Robert Langlands

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Robert Langlands FRS
Langlands2.jpg
Born (1936-10-06) October 6, 1936 (age 82)
New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada
Nationality Canadian/American
Alma mater University of British Columbia,
Yale University
Known for Langlands program
Awards Jeffery–Williams Prize (1980)
Cole Prize (1982)
Wolf Prize (1995–96)
Steele Prize (2005)
Nemmers Prize (2006)
Shaw Prize (2007)
Abel Prize (2018)
Scientific career
Fields Mathematics
Institutions Princeton University,
Yale University,
Institute for Advanced Study
Doctoral advisor Cassius Ionescu-Tulcea
Doctoral students James Arthur
Thomas Callister Hales
Diana Shelstad

Robert Phelan Langlands FRS FRSC (/ˈlæŋləndz/; born October 6, 1936) is an American-Canadian[1][2] mathematician. He is best known as the founder of the Langlands program, a vast web of conjectures and results connecting representation theory and automorphic forms to the study of Galois groups in number theory,[3][4] for which he received the 2018 Abel Prize. He is an emeritus professor and occupies Albert Einstein's office at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.[5]

Career[edit]

Langlands was born in New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada, in 1936. In 1945 he moved to White Rock, near the US border, where his parent had a shop selling building materials.[6][3][1]

He enrolled at the University of British Columbia at the age of 16, receiving his undergraduate degree in 1957;[7] he continued on there to receive an M. Sc. in 1958. He then went to Yale University where he received a Ph.D. in 1960.[8]

His first academic position was at Princeton University from 1960 to 1967, where he worked as an Associate Professor.[3] He was a Miller Research Fellow at the University of California Berkeley from 1964 to 1965 and between 1967 to 1972 he was at Yale University. He was appointed Hermann Weyl Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1972, and became Professor Emeritus in January 2007.[5]

Research[edit]

Langlands' Ph.D. thesis was on the analytical theory of Lie semigroups,[9] but he soon moved into representation theory, adapting the methods of Harish-Chandra to the theory of automorphic forms. His first accomplishment in this field was a formula for the dimension of certain spaces of automorphic forms, in which particular types of Harish-Chandra's discrete series appeared.[10][11]

He next constructed an analytical theory of Eisenstein series for reductive groups of rank greater than one, thus extending work of Maass, Roelcke and Selberg from the early 1950s for rank one groups such as SL(2). This amounted to describing in general terms the continuous spectra of arithmetic quotients, and showing that all automorphic forms arise in terms of cusp forms and the residues of Eisenstein series induced from cusp forms on smaller subgroups. As a first application, he proved the Weil conjecture on Tamagawa numbers for the large class of arbitrary simply connected Chevalley groups defined over the rational numbers. Previously this had been known only in a few isolated cases and for certain classical groups where it could be shown by induction[12]

As a second application of this work, he was able to show meromorphic continuation for a large class of L-functions arising in the theory of automorphic forms, not previously known to have them. These occurred in the constant terms of Eisenstein series, and meromorphicity as well as a weak functional equation were a consequence of functional equations for Eisenstein series. This work led in turn, in the winter of 1966–67, to the now well known conjectures[13] making up what is often called the Langlands program. Very roughly speaking, they propose a huge generalization of previously known examples of reciprocity, including (a) classical class field theory, in which characters of local and arithmetic abelian Galois groups are identified with characters of local multiplicative groups and the idele quotient group, respectively; (b) earlier results of Eichler and Shimura in which the Hasse–Weil zeta functions of arithmetic quotients of the upper half plane are identified with L-functions occurring in Hecke's theory of holomorphic automorphic forms. These conjectures were first posed in relatively complete form in a famous letter to Weil,[13] written in January 1967. It was in this letter that he introduced what has since become known as the L-group and along with it, the notion of functoriality.

The book by Hervé Jacquet and Langlands on GL(2) presented a theory of automorphic forms for the general linear group GL(2), establishing among other things the Jacquet–Langlands correspondence showing that functoriality was capable of explaining very precisely how automorphic forms for GL(2) related to those for quaternion algebras. This book applied the adelic trace formula for GL(2) and quaternion algebras to do this. Subsequently James Arthur, a student of Langlands while he was at Yale, successfully developed the trace formula for groups of higher rank. This has become a major tool in attacking functoriality in general, and in particular has been applied to demonstrating that the Hasse–Weil zeta functions of certain Shimura varieties are among the L-functions arising from automorphic forms.[14]

The functoriality conjecture is far from proven, but a special case (the octahedral Artin conjecture, proved by Langlands[15] and Tunnell[16]) was the starting point of Andrew Wiles' attack on the Taniyama–Shimura conjecture and Fermat's last theorem.

