensibly his housekeeper), and with a legacy of £2,000 left to him by his father, Emmet laid preparations for a rising. James (Jemmy) Hope and Myles Byrne arranged conferences, at which Emmet promised arms, with Michael Dwyer (Devlin’s cousin), who still maintained a guerrilla resistance in the Wicklow Mountains,[18] and with Thomas Cloney, a veteran of the Wexford rebellion in '98.[19] Hope headed north seeking to raise Antrim. Those districts of the county where he had previously found "the republican spirit, inherent in the principles of Presbyterian community, kept resistance to arbitrary power still alive"[20] refused the call. In the absence of any sign of a French landing, Thomas Russell was similarly rebuffed when attempting to raise the standard in the Defender country of south Down.[21]

Meanwhile, in Dublin, the military conspiracy was made public by the accidental detonation of the rebel arms depot in Patrick Street. Rather than risk discovery and break-up of his entire organisation, on 23 July 1803 Emmet, against the advice of others in the Dublin leadership, decided to proceed with an attempt to seize control in Dublin.[22]

Proclamation of the Provisional Government[edit]

Emmet issued a proclamation in the name of the "Provisional Government". Calling upon the Irish people "to show the world that you are competent to take your place among the nations . . . as an independent country", Emmet made clear in the proclamation that they would have to do so "without foreign assistance": "That confidence which was once lost by trusting to external support . . . has been again restored. We have been mutually pledged to each other to look only to our own strength".[23]

The Proclamation also contained "allusions to the widening of the political agenda of Emmet and the United Irishmen following the failure of 1798".[23] In addition to democratic parliamentary reform, the Proclamation announced that tithes were to be abolished and the land of the established Church of Ireland nationalised. This, it has been suggested, marked the influence upon Emmet of Thomas Russell, although as a radical campaigner for economic and social reform Russell might have wished to go further.[24] Emmet remained intent on giving the rising a universal appeal across both class and sectarian divisions: "We are not against property – we war against no religious sect – we war not against past opinions or prejudices – we war against English dominion."[23]

The Government sought to suppress all 10,000 printed copies of the Proclamation. Only two are known to survive.[25]

Thomas Street[edit]

At 11 on the morning of the 23rd, Emmet showed men from Kildare an arsenal of pikes, grenades, rockets, and gunpower-packed hollowed beams (these were to be dragged out onto the streets to prevent cavalry charges). They noted only the absence of recognisable firearms and left to turn back other Kildare insurgents on the road to Dublin. The plan to surprise Dublin Castle, and seize the viceroy, was botched when the assailants prematurely revealed themselves.[22]

By evening Emmet, Malachy Delaney and Myles Byrne (turned out for the occasion in gold-trimmed green uniforms) found themselves outside their Thomas Street arsenal with just 80 men.[22] R.R. Madden describes "a motley assemblage of armed men, a great number of whom were, if not intoxicated, under the evident excitement of drink".[26] Unaware that John Allen was approaching with a band, according to one witness, of 300,[27] and shaken by the sight of a dragoon being pulled from his horse and piked to death, Emmet told the men to disperse.[28]

Sporadic clashes continued into the night. In one incident, the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, Lord Kilwarden, was dragged from his carriage and stabbed by pikes. Found still alive, he was taken to a watch-house where he died shortly thereafter. Kilwarden had used his position to help his cousin, Wolfe Tone, to avoid prosecution in 1794. He was nonetheless reviled for the prosecution and hanging of William Orr in 1797 and, in the wake of 1798, of several Catholic Defenders. Kilwarden's nephew, the Rev. Mr Wolfe, was also killed, although his daughter was not harmed.[29]

Capture and trial[edit]

Emmet went into hiding, while in Rathfarnham yeomen sought to extract information from Anne Devlin, prodding with her bayonets and half hanging her until she passed out.[22] Had he not insisted on taking his leave of his fiancée Sarah Curran (daughter of the disapproving John Philpot Curran)[5] it is likely that he would have shared the success of Dowdal and Byrne in escaping to France. Emmet was captured on 25 August and taken to the Castle, then removed to Kilmainham. Vigorous but ineffectual efforts were made to procure his escape.

