Robert M. La Follette Jr.
Robert M. La Follette Jr.
|United States Senator|
September 30, 1925 – January 3, 1947
|Preceded by||Robert M. La Follette Sr.|
|Succeeded by||Joseph McCarthy|
Robert Marion La Follette Jr.
February 6, 1895
Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.
|Died||February 24, 1953 (aged 58)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Wisconsin Progressive Party
Rachel Wilson Young (m. 1930)
Robert Marion "Young Bob" La Follette Jr. (February 6, 1895 – February 24, 1953) was a U.S. senator from Wisconsin from 1925 to 1947. As an outspoken son of Representative, Senator, and Wisconsin Governor Robert M. La Follette, co-founder of the Progressive Party and ally of the Farmer-Labor Party in adjacent Minnesota, La Follette kept the Progressive Party alive in the US Senate until his defeat by Joseph McCarthy in 1946.
La Follette was born in Madison, Wisconsin, the son of Robert M. La Follette Sr. and Belle Case La Follette. He attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison from 1913 to 1917 but he did not graduate because of illness. (He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1938.) The same illness kept him out the military during World War I. La Follette served as his father's private secretary between 1919 and 1925. He married Rachel Wilson Young in 1930; they had two children, Joseph Oden La Follette and Bronson Cutting La Follette. La Follette had two siblings, Philip La Follette and Fola La Follette.
La Follette was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate on September 29, 1925, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his father. "Young Bob," as he was called, was a champion of organized labor. He gained national prominence between 1936 and 1940 as chairman of a special Senate investigating committee, commonly called the La Follette Civil Liberties Committee, that exposed the surveillance, physical intimidation, and other techniques used by large employers to prevent workers from organizing.
He was chairman of the Committee on Manufactures in the 71st and 72nd Congresses. He supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt and most New Deal legislation until the passage of the 1938 naval expansion bill.
He was re-elected as a Republican in 1928. With his brother Philip, he formed the Wisconsin Progressive Party in 1934, and for a time the party was dominant in Wisconsin. He was reelected with the Progressive Party in 1934 and 1940. One of the Senate's leading isolationists, La Follette helped found the America First Committee in 1940.
son of the celebrated Governor and brother of ex-Governor Philip La Follette of that State. Intimately tied with the very peculiar "progressive" Wisconsin political organization, who started as an Isolationist New Dealer and by degrees has turned into a confused anti-administration Nationalist. He is a very eccentric and unpredictable political figure who continues to be radical in internal issues and obscurantist in foreign affairs. He is said to be prepared to approve of Britain after she had expiated her past errors by more suffering than she had already endured. He is entirely independent of business interests and pressure groups, and his strength comes from the traditional place occupied by his family in Wisconsin. On the whole an ally of the Isolationists.
When the Wisconsin Progressive Party dissolved, La Follette returned to the Republican Party in 1946. He helped to draft and win passage of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 that modernized the legislative process in Congress.
La Follette was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection as a Republican in 1946. He ran an isolationist campaign against the United Nations and was critical of Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin but ended up narrowly losing to Joseph McCarthy in the Republican primary, 207,935 votes to 202,557. While La Follette initially started with a large lead in the polls, that lead gradually dwindled, and on the primary election day, the results of the final county to report polls tipped the scales in McCarthy's favor. La Follette sent a one-word telegram saying "Congratulations" to McCarthy.
La Follette made several decisions that hurt his primary campaign. Disbanding the Progressive Party and seeking election on the Republican ticket that same year cost him the support of many progressive supporters that belonged to the former, while the more conservative Republicans were also suspicious of La Follette, as he had previously run against them. Being initially confident of victory, he further hurt his chances by staying on in Washington to draft and win passage of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 rather than returning to Wisconsin to campaign for re-election.
La Follette faced an aggressive campaign by McCarthy and failed to refute the latter's charges, several of which were false. McCarthy attacked La Follette for not enlisting during the war, although La Follette had been 46 when Pearl Harbor was bombed and would have been too old to be accepted. McCarthy played up his own wartime service, using his wartime nickname, "Tail-Gunner Joe," and the slogan "Congress needs a tail-gunner". McCarthy also claimed that while he had been away fighting for his country, La Follette had made huge profits from investments; the suggestion that La Follette had been guilty of war profiteering was deeply damaging. (In fact, McCarthy had invested in the stock market himself during the war, netting a profit of $42,000 in 1943. La Follette's investments consisted of partial interest in a radio station, which earned him a profit of $47,000 over two years.)
