Robert Hanssen

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Robert Hanssen
Robert Hanssen.jpg
Hanssen in 2001
Born Robert Philip Hanssen
(1944-04-18) April 18, 1944 (age 71)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Other names Ramon Garcia, Jim Baker, G. Robertson, Graysuit, "B"
Occupation Former FBI agent and spy for the Soviet Union and later the Russian Federation
Religion Roman Catholic
Criminal charge 18 U.S.C. § 794(a) and 794(c)[1] (Espionage Act)
Criminal penalty Life imprisonment (without parole)
Criminal status Incarcerated at ADX Florence
Spouse(s) Bernadette "Bonnie" Wauck Hanssen

Robert Philip Hanssen (born April 18, 1944) is a former U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent who spied for Soviet and Russian intelligence services against the United States for twenty-two years from 1979 to 2001. He is currently serving fifteen consecutive life sentences at ADX Florence, a federal supermax prison near Florence, Colorado.

Hanssen was arrested on February 18, 2001 at Foxstone Park[2] near his home in Vienna, Virginia, and was charged with selling U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and subsequently the Russian Federation for more than US$1.4 million in cash and diamonds over a 22-year period.[3]

On July 6, 2001, he pleaded guilty to fifteen counts of espionage in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.[4][5] He was sentenced to fifteen life terms without the possibility of parole. His activities have been described by the Department of Justice's Commission for the Review of FBI Security Programs as "possibly the worst intelligence disaster in U.S. history."[6]

Early life[edit]

Hanssen was born in Chicago, Illinois, to a family of mixed Danish, Polish and German descent who lived in the Norwood Park community.[7] His father Howard, a Chicago police officer, was emotionally abusive to Hanssen during his childhood.[8][9] He graduated from William Howard Taft High School in 1962 and went on to attend Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois, where he earned a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1966.

Hanssen applied for a cryptographer position in the National Security Agency, but was rebuffed due to budget setbacks. He enrolled in dental school at Northwestern University[10] but switched his focus to business after three years.[11] Hanssen received an MBA in accounting and information systems in 1971 and took a job with an accounting firm. He quit after one year and joined the Chicago Police Department as an internal affairs investigator, specializing in forensic accounting. In January 1976, he left the police department to join the FBI.[8]

Hanssen met Bernadette "Bonnie" Wauck, a staunch Roman Catholic, while attending dental school at Northwestern. The couple married in 1968, and Hanssen converted from Lutheranism to his wife's Catholicism, becoming a fervent believer and being extensively involved in the Catholic fraternal order Opus Dei.[12]

FBI career and first espionage activities (1976–1981)[edit]

Upon becoming a special agent on January 12, 1976, Hanssen was transferred to the FBI's Gary, Indiana, field office. In 1978, Hanssen and his growing family (of three children and eventually six) moved to New York City when the FBI transferred him to its field office there.[13] The next year, Hanssen was moved into counter-intelligence and given the task of compiling a database of Soviet intelligence for the Bureau.

In 1979, only three years after joining the FBI, Hanssen approached the Soviet GRU and offered his services. He never indicated any political or ideological motive for his actions, telling the FBI after he was caught that his only motivation was profit.[14] During his first espionage cycle, Hanssen told the GRU a significant amount, including information on FBI's bugging activities and lists of suspected Soviet intelligence agents. His most important leak was the betrayal of Dmitri Polyakov, a CIA informant who passed enormous amounts of information to American intelligence while he rose to the rank of General in the Soviet Army. For unknown reasons, the Soviets did not act against Polyakov until he was betrayed a second time by CIA mole Aldrich Ames in 1985. Polyakov was arrested in 1986 and executed in 1988. Ames was officially blamed for giving Polyakov's name to the Soviets, while Hanssen's attempt was not revealed until after his 2001 capture.[15]

FBI counterintelligence unit, further espionage activities (1985–1991)[edit]

"Ellis" dead drop site in Foxstone Park used by Hanssen, including on the day of his arrest

In 1981, Hanssen was transferred to FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C. and moved to the suburb of Vienna, Virginia. His new job in the FBI's budget office gave him access to information involving many different FBI operations. This included all the FBI activities related to wiretapping and electronic surveillance, which were Hanssen's responsibility. He became known in the Bureau as an expert on computers.[16]

Three years later, Hanssen transferred to the Soviet analytical unit, which was responsible for studying, identifying, and capturing Soviet spies and intelligence operatives in the United States. Hanssen's section was in charge of evaluating Soviet agents who volunteered to give intelligence to determine whether they were genuine or double agents.[17] In 1985, Hanssen was again transferred to the FBI's field office in New York, where he continued to work in counter-intelligence against the Soviets. It was after the transfer, while on a business trip back to Washington, that he resumed his career in espionage.