Depiction of Robert Emmet's trial

Emmet was tried and convicted for high treason on 19 September. The evidence against him had been overwhelming, but the Crown took the extra precaution of suborning his defence attorney, Leonard McNally, for £200 and a pension.[30] McNally's assistant Peter Burrowes could not be bought and represented Emmet as best he could.[31]

Emmet's instruction, however, was not to offer a defence: he would not call any witnesses, "or to take up the time of the court". When on announcing this, McNally proposed that the trial was concluded, the prosecuting counsel William Plunket took to his feet. In what was widely regarded as an unnecessary attack on a doomed man, Plunket, who was to see himself appointed Solicitor-General, mocked Emmet as the deluded leader of a conspiracy encompassing "the bricklayer, the old clothes man, the hodman and the hostler".[32]

Emmet's Speech from the Dock is especially remembered for his closing remarks. Historian Patrick Geoghehan has identified over seventy different versions of the text,[33] but in an early printing (1818) based on notes taken by Burrowes, Emmet concludes:[34]

I am here ready to die. I am not allowed to vindicate my character; no man shall dare to vindicate my character; and when I am prevented from vindicating myself, let no man dare to calumniate me. Let my character and my motives repose in obscurity and peace, till other times and other men can do them justice. Then shall my character be vindicated; then may my epitaph be written.

Chief Justice Lord Norbury sentenced Emmet to be hanged, drawn and quartered, as was customary for conviction of treason. The following day, 20 September, Emmet was executed in Thomas Street in front of St. Catherine's. He was hanged and then beheaded once dead.[35] As family members and friends of Robert had also been arrested, including some who had nothing to do with the rebellion, no one came forward to claim his remains out of fear of arrest.

On the eve of his execution, Emmet wrote from Kilmainham to the Chief Secretary for Ireland, William Wickham, whose "fairness" he acknowledged. He appears to have made a profound impression.[36][37]

In December Wickham resigned his post, confessing to friends that "no consideration upon earth" could induce him "to remain after having maturely reflected" on the contents of the note he had received. He could not enforce laws "unjust, oppressive and unchristian" and intolerable to the memory of a man he had been "compelled by the duty of my office to pursue to the death". Wickham was persuaded that Emmet had been attempting to save Ireland from "a state of depression and humiliation" and that, had he himself been an Irishman, he "should most unquestionably have joined him".[38][39]

Burial[edit]

Emmet's remains were first delivered to Newgate Prison and then back to Kilmainham Gaol, where the jailer was under instructions that if no one claimed them they were to be buried in a nearby hospital's burial grounds called Bully's Acre. Family tradition has it that in 1804, under cover of the burial of his sister, Mary Anne Holmes, Emmet's remains were removed from Bully's Acre and re-interred in the family vault (since demolished) at St Peter's Church in Aungier Street.[35]

After searching for Emmet's grave in Dublin, early in 1812, Percy Bysshe Shelley revised his elegiac poem “The Monarch's Funeral: An Anticipation”: "For who was he, the uncoffined slain, /That fell in Erin's injured isle /Because his spirit dared disdain/ To light his country's funeral pile?"[40] In "On Robert Emmet's Grave" Shelley proposed that, because unknown, Emmet's grave would "remain unpolluted by fame /Till thy foes, by the world and by fortune caressed, /Shall pass like a mist from the light of thy name."[41]

Legacy[edit]

Robert Emmet was honoured on two Irish postage stamps issued in 1953, commemorating the 150th anniversary of his death

Emmet’s rebellion infuriated Lord Castlereagh because he "could not see the change that his own great measure the Union has effected in Ireland".[36] Despite having so badly misfired, the 1803 rising suggested that the Act of Union was not going to be the palliative Castlereagh and Prime Minister William Pitt had intended. Castlereagh advised that "the best thing would be to go into no detail whatever upon the case, to keep the subject clearly standing on its own narrow base of a contemptible insurrection without means or respectable leaders",[36] an instruction Plunket appears to have followed in Emmet's prosecution. This was to be a stance taken not only by unionists.

