Robert S. Langer
Robert Samuel Langer, Jr. FREng (born August 29, 1948 in Albany, New York) is an American chemical engineer, scientist, entrepreneur, inventor and one of the twelve Institute Professors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
He was formerly the Germeshausen Professor of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering and maintains activity in the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Biological Engineering at MIT. He is also a faculty member of the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.
He is a widely recognized and cited researcher in biotechnology, especially in the fields of drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. His publications have been cited nearly 300,000 times and his h-index is 270. According to Google Scholar, Langer is one of the 10 most cited individuals in history. Tied for 7th most cited in history; tied for the 4th most cited of any living individual. He is the most cited engineer in history. Langer's research laboratory at MIT is the largest biomedical engineering lab in the world; maintaining over $10 million in annual grants and over 100 researchers.
Background and personal life
Langer was born August 29, 1948 in Albany, New York, USA. He is an alumnus of The Milne School and received his bachelor's degree from Cornell University in chemical engineering. He earned his Sc.D. in chemical engineering from MIT in 1974. His dissertation was entitled "Enzymatic regeneration of ATP" and completed under the direction of Clark K. Colton. From 1974–1977 he worked as a postdoctoral fellow for cancer researcher Judah Folkman at the Children's Hospital Boston and at Harvard Medical School. Langer credits Folkman as a fantastic role model. Langer and his wife, Laura, a fellow MIT graduate, have three children.
Contributions to medicine and biotechnology
Langer is widely regarded for his contributions to medicine and biotechnology. He is considered a pioneer of many new technologies, including controlled release systems and transdermal delivery systems, which allow the administration of drugs or extraction of analytes from the body through the skin without needles or other invasive methods.
Langer worked with Judah Folkman at Boston Children's Hospital to isolate the first angiogenesis inhibitor, a macromolecule to block the spread of blood vessels in tumors. Macromolecules tend to be broken down by digestion and blocked by body tissues if they are injected or inhaled, so finding a delivery system for them is difficult. Langer's idea was to encapsulate the angiogenesis inhibitor in a noninflammatory synthetic polymer system that could be implanted in the tumor and control the release of the inhibitor. He eventually invented polymer systems that would work. This discovery is considered to lay the foundation for much of today's drug delivery technology.
He also worked with Henry Brem of the Johns Hopkins University Medical School on a drug-delivery system for the treatment of brain cancer, to deliver chemotherapy directly to a tumor site. The wafers or chips that he and his teams have designed have become increasingly more sophisticated, and can now deliver multiple drugs, and respond to stimuli.
Langer is regarded as the founder of tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. He and the researchers in his lab have made advances in tissue engineering, such as the creation of engineered blood vessels and vascularized engineered muscle tissue. Bioengineered synthetic polymers provide a scaffolding on which new skin, muscle, bone, and entire organs can be grown. With such a substrate in place, victims of serious accidents or birth defects could more easily grow missing tissue. Such polymers can be biocompatible and biodegradable.
Langer is involved in several projects related to diabetes. Alongside Daniel G. Anderson, he has contributed bioengineering work to a project involving teams from MIT, Harvard University and other institutions, to produce an implantable device to treat type 1 diabetes by shielding insulin-producing beta cells from immune system attacks. He is also part of a team at MIT that have developed a drug capsule that could be used to deliver oral doses of insulin to people with type 1 diabetes.
Langer holds over 1,350 granted or pending patents. He is one of the world's most highly cited researchers, having authored over 1,400 scientific papers, and has participated in the founding of multiple technology companies.
Awards and honors
Langer is the youngest person in history (at 43) to be elected to all three American science academies: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. He was also elected as a charter member of National Academy of Inventors. He was appointed an International Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 2010.
Langer has received more than 220 major awards. He is one of four living individuals to have received both the U.S. National Medal of Science and the National Medal of Technology and Innovation.
- 2019: Dreyfus Prize in the Chemical Sciences
- 2019: National Library of Medicine (Friends) Distinguished Medical Science Award
- 2019: Hope Funds for Cancer Award of Excellence in Basic Sciences
- 2018: Inducted into Advanced Materials Hall of Fame
- 2018: Leadership Award for Historic Scientific Advancement, American Chemical Society
- 2018: Named 1# Translational Researcher in the World by Nature Biotechnology.
- 2017: Named 1# Translational Researcher in the World by Nature Biotechnology.
- 2017: Kabiller Prize, World's Largest Prize in Nanomedicine.
- 2016: Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science
- 2015: Hoover Medal
- 2015: Kazemi Prize (Royan Institute)
- 2015: Scheele Award
- 2015: Named Cornell University's 2015 Entrepreneur of the Year.
- 2015: Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering, the most influential prize in the world for engineering.