On October 1, 1985, Hanssen sent an anonymous letter to the KGB offering his services and asking for US$100,000 in cash. In the letter, he gave the names of three KGB agents secretly working for the FBI: Boris Yuzhin, Valery Martynov and Sergei Motorin. Unbeknownst to Hanssen, all three had already been exposed earlier that year by Aldrich Ames.[18] Martynov and Motorin were executed, and Yuzhin was imprisoned for six years before he eventually emigrated to the U.S.[19] Since the FBI blamed Ames for the leak, Hanssen was not suspected nor investigated. The October 1 letter was the beginning of a long, active espionage period for Hanssen.

Hanssen was recalled yet again to Washington in 1987. He was given the task of making a study of all known and rumored penetrations of the FBI in order to find the man who had betrayed Martynov and Motorin; this meant that he was looking for himself. Hanssen ensured that he did not unmask himself with his study, but in addition, he turned over the entire study – including the list of all Soviets who had contacted the FBI about FBI moles – to the KGB in 1988.[20] That same year, Hanssen, according to a government report, "committed a serious security breach" by revealing secret information to a Soviet defector during a debriefing. The agents working underneath him reported this breach to a supervisor, but no action was taken.[8]

In 1989, Hanssen compromised the FBI investigation of Felix Bloch, a State Department official who had come under suspicion for espionage. Hanssen warned that Bloch was under investigation, causing the KGB to abruptly break off contact with Bloch. The FBI was unable to produce any hard evidence, and as a result, Bloch was never charged with a crime, although the State Department later terminated his employment and denied his pension. The failure of the Bloch investigation, and the FBI's investigation of how the KGB found out they were investigating Bloch, drove the mole hunt that eventually led to the arrest of Hanssen.[21]

Later that year, Hanssen handed over extensive information about American planning for Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT), an umbrella term for intelligence collected by a wide array of electronic means, such as radar, spy satellites, and signal intercepts.[22][23] When the Soviets began construction on a new embassy in 1977, the FBI dug a tunnel beneath their decoding room. The FBI planned to use it for eavesdropping, but never did for fear of being caught. Hanssen disclosed this detailed information to the Soviets in September 1989 and received a US$55,000 payment the next month.[24] On two occasions, Hanssen gave the Soviets a complete list of American double agents.[25]

In 1990, Hanssen's brother-in-law, Mark Wauck, who was also an FBI employee, recommended to the Bureau that Hanssen be investigated for espionage; this came after Bonnie Hanssen's sister Jeanne Beglis had found a pile of cash sitting on a dresser in the Hanssens' house. Bonnie had previously told her brother that Hanssen once talked about retiring in Poland, then part of the Eastern Bloc and under Soviet domination. Wauck also knew that the FBI was hunting for a mole and so spoke with his supervisor, who took no action.[8][26]

Later FBI career, continued espionage activities (1992–2001)[edit]

When the Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, Hanssen, possibly worried that he could be exposed during the ensuing political upheaval, broke off communications with his handlers for a time.[27]

The following year, after the establishment of the Russian Federation, Hanssen made a risky approach to the GRU, with whom he had not been in contact in ten years. Hanssen went in person to the Russian embassy and physically approached a GRU officer in the parking garage. Hanssen, carrying a package of documents, identified himself by his Soviet codename, "Ramon Garcia," and described himself as a "disaffected FBI agent" who was offering his services as a spy. The Russian officer, who evidently did not recognize the codename, drove off. The Russians then filed an official protest with the State Department, believing Hanssen to be a double agent. Despite having shown his face, disclosing his code name, and revealing his FBI affiliation, Hanssen escaped arrest when the Bureau's investigation into the incident did not advance.[28]