Daniel O'Connell who was to lead the struggle for Catholic Emancipation and for repeal of the Union in the decades following Emmet's death, roundly condemned the resort to "physical force". O'Connell's own programme of mobilising public opinion, fuelled by sometimes violent rhetoric and demonstrated in "monster meetings", might have suggested that constitutionalism and physical force were complementary rather than antithetical.[42] But O'Connell remained content with his dismissal of Emmett in 1803 as an instigator of bloodshed who had forfeited any claim to "compassion".[43]

Emmet's political rehabilitation begins in the Famine-years of the 1840s with the Young Irelanders. In 1846 they had finally broken with O'Connell declaring that if Repeal could not be carried by moral persuasion and peaceful means, a resort to arms would be "a no less honourable course".[44] The Young Irelander publisher Charles Gavan Duffy repeatedly reprinted Michael James Whitty's popular chapbook Life, Trial and Conversations of Robert Emmet Esq. (1836), and promoted R.R. Madden's Life and Times of Robert Emmet (1847) which, despite its devastating account of the Thomas Street fiasco, was hagiographic.[26]

In carrying forward the tradition of physical-force republicanism from the debacle of the Young Irelander "Famine Rebellion" in 1848, the Irish Republican Brotherhood ( the Fenians) also carried forward admiration for Emmet. On the $20 bonds they issued in 1866 in the United States in the name of the Irish Republic, his profile appears opposite that of Tone.[45]

Robert Emmet's older brother, Thomas Addis Emmet emigrated to the United States shortly after Robert's execution. He eventually served as the New York State Attorney General. His descendants (who included the prominent American portrait painters Lydia Field Emmet, Rosina Emmet Sherwood, Ellen Emmet Rand, and Jane Emmet de Glehn) helped advance his standing among the Irish diaspora, which in turn may have been one factor in ensuring that he was one among the "ghosts" invoked in the run-up to 1916 Easter Rising.[46]

In the Emmet Commemoration speech he delivered in New York City in March 1914, Pearse described how the spirit of Irish patriotism called in Emmet "to a dreamer" and "awoke a man of action"; called to "a student and a recluse" and brought forth "a leader of men"; "called to one who loved the ways of peace" and found "a revolutionary". Emmet was a man unwilling to "surrender of one jot or shred of our claim to freedom even in return for all the blessings of the British peace".[47]

Representation in popular culture[edit]

In the preface to Volume VIII of Irish Melodies, Thomas Moore acknowledged his friendship with Robert Emmet, and portrays his sacrifice as a measure of an awakened "hope" in Ireland that was to spirit the "revival of native culture”.[48] One of his more popular ballads "O! Breathe Not His Name" makes Emmet the touchstone of national sentiment: "Oh breathe not his name! let it sleep in the shade, / Where cold and unhonoured his relics are laid! [...] / And the tear we shed, though secret it rolls, Shall keep his memory green in our souls".[49]

Washington Irving devoted "The Broken Heart" in his The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. to the romance between Emmet and Sarah Curran, citing it as an example of how a broken heart can be fatal.

The American film by Irish-Canadian Sidney Olcott entitled All for Old Ireland (1915), is also known as Bold Emmett, Ireland's Martyr or Robert Emmet, Ireland's Martyr.[50]

He is referenced by the name "bold Robert" in the song Back Home in Derry, written by Bobby Sands and recorded by Christy Moore.

Honours[edit]

Places named after Emmet in the United States include Emmetsburg, Iowa;[51] Emmet, Nebraska;[52] Emmet County, Iowa; Emmett, Michigan and Emmet County, Michigan,[53] and Emmet Street in the historic French neighborhood of Soulard, St. Louis. [54] The Robert Emmet Elementary School in Chicago, Illinois was named for him. Two time All Ireland Club Camogie Champions Robert Emmet's GAC Slaughtneil is named after him. Emmet Park in Savannah, Georgia, was named after Emmet in 1902 in preparation for the centennial of his death.

Statues were erected in his honour:

  • A life-size bronze statue of Robert Emmet by Jerome Connor stands in St Stephen's Green, Dublin, the parkland beside which Emmet was born.
  • A bronze statue of Emmet by Jerome Connor stands in Washington, DC on Embassy Row (Massachusetts Avenue NW and S Street NW). A public commemoration of Emmet's execution and legacy is held annually on the fourth Sunday in September by the Irish American Unity Conference.
  • A copy of this statue was installed on the Music Concourse in front of the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park.
  • A statue of Robert Emmet is in the courthouse square in Emmetsburg, Iowa.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mitchell, Angus (22 February 2013). "Robert Emmet and 1916". History Ireland. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  2. ^ Pearse, Patrick (2 March 1914). "Robert Emmet and the Ireland of to-day. An Address delivered at the Emmet Commemoration in the Academy of Music, Brooklyn, New York". celt.ucc.ie. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  3. ^ Kilfeather, Siobhán Marie (2005). Dublin: a cultural history. Oxford University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-19-518201-9.
  4. ^ Geoghegan, Patrick M (2002). Robert Emmet: a life. Gill & Macmillan. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7171-3387-1. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  5. ^ a b c Webb, Alfred. A Compendium of Irish Biography, M.H. Gill & Son, Dublin, 1878
  6. ^ Whelan, Fergus (2020). May Tyrants Tremble: The Life of William Drennan, 1754–1820. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. p. 59. ISBN 9781788551212.
  7. ^ "Category Archives: William Drennan". assets.publishing.service.gov.uk. February 2020. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  8. ^ Young Ireland, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co 1880 pg.34
  9. ^ a b Webb, Alfred (1878). "Robert Emmet - Irish Biography". www.libraryireland.com. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  10. ^ Elliott, Marianne (May 1977). "The 'Despard Plot' Reconsidered". Past & Present. 75 (1): 46–61. doi:10.1093/past/75.1.46.
  11. ^ "Wright, Thomas | Dictionary of Irish Biography". www.dib.ie. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  12. ^ "Delaney, Malachy | Dictionary of Irish Biography". www.dib.ie. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  13. ^ a b Kleinman, Sylvie (22 February 2013). "French Connection II: Robert Emmet and Malachy Delaney's memorial to Napoleon Buonaparte, September 1800". History Ireland. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  14. ^ Girard, Philippe R. (28 August 2019), "Napoléon Bonaparte and the Atlantic World", Atlantic History, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/obo/9780199730414-0317, ISBN 978-0-19-973041-4, retrieved 11 June 2021
  15. ^ a b Elliott, Marianne (May 1977). "The 'Despard Plot' Reconsidered". Past & Present. 75 (1): (46–61) 56-60. doi:10.1093/past/75.1.46.
  16. ^ Kelly, James (2012). "Official List of Radical Activists and Suspected Activists Involved in Emmet's Rebellion, 1803". Analecta Hibernica (43): 129–200, 149. ISSN 0791-6167. JSTOR 23317181.
  17. ^ Elliott, Marianne (1982). Partners in Revolution: the United Irishmen and France. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 314.
  18. ^ "Michael Dwyer of Imaal". History Ireland. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  19. ^ Byrne, Miles (3 June 1907). "Memoirs of Miles Byrne". Dublin : Maunsel – via Internet Archive.
  20. ^ Bardon, Jonathan (1982). Belfast: An Illustrated History. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. p. 60. ISBN 0856402729.
  21. ^ Commentary by Kenneth Robinson in: Birch, Thomas Ledlie (2005). A Letter from an Irish Emigrant (1799) (Originally published in Philadelphia ed.). Belfast: Athol Books. ISBN 0850341108. p. 114
  22. ^ a b c d Bardon, Jonathan (2008). A History of Ireland in 250 Episodes. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. pp. 334–336. ISBN 9780717146499.
  23. ^ a b c "Robert Emmet, the 1803 Proclamation of Independence and the ghost of 1798 – The Irish Story". Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  24. ^ Quinn, James (2007), "Revelation and Romanticism", in Dolan et al (eds.), Reinterpreting Emmet: Essays on the Life and Legacy of Robert Emmet, University College Dublin Press, ISBN 978-1904558637, p. 27