- 2014: Kyoto Prize
- 2014: Awarded the $3 million Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for his work.
- 2014: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) and the Chemical Heritage Foundation selected Robert Langer as the winner of the 2014 Biotechnology Heritage Award for significant contribution to the growth of biotechnology.
- 2013: IEEE Medal for Innovations in Healthcare Technology
- 2013: Wolf Prize in Chemistry for conceiving and implementing advances in polymer chemistry that provide both controlled drug-release systems and new biomaterials.
- 2013: United States National Medal of Technology and Innovation from President Obama. He had previously received the United States National Medal of Science, in 2006, from President George W. Bush.
- 2012: Priestley Medal, the highest honor conferred by the American Chemical Society (ACS), for distinguished service in the field of chemistry.
- 2012: Wilhelm Exner Medal.
- 2012: Perkin Medal, recognized as the highest honor given for outstanding work in applied chemistry in the United States.
- 2011: Warren Alpert Foundation Prize
- 2011: The Economist's Innovation award in the category of bioscience for his proven successes in drug-delivery and tissue engineering.
- 2010: Appointed an International Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering.
- 2008: Awarded Finland's Millennium Technology Prize for developing innovative biomaterials for controlled drug release.
- 2008: Prince of Asturias Award for Scientific Research
- 2008: Max Planck Research Award 2008
- 2003: Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement
- 2002: Charles Stark Draper Prize (considered the equivalent of the Nobel Prize for engineers).
- 2002 Langer received the Dickson Prize in science
He has received numerous other awards, including the Gairdner Foundation International Award (1996), the Lemelson-MIT Prize for invention and innovation (1998), the Othmer Gold Medal (2002), the 10th Annual Heinz Award in the category of Technology, the Economy and Employment (2003), the Harvey Prize in Science & Technology and Human Health (2003), the Dan David Prize (2005) and the Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research (2005). In 2013 he was awarded the IRI Medal alongside long-time friend George M. Whitesides for outstanding accomplishments in technological innovation that have contributed broadly to the development of industry and the benefit of society. He also received the Rusnano prize that year. He has also given 137 named lectures and commencement speeches.
Langer has honorary degrees from 34 universities from around the world including Harvard and Yale.
Founder of various biotech companies
Robert Langer has been involved in the founding of many companies, more than twenty in partnership with the venture capital firm Polaris Partners. Success of these companies and Langer's contribution has been detailed by Harvard Business Review:
- AIR (acquired by Alkermes and subsequently acquired by Acorda)
- Arsenal Medical
- Arsia (acquired by Eagle Pharmaceuticals)
- BIND Therapeutics (acquired by Pfizer)
- Tarveda Therapeutics (formerly Blend Therapeutics)
- Sontra Medical (acquired by Echo Therapeutics)
- Enzytech (acquired by Alkermes)
- Tissium (formerly Gecko Biomedical)
- InVivo Therapeutics
- Landsdowne Labs
- Living Proof (acquired by Unilever)
- Lyra Therapeutics
- Microchips Biotech
- Olivo Labs (acquired by Shisheido)
- Pervasis (acquired by Shire Pharmaceuticals)
- Selecta Biosciences
- Semprus Biosciences (acquired by Teleflex)
- Seventh Sense
- SQZ Biotech
- Transform (acquired by Johnson and Johnson)
- Frequency Therapeutics
- Sigilon Therapeutics
Langer is a member of the Advisory Board of Patient Innovation, a nonprofit, international, multilingual, free venue for patients and caregivers of any disease to share their innovations. He is also a member of the Xconomists, an ad hoc team of editorial advisors for the tech news and media company, Xconomy.
Exhibits at Boston's Logan Airport
Langer is featured in two different exhibits at Boston's Logan Airport. At terminal C (near Gate 8) in the exhibit '4 centuries of Massachusetts Innovation', Langer and Judah Folkman are listed for 'Cancer breakthrough-1st cancer blood vessel inhibitor'. In terminal E, Massachusetts innovators-Transforming the world, Langer is featured as "Revolutionary Biomedical Technology through Development of Controlled Drug Delivery Systems" (near Gate 12).
- Mcguire, Terry (1 July 2019). "The Many Shades Of VC/Repeat Entrepreneur Relationships". Life Science Leader. Pennsylvania, United States: VertMarkets.
- "List of Fellows".
- Hannah Seligson (November 24, 2012). "Hatching Ideas, and Companies, by the Dozens at M.I.T." New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
A chemical engineer by training, Dr. Langer has helped start 25 companies and has 811 patents, issued or pending, to his name. ...
- "Google Scholar: Robert Langer". Google Scholar.