Hanssen continued to take risks in 1993, when he hacked into the computer of a fellow FBI agent, Ray Mislock, printed out a classified document from Mislock's computer, and took the document to Mislock, saying, "You didn't believe me that the system was insecure." His superiors were not amused and launched an investigation. In the end, officials believed Hanssen's claim that he was merely demonstrating flaws in the FBI's security system. Mislock has since theorized that Hanssen probably went onto his computer to see if his superiors were investigating him for espionage, and invented the document story to cover his tracks.[29]

In 1994, Hanssen expressed interest in a transfer to the new National Counterintelligence Center, which coordinated counter-intelligence activities. When told that he would have to take a lie detector test to join, Hanssen changed his mind.[30] Three years later, convicted FBI mole Earl Edwin Pitts told the Bureau that he suspected Hanssen was dirty due to the Mislock incident. Pitts was the second FBI agent to mention Hanssen by name as a possible mole, but superiors were still unconvinced. No action was taken.[31]

IT personnel from the National Security Division's IIS Unit were sent to investigate Hanssen's desktop computer following a reported failure. NSD chief Johnnie Sullivan ordered the computer impounded after it appeared to have been tampered with. A digital investigation found that an attempted hacking had taken place using a password cracking program installed by Hanssen, which caused a security alert and lockup. Following confirmation by the FBI CART Unit, Sullivan filed a report with Office of Professional Responsibility requesting further investigation of Hanssen's attempted hack. Hanssen claimed that he was attempting to connect a color printer to his computer, but needed the password cracker to bypass the administrative password. The FBI believed his story and Hanssen was let off with a warning.[32]

During the same time period, Hanssen would search the FBI's internal computer case record to see if he was under investigation. He was indiscreet enough to type his own name into FBI search engines. Finding nothing, Hanssen decided to resume his spy career after eight years without contact with the Russians. He established contact with the SVR (the successor to the Soviet-era KGB) in the fall of 1999. He continued to perform highly incriminating searches of FBI files for his own name and address.[33]

Investigation and arrest[edit]

The existence of two moles working simultaneously—Aldrich Ames at CIA and Hanssen at the FBI—complicated counterintelligence efforts in the 1990s. Ames was arrested in 1994; his capture explained many of the asset losses American intelligence suffered in the 1980s, including the arrest and execution of Martynov and Motorin. However, two cases – the Bloch investigation and the embassy tunnel – stuck out and remained unsolved. Ames had been stationed in Rome at the time of the Bloch investigation, and could not have had knowledge of the case as he did not work for the FBI. In addition, the exposure of the tunnel under the Russian embassy was a second intelligence failure that could not be blamed on Ames.[34][35]

The FBI and CIA formed a joint mole-hunting team in 1994 to find the suspected second intelligence leak. They formed a list of all agents known to have access to cases that were compromised. The FBI's codename for the suspected spy was "Graysuit." Some promising suspects were cleared, and the mole hunt found other penetrations such as CIA officer Harold James Nicholson. However, Hanssen escaped being noticed.[36]

By 1998, using FBI criminal profiling techniques, the pursuers zeroed in on an innocent man: Brian Kelley, a CIA operative involved in the Bloch investigation. The CIA and FBI searched his house, tapped his phone, and put him under surveillance, following him and his family everywhere. In November 1998, they had a man with a foreign accent come to Kelley's door, warn him that the FBI knew he was a spy, and tell him to show up at a Metro station the next day in order to escape. Kelley instead reported the incident to the FBI. In 1999, the FBI even interrogated Kelley, his ex-wife, two sisters, and three children. All denied everything, and his CIA career suffered permanent damage. He was eventually placed on administrative leave, where he remained falsely accused until after Hanssen was arrested.[8][37]

Having failed to either bring a case against Kelley or find another suspect, the FBI decided on a new tactic: buying the mole's identity. They searched for possible candidates to buy off and found one – a Russian businessman and former KGB agent whose identity remains classified. A cooperative American company invited him to the U.S. for a business meeting. After his arrival in New York, the FBI offered him a large sum of money if he would divulge the name of the mole. The Russian responded that he did not know the name, but that he could get the mole's KGB/SVR file. After the Russian stole the file from SVR headquarters, the FBI agreed to pay US$7 million for the file and set up the Russian and his family with new identities in the U.S. In November 2000, the FBI finally obtained the file, consisting of a package the size of "a medium-sized suitcase."

