Fukuda was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 1922. He earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Hawaii. He then served in the United States Army Military Intelligence Service during World War II as a Japanese language interpreter and translator.
Fukuda later became a lawyer for the Hawaiian Homes Commission and the Hawaiian Homelands department for the Territory of Hawaii. He served as the deputy Attorney General for the Territory of Hawaii from 1953 until 1959.
In 1959, Fukuda was elected to the inaugural Hawaii State Legislature as a member of the Hawaii House of Representatives. He served in the House for three years. Fukuda later served as a United States Attorney in Hawaii from 1969 to 1973. He also became the manager of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's programs in Hawaii and Guam from 1982 to 1986.
- "Flags to Fly at Half-Staff in Honor of Former Rep. Robert Fukuda". Office of the Governor of Hawaii. 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- Zoellick, Sarah (2013-07-28). "Public service paramount for lawmaker, attorney". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- "Flags Lowered for Former State Rep. Robert Fukuda". Honolulu Civil Beat. 2013-08-09. Retrieved 2013-08-27.