Arnold Beichman later stated that McCarthy "was elected to his first term in the Senate with support from the Communist-controlled United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, CIO", which preferred McCarthy to the anti-communist Robert M. La Follette. This charge, however, has never been proved.
Later life and suicide
In a February 8, 1947, Collier's Weekly article, La Follette reported infiltration of Communists onto Congressional committee staffs. The Venona project materials revealed that four agents of Soviet intelligence had served on the staff of La Follette's Civil Liberties Subcommittee, including the chief counsel, John Abt.
On February 24, 1953, La Follette was found dead of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Washington, D.C. On September 9, 1953, John Lautner testified before McCarthy's Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, revealing the existence of the Communists who had served on La Follette's subcommittee staff. Some historians believe that La Follette killed himself out of fear of being exposed by McCarthy; others believe he succumbed to anxiety and depression that had plagued him for much of his life.
La Follette was interred at Forest Hill Cemetery in Madison, Wisconsin, and was survived by his sons, Bronson La Follette, who served as Wisconsin's attorney general from 1965 to 1969 and from 1975 to 1987, and Joseph Oden La Follette, who spent his career working at IBM.
Awards and honors
- List of American politicians who switched parties in office
- List of United States Senators who switched parties
- McCoy, Donald R. (1964-12-01). "Robert M. La Follette, Jr. and the Decline of the Progressive Party in Wisconsin. By Roger T. Johnson. (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, for the Department of History, University of Wisconsin, 1964. ix + 195 pp. Notes, bibliography, and index. $3.50.)". Journal of American History. 51 (3): 524–525. doi:10.2307/1894927. ISSN 0021-8723.
- Johnson, Roger T. (1964). Robert M. La Follette, Jr. and the decline of the Progressive Party in Wisconsin. State Historical Society of Wisconsin for the Dept. of History, University of Wisconsin.
- Hachey, Thomas E. (Winter 1973–1974). "American Profiles on Capitol Hill: A Confidential Study for the British Foreign Office in 1943" (PDF). Wisconsin Magazine of History. 57 (2): 141–153. JSTOR 4634869. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2013.
- Welcome to The American Presidency Archived 2005-12-10 at the Wayback Machine
- La Follette, Robert Marion, Jr., 1895 - 1953
- Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. pp. 97, 102. ISBN 0-520-20472-7.
- Beichman, Arnold (February–March 2006). "The Politics of Personal Self-Destruction". Policy Review. Archived from the original on 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
- JS Online: La Follette suicide linked to fear of McCarthy
- The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Ladendorf to Lair
- "La Follette Death Ends Era in West. Hope for Progressive Comeback Diminishes. Party Once Was Supreme Power in State". New York Times. February 26, 1953. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
The death of former Senator Robert M. La Follette Jr., who killed himself at his home in Washington yesterday, is not expected to have any considerable impact on the Wisconsin political situation, even though many of his followers in the old Progressive movement never abandoned hope that he would someday attempt a political comeback.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robert M. La Follette, Jr..|
- United States Congress. "Robert M. La Follette Jr. (id: L000005)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Robert M. La Follette, Jr., Dictionary of Wisconsin History, Wisconsin State Historical Society
- "La Follette suicide linked to fear of McCarthy" May 17, 2003 Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel
- Matusow, Harvey "The FBI, and the Justice Department: Becoming a Government Informer-witness in the McCarthy Era"
- La Follette at the Dictionary of Wisconsin History
- Maney, Patrick, "Joe McCarthy's First Victim", Virginia Quarterly Review, Summer 2001
- Youngs, William, American Realities, Sixth Edition Volume 2, Eastern Washington University, 2006.
Robert M. La Follette Sr.
| U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Wisconsin
Served alongside: Irvine Lenroot, John J. Blaine, F. Ryan Duffy, Alexander Wiley