Among the items in the file was an audiotape of a July 21, 1986, conversation between the mole and a KGB agent. FBI agent Michael Waguespack felt the voice was familiar, but could not remember who it was. Rifling through the rest of the file, they found notes of the mole using a quote from General George S. Patton about "the purple-pissing Japanese."[38] FBI analyst Bob King remembered Robert Hanssen using that same quote. Waguespack listened to the tape again and recognized it as the voice as belonging to Hanssen. With the mole finally identified, locations, dates, and cases were matched with Hanssen's activities during the time period. Two fingerprints were collected from a trash bag in the file, which were were analyzed and proved to be Hanssen's.[39][40][41]

Hanssen's mug shot, taken on the day of his arrest

The FBI placed Hanssen under surveillance and soon discovered that he was again in contact with the Russians. In order to bring him back to FBI headquarters, where he could be closely monitored and kept away from sensitive data, they promoted him in December 2000 and gave him a new job supervising FBI computer security. In January 2001, Hanssen was given an office and an assistant, Eric O'Neill, who in reality was a young FBI agent who had been assigned to watch Hanssen. O'Neill ascertained that Hanssen was using a Palm III PDA to store his information. When O'Neill was able to briefly obtain Hanssen's PDA and have agents download and decode its encrypted contents, the FBI had its "smoking gun."[42][43][44]

During his final days with the FBI, Hanssen began to suspect that something was wrong; in early February 2001 he asked a friend of his at a computer technology company for a job. He also believed he was hearing noises on his car radio which indicated that it was bugged, although the FBI was later unable to reproduce the noises Hanssen claimed to have heard. In the last letter he wrote to the Russians, which was picked up by the FBI when he was arrested, Hanssen said that he had been promoted to a "do-nothing job ... outside of regular access to information," and that, "Something has aroused the sleeping tiger."[45]

However, his suspicions did not stop him from making one more dead drop. After dropping off a friend at the airport on February 18, 2001, Hanssen drove to Virginia's Foxstone Park. He placed a white piece of tape on a park sign, which was a signal to his Russian contacts that there was information at the dead drop site. He then followed his usual routine, taking a package which consisted of a sealed garbage bag of classified material and taping it to the bottom side of a wooden footbridge over a creek. When FBI agents spotted this highly incriminating act they rushed in to catch Hanssen red-handed and arrest him.[46] Upon being arrested, Hanssen asked, "What took you so long?" The FBI waited two more days to see if any of Hanssen's SVR handlers would show up at Foxstone Park. When they failed to appear, the Justice Department announced the arrest on February 20.[47]

Guilty plea and imprisonment[edit]

United States Penitentiary, Florence ADX, where Hanssen is incarcerated

With the representation of Washington lawyer Plato Cacheris, Hanssen negotiated a plea bargain that enabled him to escape the death penalty in exchange for cooperating with authorities.[4] On July 6, 2001, he pleaded guilty to fifteen counts of espionage in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.[4][5] On May 10, 2002, he was sentenced to fifteen consecutive sentences of life in prison without the possibility of parole. "I apologize for my behavior. I am shamed by it," Hanssen told U.S. District Judge Claude Hilton. "I have opened the door for calumny against my totally innocent wife and children. I have hurt so many deeply."[48]

Hanssen is Federal Bureau of Prisons prisoner #48551-083. He is serving his sentence at the ADX Florence, a federal supermax prison near Florence, Colorado in solitary confinement for twenty-three hours a day.[49][50]

Modus operandi[edit]

Hanssen never told the KGB or GRU his identity and refused to meet them personally, with the exception of the abortive 1993 contact in the Russian embassy parking garage. The FBI believes the Russians never knew the name of their source.[51] Going by the alias "Ramon" or "Ramon Garcia,"[52] Hanssen exchanged intelligence and payments through an old-fashioned dead drop system where he and his KGB handlers would leave packages in public, unobtrusive places.[53] He refused to use the dead drop sites that his handler, Victor Cherkashin, suggested and instead picked his own. He also designated a code to be used when dates were exchanged. Six was to be added to the month, day and time of a designated drop time, so that, for example, a drop scheduled for January 6 at 1 pm would be written as July 12 at 7 pm.[54]