  25. ^ Whelan, Kevin (6 September 2003). "A poltergeist in politics". The Irish Times. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  26. ^ a b Beiner, Guy (2004). Elliott, Marianne; Geoghegan, Patrick M.; McMahon, Sean; Brádaigh, Seón Ó.; O'Donnell, Ruán (eds.). "The Legendary Robert Emmet and His Bicentennial Biographers". The Irish Review (1986-) (32): 98–104, 100, 102. doi:10.2307/29736249. ISSN 0790-7850.
  27. ^ Hammond, Joseph W.; Frayne, Michl. (1947). "The Emmet Insurrection". Dublin Historical Record. 9 (2): 59–68. ISSN 0012-6861.
  28. ^ "Robert Emmet". Ricorso. 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
  29. ^ "Rewind: The murder of Lord Kilwarden". www.echo.ie. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  30. ^ "The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  31. ^ "Robert Emmet". Ricorso. 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
  32. ^ Whelan, Fergus (2020). May Tyrants Tremble: The Life of William Drennan, 1754–1820. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. pp. 255–256. ISBN 9781788551212.
  33. ^ History Ireland, autumn 2003
  34. ^ Phillips, C. Recollections of Curran (1818 Milliken, Dublin) pp.256–259.
  35. ^ a b Murphy, Sean. "The Grave of Robert Emmet", Irish Historical Mysteries, Dublin, Ireland; 2010
  36. ^ a b c Whelan, Kevin (22 February 2013). "Robert Emmet: between history and memory". History Ireland. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  37. ^ Geohegan, Patrick (2009). "Wickham, William | Dictionary of Irish Biography". www.dib.ie. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  38. ^ Public Records Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI). T.2627/5/Z/18.
  39. ^ Public Records Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI). T.2627/5/Z/25.
  40. ^ Morgan, Alison (3 July 2014). ""Let no man write my epitaph": the contributions of Percy Shelley, Thomas Moore and Robert Southey to the memorialisation of Robert Emmet". Irish Studies Review. 22 (3): 285–303. doi:10.1080/09670882.2014.926124. ISSN 0967-0882.
  41. ^ Esdaile manuscript book by Dowden, "Life of Shelley", 1887; dated 1812
  42. ^ Swift, John (2008). "Review of Reinterpreting Emmet: Essays on the Life and Legacy of Robert Emmet". Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review. 97 (386): 232–235. ISSN 0039-3495.
  43. ^ O'Connell Correspondence, Vol I, Letter No. 97
  44. ^ O'Sullivan, T. F. (1945). Young Ireland. The Kerryman Ltd. pp. 195-6
  45. ^ Fanning, Charles (2004). "Robert Emmet and Nineteenth-Century Irish America". New Hibernia Review / Iris Éireannach Nua. 8 (4): 53–83. ISSN 1092-3977.
  46. ^ Mitchel, Angus (22 February 2013). "Robert Emmet and 1916". History Ireland. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  47. ^ Pearse, Patrick. Emmet Commemoration Speech New York 1914.
  48. ^ Morgan, Alison (3 July 2014). ""Let no man write my epitaph": the contributions of Percy Shelley, Thomas Moore and Robert Southey to the memorialisation of Robert Emmet". Irish Studies Review. 22 (3): 285–303. doi:10.1080/09670882.2014.926124. ISSN 0967-0882.
  49. ^ "O! Breathe Not His Name. Thomas Moore (1779-1852). September 20. James and Mary Ford, eds. 1902. Every Day in the Year: A Poetical Epitome of the World's History". www.bartleby.com. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  50. ^ The Story of Irish Film, by Arthur Flynn, Currach Press, Dublin, 2005 ISBN 1-85607-914-7.
  51. ^ "A Small Town Struggles to Preserve Its Irish Heritage". Irish America Magazine Sept/Oct. 1993.
  52. ^ Campbell, Dorine. "Emmet". Nebraska...Our Towns Retrieved 2010-06-16.
  53. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 119.
  54. ^ Google (26 April 2021). "Map of Emmet Street with pin" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  55. ^ ""Robert Emmet" by Jerome Connor". Smithsonian American Art Museum. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 13 June 2015.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Elliott, Marianne. Robert Emmet: The Making of a Legend
  • Geoghegan, Patrick. Robert Emmet: A Life (Gill and Macmillan) ISBN 0-7171-3387-7
  • Gough, Hugh & David Dickson, editors. Ireland and the French Revolution
  • McMahon, Sean. Robert Emmet
  • O Bradaigh, Sean. Bold Robert Emmet 1778–1803
  • O'Donnell, Ruan. Robert Emmet and the Rebellion of 1798
  • _____. Robert Emmet and the Rising of 1803
  • _____. Remember Emmet: Images of the Life and Legacy of Robert Emmet
  • Smyth, Jim. The Men of No Property: Irish Radicals and Popular Politics in the Late Eighteenth Century
  • Stewart, A.T.Q. A Deeper Silence: The Hidden Origins of the United Irish Movement

External links[edit]