- "1040 Highly Cited Researchers (h>100) according to their Google Scholar Citations public profiles". Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- Gura, T. (2014). "The art of entrepreneurship". Science. 346 (6213): 1146. doi:10.1126/science.346.6213.1146. PMID 25430772.
- O'Neill, Kathryn M. (20 July 2006). "Colleagues honor Langer for 30 years of innovation". MIT News. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Shukman, David (3 February 2015). "Drug-delivery pioneer wins £1m engineering prize". BBC News Science & Environment. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "QEPrize Winner 2015 - Robert Langer". Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- "Engineering Polymath wins Major Award". Ingenia (63): 14–19. June 2015.
- "Robert Langer BioTech Awards Video". Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2014-06-12. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
- Pearson, Helen (4 March 2009). "Profile: Being Bob Langer". Nature. 458 (7234): 22–24. doi:10.1038/458022a. PMID 19262647.
- Mitragotri, S; Blankschtein, D; Langer, R (1995). "Ultrasound-mediated transdermal protein delivery". Science. 269 (5225): 850–3. doi:10.1126/science.7638603. PMID 7638603.
- Kost, J; Mitragotri, S; Gabbay, RA; Pishko, M; Langer, R (2000). "Transdermal monitoring of glucose and other analytes using ultrasound". Nature Medicine. 6 (3): 347–50. doi:10.1038/73213. PMID 10700240.
- Langer, Robert; Folkman, Judah (October 1976). "Polymers for the sustained release of proteins and other macromolecules". Nature. 263 (5580): 797–800. doi:10.1038/263797a0. PMID 995197.
- Cooke, Robert; Koop, C Everett (2001). Dr. Folkman's War: Angiogenesis and the Struggle to Defeat Cancer. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50244-6.
- National Academy of Science report Beyond Discovery: Polymer and People 1999
- "Robert S. Langer". Science History Institute. June 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- Schilling, David Russell (15 February 2013). "Langer Profile. Engineering Synthetic Skin". Industry Tap into News. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Niklason, LE; Gao, J; Abbott, WM; Hirschi, KK; Houser, S; Marini, R; Langer, R (1999). "Functional arteries grown in vitro". Science. 284 (5413): 489–93. doi:10.1126/science.284.5413.489. PMID 10205057.
- Levenberg, S; Rouwkema, J; MacDonald, M; Garfein, ES; Kohane, DS; Darland, DC; Marini, R; Van Blitterswijk, CA; et al. (2005). "Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue". Nature Biotechnology. 23 (7): 879–84. doi:10.1038/nbt1109. PMID 15965465.
- Vacanti, Joseph P; Langer, Robert (July 1999). "Tissue engineering: the design and fabrication of living replacement devices for surgical reconstruction and transplantation". The Lancet. 354: S32–S34. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(99)90247-7. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Freed, Lisa E.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Biron, Robert J.; Eagles, Dana B.; Lesnoy, Daniel C.; Barlow, Sandra K.; Langer, Robert (July 1994). "Biodegradable Polymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering". Bio/Technology. 12 (7): 689–693. doi:10.1038/nbt0794-689.
- Schaffer, Amanda. "Engineering Drug Delivery and Tissue Growth". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
- "Potential diabetes treatment advances". Harvard Gazette. 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
- Anderson, Daniel G.; Langer, Robert; Melton, Douglas A.; Weir, Gordon C.; Greiner, Dale L.; Oberholzer, Jose; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Bochenek, Matthew A.; McGarrigle, James J. (2016-01-25). "Long-term glycemic control using polymer-encapsulated human stem cell–derived beta cells in immune-competent mice". Nature Medicine. 22 (3): 306–311. doi:10.1038/nm.4030. ISSN 1546-170X. PMC 4825868.
- "New pill can deliver insulin". MIT News. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
- "Researchers develop a drug capsule that could be used to deliver oral doses of insulin". TechGenYZ. 2019-02-09. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
- "Langer Lab: Professor Robert Langer". MIT. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "2258 Highly Cited Researchers (h>100) according to their Google Scholar Citations public profiles | Ranking Web of Universities". www.webometrics.info. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
- "2017 Highly Cited Researchers Announced". Publons. 2017-11-15. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
- Lowry, Judy (8 January 2013). "National Academy of Inventors congratulates NAI Fellows Robert Langer and Leroy Hood, and NAI Member James Wynne on receiving U.S. National Medals". USF Research News. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Biotechnology Heritage Award". Science History Institute. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- "Robert Langer, 2019 | Dreyfus Foundation". Retrieved 2019-07-19.
- "Welcome". Retrieved 2019-10-23.
- "2019 Honorees". The Hope Funds for Cancer Research. 2019-05-19. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
- "School of Engineering third quarter 2018 awards". MIT News. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
- Huggett, Brady; Paisner, Kathryn (2018). "Top 20 translational researchers of 2017". Nature Biotechnology. 36 (9): 798. doi:10.1038/nbt.4237. PMID 30188525.