Despite these efforts at caution and security, he could at times be reckless. He once said in a letter to the KGB that it should emulate the management style of Mayor of Chicago Richard J. Daley – a comment that easily could have led an investigator to look at people from Chicago.[55] He took the risk of recommending to his handlers that they try to recruit his closest friend, a colonel in the United States Army.[56] In an early letter to Cherkashin, he claims, "As far as the funds are concerned, I have little need or utility for more than the $100,000."[57]

Personal life[edit]

According to USA Today, those who knew the Hanssens described them as a close family. They attended Mass weekly and were very active in Opus Dei. Hanssen's three sons attended The Heights School in Potomac, Maryland, Maryland, an all-boys preparatory school.[58] His daughters attended Oakcrest School for Girls, an independent Roman Catholic school. Both schools are associated with Opus Dei. Hanssen's wife Bonnie taught theology at Oakcrest.[59]

A priest at Oakcrest said that Hanssen had regularly attended a 6:30 a.m. daily mass for more than a decade.[60] Opus Dei member Father C. John McCloskey III said he also occasionally attended the daily noontime mass at the Catholic Information Center in downtown Washington. After going to prison, Hanssen claimed he periodically admitted his espionage to priests in confession. He urged fellow Catholics in the Bureau to attend mass more often and denounced the Russians, even though he was spying for them, as "godless."[61]

However, at Hanssen's suggestion, and without the knowledge of his wife, a friend named Jack Horschauer, a retired Army officer, would sometimes watch the Hanssens having sex through a bedroom window. Hanssen then began to secretly videotape his sexual encounters and shared the videotapes with Horschauer. Later, he hid a video camera in the bedroom that was connected via closed-circuit television line so that his friend could observe the Hanssens from his guest bedroom.[62] He also explicitly described the sexual details of his marriage on Internet chat rooms, giving information sufficient for those who knew them to recognize the couple.[63]

Hanssen frequently visited D.C. strip clubs, and spent a great deal of time with a Washington stripper named Priscilla Sue Galey. She went to Hong Kong with Hanssen on a trip and on a visit to the FBI training facility in Quantico, Virginia.[64] He gave her money, jewels and a used Mercedes-Benz, but cut off contact with her before his arrest, when she fell into drug abuse and prostitution. Galey claims that although she offered to sleep with him, Hanssen declined, saying that he was trying to convert her to Catholicism.[65]

In the media[edit]

The story is mentioned in Ronald Kessler's book The Secrets of the FBI, both in Chapter 15, "Catching Hanssen," and Chapter 16, "Breach."[citation needed]

Eric O'Neill's role in the capture of Robert Hanssen was dramatized in the 2007 film Breach, in which Chris Cooper played the role of Hanssen and Ryan Phillippe played O'Neill.[66]

The 2007 documentary Superspy: The Man Who Betrayed the West describes the hunt to trap Robert Hanssen. Hanssen also was the subject of a 2002 made-for-television movie, Master Spy: The Robert Hanssen Story, written by Norman Mailer and starring William Hurt as Hanssen. Robert Hanssen's jailers allowed him to watch this movie but Hanssen was so angered by the film that he turned it off.[67]

Hanssen is mentioned in chapter 5 of Dan Brown's book The Da Vinci Code as being an FBI spy and Opus Dei member but also a sexual deviant.[68]

The 2002 book written by David Wise and titled Spy: The Inside Story of How FBI's Robert Hanssen Betrayed America covers the case in detail.[69]