In the mid-1980s Langlands turned his attention[17] to physics, particularly the problems of percolation and conformal invariance. In 1995, Langlands started a collaboration with Bill Casselman at the University of British Columbia with the aim of posting nearly all of his writings—including publications, preprints, as well as selected correspondence—on the Internet. The correspondence includes a copy of the original letter to Weil that introduced the L-group. In recent years he has turned his attention back to automorphic forms, working in particular on a theme he calls `beyond endoscopy'.[18]

Awards and honors[edit]

Langlands has received the 1996 Wolf Prize (which he shared with Andrew Wiles),[19] the 2005 AMS Steele Prize, the 1980 Jeffery–Williams Prize, the 1988 NAS Award in Mathematics from the National Academy of Sciences,[20] the 2006 Nemmers Prize in Mathematics, the 2007 Shaw Prize in Mathematical Sciences (with Richard Taylor) for his work on automorphic forms. In 2018 Langlands was awarded the Abel Prize for "his visionary program connecting representation theory to number theory.".[21]

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1972 and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1981.[22][23] In 2012, he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.[24]

In 2003, Langlands received a doctorate honoris causa from Université Laval.[25]

Personal life[edit]

Langlands spent a year in Turkey in 1967–68, where his office at the Middle East Technical University was next to that of Cahit Arf.[26][27] In addition to his mathematical studies, Langlands likes to learn foreign languages, both for better understanding of foreign publications on his topic and just as a hobby. He speaks French, Turkish, German and Russian.[27]

Langlands is married to Charlotte Lorraine Cheverie. They have four children.[3]

Publications[edit]

  • Euler Products, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967, ISBN 0-300-01395-7
  • On the Functional Equations Satisfied by Eisenstein Series, Berlin: Springer, 1976, ISBN 3-540-07872-X
  • Base Change for GL(2), Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980, ISBN 0-691-08272-3

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Alex Bellos (20 March 2018). "Abel Prize 2018: Robert Langlands wins for 'unified theory of maths'". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Robert Phelan Langlands". NAS. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d Contento, Sandro (March 27, 2015), "The Canadian Who Reinvented Mathematics", Toronto Star
  4. ^ D Mackenzie (2000) Fermat's Last Theorem's First Cousin, Science 287(5454), 792-793.
  5. ^ a b Edward Frenkel (2013). "preface". Love and Math: The Heart of Hidden Reality. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465050741. Robert Langlands, the mathematician who currently occupies Albert Einstein's office at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton
  6. ^ "UBC Newsletter: Robert Langlands Interview" (PDF). 2010.
  7. ^ Kenneth, Chang. "Robert P. Langlands Is Awarded the Abel Prize, a Top Math Honor". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  8. ^ "Canadian mathematician Robert Langlands wins Abel Prize for 2018". NewIndia Express. 21 March 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  9. ^ For context, see the note by Derek Robinson at the IAS site
  10. ^ "IAS publication paper 14". IAS. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  11. ^ "MR review". Mathscinet. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  12. ^ Langlands, R. P. (1966), "The volume of the fundamental domain for some arithmetical subgroups of Chevalley groups", Algebraic Groups and Discontinuous Subgroups, Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., Providence, R.I.: Amer. Math. Soc., pp. 143–148, MR 0213362
  13. ^ a b "IAS paper 43". IAS. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  14. ^ "IAS paper 60". Institute of Advanced Studies. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  15. ^ Langlands, Robert P. Base change for GL(2). Annals of Mathematics Studies, 96. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.; ISBN 0-691-08263-4; MR 574808
  16. ^ Tunnell, Jerrold Artin's conjecture for representations of octahedral type. Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 5 (1981), no. 2, 173–175.
  17. ^ "IAS publication". Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  18. ^ "IAS paper 25". IAS. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
  19. ^ AMS Notices
  20. ^ "NAS Award in Mathematics". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  21. ^ "News: Robert P. Langlands receives the Abel Prize". www.abelprize.no. 2018-03-20. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
  22. ^ "Search Fellows". Royal Society of Canada. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  23. ^ "Robert Langlands". Royal Society. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
  24. ^ List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, retrieved 2013-01-27.
  25. ^ "Robert Langlands, Université Laval". Archived from the original on 2016-06-29. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
  26. ^ The work of Robert Langlands – Miscellaneous items, Digital Mathematics Archive, UBC SunSITE, last accessed 2013-12-10.
  27. ^ a b Interview with Robert Langlands, UBC Dept. of Math., 2010; last accessed 2014-04-05.

External links[edit]