- Huggett, Brady; Paisner, Kathryn (2017-12-08). "Top 20 translational researchers of 2016". Nature Biotechnology. 35 (12): 1126. doi:10.1038/nbt.4028. PMID 29220038.
- "Kabiller Prize & Award".
- "The 2016 Franklin Institute Awards Laureates | MIT Department of Biological Engineering". be.mit.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
- "Robert S. Langer". ASME. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- Administrator. "Kazemi Prize 2015 Will Be Awarded to Professor Robert S. Langer - Royan Institute". www.royaninstitute.org. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
- "The Scheele Symposium 2015". Läkemedelsakademin. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Entrepreneurship at Cornell". Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "MIT biomedical engineer Robert Langer wins $500,000 Kyoto Prize".
- "Laureates: 2014". Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences.
- Kaufman, Melanie Miller. "Robert Langer wins 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences". MIT News. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Two MIT professors win prestigious Wolf Prize Michael Artin and Robert Langer honored for groundbreaking work in mathematics and chemistry". MIT News. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Landergan, Katherine (4 January 2013). "M.I.T. professor to be honored by President Obama". MIT. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Ritter, Steve (2011). "Robert Langer Named Priestley Medalist". Chemical & Engineering News. 89 (24): 7. doi:10.1021/cen-v089n024.p007.
- Editor, ÖGV. (2015). Wilhelm Exner Medal. Austrian Trade Association. ÖGV. Austria.
- "Past Perkin Medalists". SCI America. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- "Biopolymer innovator Robert Langer receives 2012 Perkin Medal". SCI. 8 Nov 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
- "SCI Perkin Medal". Science History Institute. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
- "2011 recipients". Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "And the winners were…". The Economist. 3 December 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Lau, Thomas (11 June 2008). "2008 Millennium Technology Prize Awarded to Professor Robert Langer for Intelligent Drug Delivery". European Science Foundation. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "PRINCE OF ASTURIAS AWARD FOR TECHNICAL & SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 2008". Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Max Planck Research Award". Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Robert S. Langer, Sc.D. Biography and Interview". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- "Robert S. Langer Receives 2002 Charles Stark Draper Prize from National Academy of Engineering". Journal of Investigative Medicine. 50 (3): 159–160. 2002. doi:10.2310/6650.2002.33415. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "R.S. Langer to receive 1996 Gairdner Award". MIT News. 24 January 1996. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Half Million Dollar Lemelson-MIT Prize Winner Announced". Lemelson-MIT. 15 April 1998. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Past Winners of the Othmer Gold Medal". Science History Institute. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
- "MIT's Langer wins two prestigious prizes". MIT News. 2 December 2003. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Robert Langer". The Heinz Awards. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Laureates 2005: Robert Langer". Dan David Prize. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- McGarry, Greg (29 April 2005). "MIT Researcher and Albany Native Who Pioneered New Methods for Drug Delivery Named Recipient of America's Top Prize in Medicine". Albany Medical Center. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- Wang, Linda (28 May 2013). "Industrial Research Institute Medal Awarded To Robert S. Langer And George M. Whitesides". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "IRI to recognize George Whitesides, Robert Langer with top award". R&D Magazine. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Langer receives 2013 Rusnano prize". Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- Huang, Gregory T. (19 April 2011). "The Bob Langer and Polaris Family Tree: From Acusphere to Momenta to Visterra". Xconomy. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Prokesch, Steven T. (March–April 2017). "The Edison of Medicine". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- Farrell, Michael B. (10 December 2013). "MIT's Robert Langer has another startup". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Jones, Vanessa E. (2 April 2009). "Call him the frizz fighter". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Shire picks up Pervasis in potential $200M deal". Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Gormley, Brian (2012-06-26). "Semprus BioSciences Acquired by Teleflex for Up To $80M in Cash, Milestones". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "SQZ Biotech - Board of Directors". Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Johnson & Johnson Completes Acquisition of TransForm Pharmaceuticals, Inc". Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Who we are | Patient Innovation".
- "About Our Mission, Team, and Editorial Ethics". Xconomy. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
- Langer Lab: Professor Robert Langer
- Pearson, Helen (5 March 2009). "Profile: Being Bob Langer" (PDF). Nature. 458 (7234): 22–24. doi:10.1038/458022a. PMID 19262647. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- Robert S. Langer fact sheet at MIT News Office
- Article on BBC News
- The Bob Langer and Polaris Company Tree From Acusphere to Momenta to Visterra
- Robert Langer: Exchanges at the frontier - ABC Radio National podcast
| Millennium Technology Prize winner
2008 (for Innovative biomaterials)