Hanssen is reviewed on season 2, episode 14 of Mysteries at the Museum. Actual footage of his arrest by FBI agents is included. His story is the last segment of 4 included in this episode.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "USA v. Robert Philip Hanssen: Affidavit in Support of Criminal Complaint, Arrest Warrant and Search Warrant". fas.org. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  2. ^ Adrian Havill, crimelibrary.com. His fate is sealed. Retrieved September 10, 2007
  3. ^ Wise 2003, p. 8
  4. ^ a b c Transcript of Hanssen Guilty Plea, July 6, 2001. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  5. ^ a b United States Department of Justice Thompson Statement Regarding Hanssen Guilty Plea July 6, 2001. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
  6. ^ "A Review of FBI Security Programs (Webster Report) (March 2002). Commission for Review of FBI Security Programs, United States Department of Justice.
  7. ^ Havill, Adrian. "The Spawning of A Spy." Robert Philip Hanssen: The Spy who Stayed out in the Cold. Crime Library. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d e U.S. Department of Justice "A Review of the FBI's Performance in Deterring, Detecting, and Investigating the Espionage Activities of Robert Philip Hanssen", (Archive) August 14, 2003
  9. ^ Wise 2003, p. 10
  10. ^ Adrian Havill, Court TV, Robert Philip Hanssen: The Spy who Stayed out in The Cold. Retrieved February 6, 2007.
  11. ^ Dolores Flaherty, Chicago Sunday-Times Hanssen, the spy with two faces 2003 November 23. Retrieved February 6, 2007
  12. ^ Spy's Wife Speaks, After Taking a Lie Test by James Risin, NY Times, 16 May 2002; http://www.nytimes.com/2002/05/16/us/spy-s-wife-speaks-after-taking-a-lie-test.html
  13. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 18–19
  14. ^ Wise 2003, p. 21
  15. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 21–24
  16. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 28–33
  17. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 37–38
  18. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 50–51
  19. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 56–57
  20. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 3–4, 67–68, 82–83
  21. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 111–119
  22. ^ Cherkashin & Feifer 2005, p. 246
  23. ^ Wise 2003, p. 95
  24. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 98–110
  25. ^ Wise 2003, p. 159
  26. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 120–128.
  27. ^ Wise 2003, p. 141
  28. ^ Wise 2003, p. 160
  29. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 160–161
  30. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 176–177
  31. ^ Wise 2003, p. 181
  32. ^ Wise 2003, p. 188
  33. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 190–192
  34. ^ CBS A Not-So-Secret Tunnel March 5, 2001. Retrieved October 31, 2010.
  35. ^ Wise 2003, p. 170
  36. ^ Wise 2003, p. 173
  37. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 205–213
  38. ^ Wise 2003, p. 140
  39. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 218–228
  40. ^ Cherkashin & Feifer 2005, p. 251
  41. ^ Schiller 260
  42. ^ Fresh Air Eric O'Neill and Billy Ray Discuss 'Breach' 2007 January 31
  43. ^ ABC 20/20 Report on Eric O'Neill December 27, 2002. Retrieved January 31, 2007
  44. ^ CNN CNN, Anderson Cooper 360 Degrees October 1, 2003. Retrieved January 31, 2007.
  45. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 236–239
  46. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 7–8
  47. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 246–247
  48. ^ "FBI Spy Robert Hanssen Gets Life Sentence". FoxNews.com. May 10, 2002. 
  49. ^ Laura Sullivan, National Public Radio Timeline: Solitary Confinement in US Prisons July 26, 2006. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
  50. ^ "Robert Philip Hanssen." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on January 5, 2010.
  51. ^ Wise 2003, p. 75
  52. ^ Wise 2003, p. 165
  53. ^ Wise 2003, p. 54
  54. ^ Cherkashin & Feifer 2005, p. 230
  55. ^ Wise 2003, p. 137
  56. ^ Wise 2003, p. 138
  57. ^ Cherkashin & Feifer 2005, p. 236
  58. ^ CI Centre [1] Retrieved February 20, 2007
  59. ^ [2] Faculty and Staff Directory for Oakcrest School for Girls
  60. ^ Shannon & Blackman 2002, p. 86
  61. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 85–89
  62. ^ Wise 2003, pp. 252–253
  63. ^ CNN, American Morning with Paula Zahn Look at FBI Spy Robert Hannsen January 8, 2002. Retrieved January 31, 2007.
  64. ^ Wise 2003, p. 149
  65. ^ Ex-stripper describes her time with accused spy CNN. Retrieved December 11, 2006.
  66. ^ Breach IMDB Movie Database. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  67. ^ Wise 2003, p. 302
  68. ^ Brown, Dan (2009-03-31). The Da Vinci Code. Chapter 5. p. 36. ISBN 0307474275. 
  69. ^ "Amazon Bookpage". 

References and further reading[edit]

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